Study Guide Final Test HDFS

What are the three Definitions of Family?

Ancestry – Biological

Structure – Marriage, Adoption

Function – Finanical/ Emotional support

  •  Social Institution – Family provides care so society has new productive members

What is the definition of US Census?
A group of two or more people related by blood, marriage or adoption and residing together in a household.
What is Family Change?

  • A family life is diverse, resilient and adaptive to new circumstance.
  • Marriage is undergoing a revolutoin, not a crisis

What is Family Decline?

  • A family life is seriously degraded by movement away from marriage & children.
  • Excessive individualism and self- indulgence

What is Choosing by Default?

Unconscious decisions

  • Not aware of all alternatives
  • Pursure a course of action because it is common, seems easiest

What are the 4 Choosing Knowledgeably?

  1. Recognizing as many options and alternatives as possible
  2. Considering conseqences of alternatives
  3. Being aware of values and choosing to act consistently with them
  4. Relation to families
  • To Parent/ Not Parent
  • Freedom of a child free union, rewards of parenthood, providing foster care

What is Family Ecology?
Families influence and are influence by surrending environments.
What is Family Development?
Family life cycle: families change in predictable ways over time.
What is Interactionist?
Focus on relationships between individuals within a family and familes interaction with outside world.
What does inreased life expectancy in Age for in Families in Social Context?

Most dramatic change of 20th century

  • People are living significantly longer
    • Life expertancy in 1900: 47 years
    • Life expertancy in 2006: 78 years

What is Sex?

Male or Female anatomy and physiology.

  • Biological

What is Gender?
Societal attitudes and behaviors expected of and associated with sexes
What are the 4 Gender Norms?

  1. Reflects the unsual way we think about being male & female.
    • Beliefs about what is “normal” for woman and men
  2. Organize out expectations
  3. Simplify our life
  4. Can limit choices

What does Early American/ Patriarchal sex mean?

  • Characterized by thoughts that when men have urgent sex drives, women are natually passive
  • Men controlled women’s sexuality
  • Sex = reproduction (Marriage)

What is Expressive Sexuality?

  • Sexually is basic part of being human for both women and men.
  • Sexually is more then just reproduction, enhances human intimacy.
    • Used to express feelings and emotions

What is Risk, Caution and Intimacy?

  • Today peoplea re more cautions about risk of STDs
    • However, majority of unmarried young adults do report having intercourse.
  • More liberal sexual environment
    • Potentially there are more satisfying sexual relationships
  • Controversy over sex educaiton in public schools
    • Abstinence Only: promotes abstinence as only chioce until marriage.
    • Comprehensive: complete information on contraception and STD protection.

What is the 3 Componts of the Triangle?

  1. Intimacy: Close connected bonoded feelings
  2. Passion: romance, phyical attraction
  3. ;;;;;;;;; Commitment: to love and maintain that love

What is Consummate Love?
Complete lovem all 3 conponents are present
What is Emotional Interdependence?
Degree of autonomy and sense of self, yet make commitment to another
What does A-Frame stands for?

  • Dependence: reliance on another for continual support or assurance A-Frame

Each stick of an A is an independent

  • Strong couple identity of self as indivdual

What does H-Frame stands for?

Independence: self-relience and self- suffciency H-frame

  • Partners virtually stand alone, each self-sufficient, not much influence on each other

What does M-Frame stands for?

Interdependence: Degree of autonomy and sense of self, yet make commitment to another M-frame

  • Sense of self with mutural influence and emotional support

What is Homagamy?
Tendency to choose parnters like ourselves
What is Heterogamy?
Between sexual and parthenogenetic generations.
What is Expectation of Permanence?
Lifelong undertaking
What is Expectation of Sexual Exculsivity?
What does Single = unmarried mean?

  • Almost 50% of the population
  • Never-Married
    • Growing tendency to postpone marriage until older Divorced

What does Voluntary Temporary Single means?
Expect to marry but searching for partner is low priority
What does Involuntary Temporary Single means?
Expect to marry and actively seeking a partner
What does Cohabitation means?

  • Living arrangement in which two people who are not related and not married live together and most likely engage in a sexual relationship.
  • Dramatic

What does Emancipation mean?

Gain independence from parents

  • Prove adulthood

What does Convenience mean?

Practical reasons (Large groups)

  • Share expenses, chores, time, sexual accessibility

What is Testing Mode?
Trail to decide about marriage
What are 2 Social Pressure?

1. Pressure to parent:

  • Pronatalist Bias – having children is taken for granted while not having children needs to be justifed

2. Pressure not to parent:

  • Structural Antiatalism – US society doesn’t provide enough support for parents and children

What is one of the conpments of Cost of Parenting?
Opportunities Cost – Economic opportunites for wage earning and investments, parents sometimes forgot to raise their children.
What does Dealing with Misbavior mean?

Reason for misbavior

  • Attention seeking, boredom

What does H.A.L.T.S mean?

  • H – Hungry
  • A – Angry
  • L – Late
  • T – Tired
  • S – Sick

What is Natural and Logical Conseqences?


  • Natural – occur without parent intervention
  • Logical – parent designed related to the behavior

What makes Parenting Difficult?

  • Parenting roles often conflict with working roles
  • Parents are only one of several influences on children
  • Parents advice abounds
    • Not all experts agree
    • Not all advice are helpful /wanted

What are the 3 Parenting Styles?

  1. Authoritarian
  2. Authoritative
  3. Laissez Faire

What does Authoritarian mean?

  • Low on emotional nurturing and support but high on direction and control.
  • Parent in charge, Final say
  • Set and enforce rules


What does Athoritative mean?

  • Combines emotional nurturing and support wwith parental direction
  • Consistently set limits, enforces rules, and consistently show love
  • “Warm, firm and fair”

What does Pemissive mean?

  • Make few demands for responsibility or conduct
  • Allow children to regulate their own behavior
  • Few rules, inconsistently enforced
  • Sometimes there very high on emotional nurturing

What does Two-earner Marriages mean?

  • Both partners are in the labor force
  • Current norm among married couples

What is Family Friendly workplace policies?
Policies that are supportive of employee efforts to combine family and work commitments
What is Childcare Stresses?

  • Sources of paternal stress
    • Difficult to find
      • Hours of operation

What is Report talk?

  • Male
  • Conversation to convey information



What is Rapport Talk?

  • Female
  • Conversation to reinforce relationships and intimacy

What are the Four Hoursemen of the Apocalypse?

  • Contempt
  • Criticism
  • Defensiveness
  • Stonewalling

What is Contempt?
Feeling the partner is inferior
What is Criticism?
Disapproving judgments or evaluations
What is Defensiveness?
Preparing defense aganist upcoming attack
What is Stonewalling?
Resistance, refusing to listen, and refusing to engage.
What is Emotional Violence?

  • Name calling, threats, humiliation
  • Tearing someone down
    • More freguent and devastatinng than physical violence
    • Nearly always present in cases of physical violence

What are the 3 Cycle of Violence?

  1. Tension Building
  2. Violence
  3. Honeymoon

What does Stressors mean?
Events/ situations that lead to stress
What are 3 Characterisics for less difficult to cope?

  1. Expected
  2. Brief
  3. Gradually improve over time

What are the 2 types for Family Stressors?

1. Sudden unexpected changed

  • Natural disasters
  • Promotion

2. Daily Family Hassles

  • Balancing work/ family
  • Transportation

What is Divorce Statistics?

  • 40 % of First Marriage end in a divorce
  • 8 years is the median length of First Marriage that ends in a divorce.

Why does increased rick for divorce important?

  • Marriage partners are young (teens- early 20s)
  • Brief engagement (brief dating)
  • Few Years of education
  • Multiple Marriage

What is a Emotional Divorce?

  • Unually starts first nice, than argument problems
  • Thinking in terms of “I” instead of “We”
  • Withheld postive emotions and communication
  • Decision that marriage can’t be saved

What is a Legal Divorce?

  • Formal dissolution of the marriage
  • No – Fault divorce since 1970s, no longer have to prove “grounds for divorce”

What is a Economic Divorce?

  • Division of assets and debts
  • Child Support
  • Conflict over economic issues often continues long after legal divorce

What is a Community Divorce?
Informing family, friends & communty about divorce
What is a Parental Divorce?

  • Informing children of the change
  • Co-parents contiune to raise the children together
  • Court agreements between partners regarding legal responsibilities

What is a Psychic Divorce?

  • Partners separate from each other emotionally
  • Goal: Respectful indifference
  • Go through “morning process”
  • Some people never go thrugh this stage
    • Pain, Anger, and Resentment Remain

What is a Good Divorce?

Bi-nuclearr Family: two households, one family

  • Couples maintain that civility and co-parent

What is a Plan Ahead?
Get to know each child individually
What does the I-Model mean?
Biological parent delievers displine while new partner/ spouse supports & reinforces that choice
What are traditions in a remarried family?
Maintain some & create new ones
What does Eldercare mean?
Emotional support, health care service, and finanical assistance.
What are 3 types of Short and Long terms for Eldercare?

  1. In home care (paid service)
  2. Assisted Living (nursing home)
  3. Informal Care ( family-spouse, children, and siblings)

What is a Caregiver Stress?

  • While providing care can be positive & rewarding experience, caregivers have added demands & stress.
  • Strains time/ enegry
  • Complex decisions to make
  • Complicated care regimens to follow
  • Develop own health issues
    • Social isolation/ depression

What is Elder Abuse?
Acts of aggression, humiliation, isolation, and finanical exploitation.
What is Elder Negect?
Acts of omission and failure to care

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