students with disabilities 3

?Legally Blind
has visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye even with correction (e.g. eyeglasses) or has a field of vision so narrow that its widest diameter subtends an angular distance no greater than 20 degrees. Qualifies a person for certain legal benefits, such as tax advantages and money for special materials.
Low Vision
sometimes called to partially sighted, these people have low vision also have visual acuity falling between 20/70 and 20/200 in the better eye correction. Sometimes they are unable to read print of any kind; they may read large or regular print, and they may need some kind of magnification; using the legal/medical system, low vision is acuity between 20/70 and 20/200 in the better eye with correction.
Braille
a system of raised dots by which people who are blind read with their fingertips. It consists of quadrangular cells containing from one to six dots whose arrangement denotes different letters and symbols.
The Snellan Chart
used to determine visual acuity; consists of rows or letters or Es arranged in different positions; each row corresponds to the distance at which a normally sighted person can discriminate the letters; does not predict how accurately a child will be able to read print.
Visual Efficiency
refers to the ability, for example, to control eye movements and to use visual information quickly and accurately. Teachers often assess this by observing the student performing in a variety of settings or by using an instrument designed for this purpose.
Functional Vision Assessment
the vision teacher observes the student in his or her daily activities, taking note of how the student functions under a variety of conditions (e.g., in sunny or cloudy weather) and tasks (e.g. reading books, navigating within the classroom or from class to class).
Myopia
nearsightedness; vision for distant objects is affected; usually results when eyeball is too big.
Hyperopia
farsightedness; vision for near objects is affected; usually results when the eyeball is too short.
Astigmatism
blurred vision caused by an irregular cornea or lens.
Glaucoma
a group of eye diseases that causes damage to the optic nerve. At one time, it was thought to be due exclusively to excessive pressure inside the eyeball; we now know that some cases of glaucoma occur with normal pressure. The cause is unknown, if untreated, blindness can result.
Cataracts
caused by a clouding of the lens of the eye, which results in blurred vision. In children, this is called congenital cataracts, and distance and color vision are seriously affected.
Diabetic Retinopathy
a condition that results from interference with the blood supply to the retina.
Retinitis Pigmentosa
a heredity condition resulting in degeneration of the retina; causes a narrowing of the field of vision and affects night vision.
Strabismus
a condition in which one or both eyes are directed inward (crossed eyes) or outward. Left untreated, this can result in permanent blindness because the brain will eventually reject signals from a deviating eye.
Nystagmus
is a condition in which there are rapid involuntary movements of the eyes, usually resulting in dizziness and nausea. This sometimes can be a sign of brain malfunctioning and/or inner-ear problems.
Orientation and Mobility Skills
skills refer to the ability to have a sense of where one is in relation to other people, objects and landmarks (orientation) and to move through the environment (mobility).
Cognitive Mapping
a nonsequential way of conceptualizing the spatial environment that allows a person who is visually impaired to know where several points in the environment are simultaneously; allows for better mobility than does a strictly sequential conceptualization of the environment.
Obstacle Sense
a popularized thought in which a skill possessed by some people who are blind can detect the presence of obstacles in their environments; research has shown that it is not an indication of an extra sense, as popularly thought; it is the result of learning to detect subtle changes in the pitches of high frequency echoes.
Doppler Effect
a physical principle wherein the pitch of a sound rises as a person moves toward its source.
Stereotypic Behaviors
any variety of repetitive behaviors (e.g. eye rubbing) that are sometimes found in individuals who are autistic, blind, severely intellectually disabled, or psychotic; sometimes referred to as stereotypes or blindisms.
Blindisms
are stereotyped behaviors sometimes found in visually impaired toddlers or children. Blindism behaviors range from body rocking, head swaying, eye rubbing, head banging, spinning to finger flicking. These behaviors are repetitive and serve no specific goals, but can calm or soothe the child if they are distressed.
Literary Braille
braile symbols used for most writing situations.
Nemeth Code
used for more technical reading, writing, math and science.
Unified Braille Code
a combination of literary Braille and Braille codes for technical fields, such as the Nemeth Code for science and mathematics; not yet widely adopted.
Perkins Brailler
a system that makes it possible to write on braile; has six keys, one for each of the six dots of the cell, which leave an embossed print on the paper.
Slate and Stylus
a method of writing in Braille in which the paper is held in a slate while a stylus is pressed through openings to make indentations in the paper.
Large Print Books
are simply books printed in larger size font.
Kurzweil 1000
a comprehension device that converts print into speech for persons with visual impairment; the user places the printed material over a scanner that then reads the material aloud by means of electronic voice.
Braille Notetakers
portable devices that can be used to take notes in Braille, which are then converted to speech, Braille or text.
Itinerant Teacher Services
services for students who are visually impaired in which the special education teacher visits several different schools to work with students and their general education teachers; the students attend their local schools and remain in general education classrooms.
Autism spectrum disorder
Five similar conditions: autism, asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified; all involve varying degrees of problems with communication skills, social interactions, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior.
Asperger syndrome
one of the five autistic spectrum disorder, this syndrome consists of higher intelligence and communication skills than those with autism, but they display most, if not all of the other characteristics of autism spectrum disorders. Their primary difficulties are in the social interaction category.
Rett syndrome
one of the five autistic spectrum disorders; majority affected are females. It is a very rare autistic spectrum disorder, and is an inherited condition characterized by normal development followed by a severe regression of cognitive abilities.
Childhood disintegrative disorder
one of the five autistic spectrum disorders; normal development for at least two and up to ten years, followed by a significant loss of skills; much more common in males than females.
Schizophrenia
a severe disorder of thinking. It is manifested by loss of contact with reality, distorted thought processes, and abnormal perceptions.
Echolalia
the repetition of words or phrases.
Communicative intent
the desire to communicate for social purposes.
Mute
uses no, or almost no, language.
Stereotypic behaviors
repetitive, ritualistic motor behaviors such as twirling, spinning objects, flapping hands, and rocking, similar to those that are evident in some people who are blind. Another characteristic frequently seen in autism and related disorders is extreme fascination or preoccupation with objects and a very restricted range of interests. Autistic children can become easily upset by any change in the environment such as something out of place or new in the home or classroom.
Hidden curriculum
the dos and don’ts of social interaction that most people learn incidentally or with little instruction but that remain hidden for those with Asperger syndrome.
Pragmatics
refers to the rules about using language for social purposes.
Executive functions
the ability to regulate one’s behavior through working memory, inner speech, control of emotions and arousal levels, and analysis of problems and communication of problem solutions to others; delayed or impaired in people with ADHD.
Central coherence
the natural inclination for most people to bring order and meaning to information in their environment by perceiving it as a meaningful whole rather than as disparate parts. Everything is black and white to them.
Social interpreting
interpreting a social behavior(s) and turning it around so it becomes clear for the instructor and student.
Coaching
a technique whereby a friend or therapist offers encouragement and support for a person
Community residential facilities
a place usually a group home in an urban or residential neighborhood where3 to 10 adults with intellectual disabilities live under supervision. Ex. Little city, clearbrook.
Person-centered planning
the person with the disability is encouraged to make his or her own decisions as much as possible. This can mean planning activities and services on the basis of a person’s dreams, aspirations, interests, preferences, strengths, and capacities.
Supported living
persons with intellectual disabilities receive supports to live in more natural, no institutional settings, such as their home or apartment. Reports of higher self determination with people in this area.
Supported competitive employment
the person with intellectual disabilities has a competitive employment position but receives ongoing assistance, often from a job coach.
Functional behavioral assessment
involves determining the consequences, antecedents and setting events that maintain such behaviors. Basically finding out what purpose the behavior serves and what triggers the behaviors.
Positive behavioral support
the use of science of behavior to find ways to support desirable behavior rather than punishing undesirable behavior. Ex. Positive reinforcement is intended to support a student’s appropriate or desirable behavior.
?Pervasive developmental disorder
The diagnostic category pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), as opposed to specific developmental disorders (SDD), refers to a group of five autistic spectrum disorder; normal development for at least two and up to ten years followed by significant loss of skills; much more common in males.
Open head injuries
a brain injury in which there is an open wound in the head, such as a gunshot wound or penetration of the head by an object, resulting in damage to brain tissue.
Closed head injuries
damage to the brain that occurs without penetration of the skull; might be caused by a blow to the head or violent shaking by an adult.
Motor-speech disorder
loss or impairment of the ability to understand or formulate language because of accident or illness.
CHARGE syndrome
one of the fifty genetic/chromosomal syndromes associated with deaf-blindness. It is characterized by physical anomalities, often including colobma (abnormalities of the pupil, retina or optic nerve), cranial nerves, heart defects, atresia (absence or closure) of the choanae (air passages from nose to throat), retardation in growth and mental development, genital abnormalities, ear malformation and/or hearing loss.
Self-injurious behavior
is repeated physical self abuse, such as biting, scratching, or poking one self, head banging and so on.
Usher syndrome
an inherited syndrome resulting in hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, a progressive condition characterized by problems in seeing in low light and tunnel vision; there are three different types because it occurs evelopmentally and the range of the major symptoms of hearing impairment, vision impairment, and balance problems goes with it.
Down Syndrome
involves an anomaly at the 21st pair of chromosomes. Also referred to as trisomy 21.
Coloboma
a condition in which the child is born with an abnormally shaped pupil and/or abnormalities of the retina or optic nerve.
Atresia
absence or closure of a part of the body that is normally open present at birth.
Retinitis pigmentosa
a hereditary condition resulting in abnormal growth of blood vessels in the eye; caused by factors related to premature birth, including the administration of an excessive concentration of oxygen at birth.
Night blindness
a condition characterized by problems in seeing at low levels of illumination; often caused by retinitis pigmentosa.
Tunnel vision
a condition characterized by problems in peripheral vision, or a narrowing of the field of vision.
Rubella
sometimes called German measles, it is a serious vital disease if it occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy, it is likely to cause deformity in the fetus.
Congenital cytomegalovirus
most frequently occuring viral infection in newborns; can result in a variety of disabilities, espeically hearing impairment.
Meningitis
a bacterial or viral infection of the linings of the brain or spinal cord; can cuase a number of disabilites.
Hand-over-hand guidance
a tactile learning strategy for persons who are deaf-blind; the teacher places his or her hands over those of the person who is deaf-blind and guides them to explore objects.
Hand-under-hand guidance
a tactile learning strategy for persons who are deaf blind; the teacher places his or her hands underneath part of the student’s hand or hands while the child is exploring objects.
Touch cues
tactual signals used to communicate with persons who are deaf-blind; can be used to signify a variety of messages.
Assistance cards
usually relatively small and can be held up by the person who is deaf-blind at a busy or unfamilar intersection
Augmentative or Alternative Communication
for people with disabilities involving the physical movements of speech may consist of alternatives to the speech sounds of oral language
Functional Behavioral Assessment
involves determining the consequences, antecedents and setting events that maintain such behaviors. Basically finding out what purpose the behavior serves and what triggers the behaviors.
Positive Behavioral Support
systematic use of behavior to find ways to supporting desirable behaviors rather than punishing undesirable behaviors. Positive reinforcement such as rewarding are intended to support a student’s appropriate or desirable behavior.
Developmentally appropriate practice
educational methods for young children that are compatible with their developmental levels and that meet their individual needs; coined by the national association for the education of young children.
Natural supports
resources in a person’s environment that can be used for support, such as friends, family, co-workers.
Traumatic Brain Injury
injury to the brain(not including conditions present at birth, birth trauma or degenerative diseases or conditions) resulting in total or partial disability or psychosocial maladjustment that affects educational performance; may affect cognition, language, memory, attention, reasoning abstract thinking, judgment, problem solving, sensory or perceptual and motor disabilities, physical functions, info processing or speech.
?Pervasive developmental disorder
The diagnostic category pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), as opposed to specific developmental disorders (SDD), refers to a group of five autistic spectrum disorder; normal development for at least two and up to ten years followed by significant loss of skills; much more common in males.
Open head injuries
a brain injury in which there is an open wound in the head, such as a gunshot wound or penetration of the head by an object, resulting in damage to brain tissue.
Closed head injuries
damage to the brain that occurs without penetration of the skull; might be caused by a blow to the head or violent shaking by an adult.
Motor-speech disorder
loss or impairment of the ability to understand or formulate language because of accident or illness.
CHARGE syndrome
one of the fifty genetic/chromosomal syndromes associated with deaf-blindness. It is characterized by physical anomalities, often including colobma (abnormalities of the pupil, retina or optic nerve), cranial nerves, heart defects, atresia (absence or closure) of the choanae (air passages from nose to throat), retardation in growth and mental development, genital abnormalities, ear malformation and/or hearing loss.
Self-injurious behavior
is repeated physical self abuse, such as biting, scratching, or poking one self, head banging and so on.
Acquired aphasia
One in a group of speech disorders in which there is a defect or loss of the power of expression by speech, writing, or signs, or a defect or loss of the power of comprehension of spoken or written language.
Usher syndrome
an inherited syndrome resulting in hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, a progressive condition characterized by problems in seeing in low light and tunnel vision; there are three different types because it occurs evelopmentally and the range of the major symptoms of hearing impairment, vision impairment, and balance problems goes with it.
Down Syndrome
involves an anomaly at the 21st pair of chromosomes. Also referred to as trisomy 21.
Coloboma
a condition in which the child is born with an abnormally shaped pupil and/or abnormalities of the retina or optic nerve.
Atresia
absence or closure of a part of the body that is normally open present at birth.
Retinitis pigmentosa
a hereditary condition resulting in abnormal growth of blood vessels in the eye; caused by factors related to premature birth, including the administration of an excessive concentration of oxygen at birth.
Night blindness
a condition characterized by problems in seeing at low levels of illumination; often caused by retinitis pigmentosa.
Tunnel vision
a condition characterized by problems in peripheral vision, or a narrowing of the field of vision.
Rubella
sometimes called German measles, it is a serious vital disease if it occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy, it is likely to cause deformity in the fetus.
Congenital cytomegalovirus
most frequently occuring viral infection in newborns; can result in a variety of disabilities, espeically hearing impairment.
Meningitis
a bacterial or viral infection of the linings of the brain or spinal cord; can cuase a number of disabilites.
Hand-over-hand guidance
a tactile learning strategy for persons who are deaf-blind; the teacher places his or her hands over those of the person who is deaf-blind and guides them to explore objects.
Hand-under-hand guidance
a tactile learning strategy for persons who are deaf blind; the teacher places his or her hands underneath part of the student’s hand or hands while the child is exploring objects.
Touch cues
tactual signals used to communicate with persons who are deaf-blind; can be used to signify a variety of messages.
Assistance cards
usually relatively small and can be held up by the person who is deaf-blind at a busy or unfamilar intersection
Augmentative or Alternative Communication
for people with disabilities involving the physical movements of speech may consist of alternatives to the speech sounds of oral language
Functional Behavioral Assessment
involves determining the consequences, antecedents and setting events that maintain such behaviors. Basically finding out what purpose the behavior serves and what triggers the behaviors.
Positive Behavioral Support
systematic use of behavior to find ways to supporting desirable behaviors rather than punishing undesirable behaviors. Positive reinforcement such as rewarding are intended to support a student’s appropriate or desirable behavior.
Developmentally appropriate practice
educational methods for young children that are compatible with their developmental levels and that meet their individual needs; coined by the national association for the education of young children.
Natural supports
resources in a person’s environment that can be used for support, such as friends, family, co-workers.
Traumatic Brain Injury
injury to the brain(not including conditions present at birth, birth trauma or degenerative diseases or conditions) resulting in total or partial disability or psychosocial maladjustment that affects educational performance; may affect cognition, language, memory, attention, reasoning abstract thinking, judgment, problem solving, sensory or perceptual and motor disabilities, physical functions, info processing or speech.
Congenital anomalies
an abnormality present at birth. The abnormality may have been inherited genetically from the parents, or occurred as a result of damage or infection of the uterus, or may have occurred at the time of birth.
TBI
injury to the brain(not including conditions present at birth, birth trauma or degenerative diseases or conditions) resulting in total or partial disability or psychosocial maladjustment that affects educational performance; may affect cognition, language, memory, attention, reasoning abstract thinking, judgment, problem solving, sensory or perceptual and motor disabilities, physical functions, info processing or speech.
Cerebral palsy
a loss or deficiency of motor control with involuntary spasms caused by permanent brain damage present at birth
Quadriplegia
is paralysis caused by illness or injury to a human that results in the partial or total loss of use of all of their limbs and torso. Complete paralysis from the neck down.
Choreoathetoid movements
characterized by involuntary movements and difficulty with balance; associated with choreoathetoid cerebral palsy.
Seizure
occurs when there is an abnormal discharge of electrical energy in certain brain cells. The discharge spreads to nearby cells, and the effect may be loss of consciousness, involuntary movements, or abnormal sensory phenomena.
Epilepsy
A medical condition in which the sufferer experiences seizures (or convulsions) and blackouts.
Spina bifida
a condition in which the spine does not develop properly before birth; can cause varying degrees of disability. A diet with sufficient levels of folic acid taken in the months before and during pregnancy can help prevent spina bifida.
Catheterization
the insertion of a tube into the urethra to drain the bladder.
Muscular dystrophy
refers to a group of hereditary muscle diseases that weaken the muscles that move the human body. Muscular dystrophies are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue.
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
a systemic disease with major symptoms involving the muscles and joints. The cause is unknown.
Scoliosis
curvature of the spine usually in an S form.
Asthma
A respiratory disease marked by intermittent fits of difficult breathing that has a wheezing sound, and is accompanied by chest constriction, coughing, and discharge of phlegm.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
includes a range of disorders in children born to women who have consumed excessive amounts of alcohol while pregnant.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
a virus caused illness resulting in a breakdown of the immune system; currently, no known cure exists.
Prosthesis
is an artificial extension that replaces a missing body part
Orthosis
a device designed to restore, partially or completely a lost function of the body. Ex. A brace or crutch.
Adaptive devices
special tools that are adaptations of common items to make accomplishing self care, work, or recreation activities easier for people with physical disabilities. For example, a device to aid bathing or hand washing or walking.
Individualized Family Service Plan
the focus is family centered; it addresses the needs the needs of the individual child who has a disability, and focuses on the child’s family by identifying what services the family needs to enhance the child’s development.
Supported employment
a method of integrating people with disabilities who can’t work independently into competitive employment
precocity
refers to remarkable early development. These children develop gifts in areas such as language, music, or mathematics at a very young age.
insight
the ability to separate and or combine various pieces of information in new, creative and useful ways.
genius
has sometimes been used to indicate a particular aptitude or capacity in any area; rare intellectual powers. More often, it has been used to indicate extremely rare intellectual powers (often assumed to be indicated by IQ) or creativity.
creativity
refers to the ability to express novel and useful ideas, to sense and elucidate new and important relationships, and to ask previously unthought-of of, but crucial, questions.
talent
ordinarily has been used to indicate a special ability, aptitude, or accomplishment.
giftedness
cognitive superiority, creativity, and motivation of sufficient magnitude to set the child apart from the vast majority of age peers and make it possible for the child to contribute something of particular value to society.
analytic giftedness
Analytical giftedness is influential in being able to take apart problems and being able to see solutions not often seen. Unfortunately, individuals with only this type are not as adept at creating unique ideas of their own.
synthetic giftedness
Synthetic giftedness is seen in creativity, intuition, and a study of the arts. People with synthetic giftedness are not often seen with the highest IQ’s because there are not currently any tests that can sufficiently measure these attributes, but synthetic giftedness is especially useful in creating new ideas to create and solve new problems.
practical giftedness
involves the ability to apply synthetic and analytic skills to everyday situations. Practically gifted people are superb in their ability to succeed in any setting (Sternberg, 1997). An example of this type of giftedness is “Celia”. Celia did not have outstanding analytical or synthetic abilities, but she “was highly successful in figuring out what she needed to do in order to succeed in an academic environment.
excellence
the quality of excelling; possessing good qualities in high degree
rarity
something that is not seen often among students.
demonstrability
capability of being demonstrated or logically proved
productivity
the quality of being productive or having the power to produce
value
the quality (positive or negative) that renders something desirable or valuable.
acceleration
an approach in which students with special gifts or talents are placed in grade levels ahead of their age peers in one or more academic subjects.

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