speech quiz 3

Arbitrary
term that describes symbols themselves as having no direct connection with the things they represent
Semiotics
the study of the social production of meaning from sign systems like language
Signifier
the physical thing as we perceive it in the world around us
Signified
the meaning associated with the sign, or rather the combination of the sign and the thing it is meant to represent
Sign
an arbitrary symbol; something that can be interpreted as a meaning
Ambiguous
term that describes words as being without absolute meanings
Denotative meaning
the meaning prescribed to a sign without understanding its history of usage and application; its dictionary, or literal definition
Connotative meaning
meaning that comes from a set of associations a word brings to mind in a person
Negative
the idea that language separates things from their natural state, thus telling us not only what something is, but what it is not
Similes
metaphoric language devices that compare two things through the use of “like” or “as”
Synecdoche
a metaphor that uses one part of something to refer to the whole thing
Metonym
a metaphor that is identified by its use of tangible objects to refer to intangible things
Archetypal
metaphors that use common human experiences to help describe another object
Mixed metaphor
phrases that make use of two different metaphors that do not logically fit;compare two things that have no inherent connection with each other, creating incongruous comparisons
Dead metaphors
metaphors that have lost the creative element from which they initially drew their power and now are just accepted as true terms, rather than the metaphor they are
Repetition
the practice of repeating words and phrases either immediately following the initial statement, or in the same location in a message
Alliteration
the practice of using the same vowel or consonant sound at the beginning of consecutive words
Parallelism
the practice of placing related words or phrases in a pattern that highlights what they have in common
Narrative coherence
feature exhibited by a story with content that hangs together and makes sense
Narrative fidelity
terms for describing how well a story reflects the values and beliefs of its audience
Profanity
vulgar and irreverent language
Idioms
metaphoric expressions whose meanings are not predictable from their usual use, but must be inferred from cultural markers

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