SpEd 783 Final

Briefly discuss three myths and three facts about handwriting
FACTS-
Teaching kids to talk through a letter helps them to get it right
Letter reversals are common for most children before the age of 6
Handwriting struggles occur for up to 20% of all students

MYTHS-
Students who print poorly are not good at cursive
Most students with hand writing issues are dyslexic
After third grade, students no longer need handwriting instruction.

What does a lesson about cursive look like
Walk students through the letter lined paper with visual aids
What is dysgraphia
trouble with writing
list 5signs kids struggle with handwriting
Visually
Kinesthetic
Tactile
Auditory
Sequential Memory
Writing Process…what stages ?
Pre-write, drafting, revise, edit, publish
why pre-write ?
helps organize thoughts and ideas.
7 pre-write strategies
Freewrite, clustering, idea lists, brain storming, role play, drawing, researching
drawbacks to pre-writing
students who have attention issues may not be able to focus onto “one topic”. Countered by letting the student hone in with guidance on 1 area in which to write about.
why organize ?
– Effective organization helps authors write clearly and express exactly what they want to say. (50)
– Outlines or sequence lists enable the author to think through ideas before the actual writing.
– Students can identify main ideas and details, sequence material, cut and paste, and map out the general direction they wish to take with their writing.
– Organization is a bit like rehearsal (so students can practice before actual drafting).
– FYI: Emphasize that students will likely make changes and adjustments during drafting and revision and that the basic outline should never be thought of as providing more than just general guidance.
7 graphic organizers
1. Structure form (main idea + details in outline form) (51)
2. Paragraph hamburger (handout)
3. Story map (setting – characters – problem – goal – action – outcome)
4. Web (semantic map)
5. Roman Numeral outline
6. Flowchart
7. Simple list of ideas
drawbacks to organizing ?
– Might overwhelm students – Be sure that methods of organization do not overwhelm students, making students worry more about the method than the writing. Organization strategies should aid and never inhibit writing
What are the benefits of writing a first draft then revising
The purpose of the draft is to get ideas down on paper. Students should focus on actual writing. They should write with emotion, and try to express their ideas with power and clarity.
What are 7 different things that can be done in the process of revising?
1. Change the beginning
2. Change the ending
3. Change the order (sequencing)
4. Revising checklist (to make sure all necessary parts are there)
5. Change point of view
6. Change the tense
7. Add something, such as a personal story
8. Delete unnecessary information
What may be some drawbacks of revising, and how might you counter them?
While you may offer options, resist making the revisions yourself, since this relieves the student of the responsibility for reworking and polishing his ideas
– Be cautious of using labels like awkward, vague, or illogical when referring to the writing of students. If they do not understand the meanings of such words, they will not know how to correct their mistakes
Explicitly model different aspects/techniques of revising and have students practice many times!
What are the benefits of editing?
– Editing is the stage of the writing process in which authors evaluate whether they have expressed themselves clearly
It is the time to polish the writing
drawbacks to editing
– Many people view editing as a time merely for catching and correcting mistakes in writing. It can be much more. When students self-edit, they have the chance to put themselves in the shoes of their readers and see if what they have written is what they intended.
How might students be “prepped” for peer editing?
mutual respect
– Before any peer editing takes place, instruct students to reread their revised drafts carefully and edit them individually. Self-editing is an important skill that helps students to become more aware of their writing. Only after self-editing should students take their writing to a partner or peer group for editing.
benefits of publication
Students need to share their writing with others; they need others to read and react to their words. Students will write better if they know their writing will be shared
What are 5 opportunities a teacher can provide to “publish”?
1. Sharing work in the “author’s chair”
2. Sharing in peer groups
3. Publishing articles and stories in school newspapers and magazines or school websites
4. By collecting writing to be graded.
5. Creating “books” written by the students (homemade publishing)
drawbacks of publishing ?
– Students who do not finish writing when most others are finished – provide opportunities several times a week for students to share all throughout the writing process so that students in any step can share and also so students finish and share final pieces at different times.
– students who feel too shy to share – teachers or other students can share the work of a shy student (with that student’s permission); also, students can share their writing without having to stand up in front of a group
What are some of the many roles of the teacher in the writing workshop?
The teacher’s role in writing workshop is to be a nurturer, facilitator, and promoter. They also give mini-lessons and work with small groups and individual students
In your opinion, is the writing workshop more “top down”, “bottom up”, or “interactive”? Explain your answer
In my opinion the writing workshop is more “top down” or “interactive” than “bottom up”. The writing workshop teaches skills such as writing mechanics through the writing process. It uses the writing process as a way to go from the top and teach these skills, unlike a bottom up approach that would first teach skills like mechanics and then teach the writing process.
What might be considered three examples of “bottom up” teaching of writing
Three examples of bottom up writing are teaching how to form sentences, how to form paragraphs, and how to form essays.
10. In terms of “bottom up” writing, describe five useful strategies to support writing at the sentence level. You may use illustrations if you find them useful
One strategy to support writing at the sentence level is to give the students a sentence to expand and have them answer clarifying questions such as where, when, and why to have them provide more information about the subject and write an expanded sentence. Three other strategies include using sentence starters, having students generate lists about a topic, and having students match sentence parts. Another strategy is to teach students about the different kinds (simple, complex, compound) of sentences and have them identify the different types.
11. In terms of “bottom up” writing, describe five useful strategies to support writing at the paragraph level. You may use illustrations if you find them useful.
One strategy for writing paragraphs is to use framed paragraphs in which the student is given prompts (first, next, last) within the paragraph format to create their response. Another similar strategy is to use cloze paragraphs. Students can also use a graphic organizer such as the hamburger model to help them write their paragraphs. Two other strategies include using a list of sentences to create a paragraph and building a paragraph from the topic sentence, supporting sentences, and conclusion.
12. In terms of “bottom up” writing, describe five useful strategies to support writing at the essay level. You may use illustrations if you find them useful
Using a story map is one strategy that is useful for writing an essay. Another strategy that is providing the students with a mnemonic devise for the organization of an essay (OTP, TELEC, RRF) beyond just remembering this a sheet can be developed to outline what students are supposed to do in each step. Another strategy is to provide the students guidelines of the essay that the students have to use. Finally, another example not mentioned in the course is Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD). This technique provides students prompts they can use to create an essay, such as asking who they are writing for and how the content will affect the reader (reading rockets).
What is dyscalculia?
Dyscalculia is a term referring to a wide range of life-long learning disabilities involving math
What are five ways students with LD might struggle in math?
1.) Mastering basic number facts
2.) Arithmetic Weakness/Math Talent
3.) The written symbol and concrete materials
4.) The language of math.
5.) Visual-spatial aspects of math
Elaborate upon the five struggles identified by suggesting appropriate strategies.
1.) Mastering basic number facts: Many LD students have persistent trouble “memorizing” basic number facts in all four operations, despite adequate understanding and great effort expended trying to do so.
2.) Arithmetic Weakness/Math Talent: Some learning disabled students have an excellent grasp of math concepts, but are inconsistent in calculating.
3.) The written symbol and concrete materials: Many younger children who have difficulty with elementary math actually bring to school a strong foundation of informal math understanding. They encounter trouble in connecting this knowledge base to the more formal procedures, language, and symbolic notation system of school math. The collision of their informal skills with school math is like a tuneful, rhythmic child experiencing written music as something different from what he/she already can do.
4.) The language of math: Some LD students are particularly hampered by the language aspects of math, resulting in confusion about terminology, difficulty following verbal explanations, and/or weak verbal skills for monitoring the steps of
complex calculations.
5.) Visual-spatial aspects of math: A small number of LD students have disturbances in visual-spatial motor organization, which may result in weak or lacking understanding of concepts, very poor “number sense,” specific difficulty with pictorial representations and/or poorly controlled handwriting and confused arrangements of numerals and signs on the page.
What are some ways that the teaching of math can be connected to writing?
Describe five examples and provide an example for each.
1.) Math Journals: Math journals are a great way to begin class. They can be used to assess background knowledge when beginning a unit, and then used as a means of assessing acquired learning at the end of the unit.
2.) Write a Vocabulary Paragraph: Assign a list of math vocabulary words to your students, then have them write a paragraph that incorporates all of the words on the list. Your students will have fun generating some clever ideas for their paragraphs!
3.) Poetry: Writing and sharing poems is a popular way for middle school and high school students to share ideas and feelings. The creative process involved in writing poetry requires students to apply their understanding of math concepts to the task. Your students may enjoy presenting their poetry in a “Math Poetry Slam” event for other classes. A fun and easy poetry assignment is to have your students write haiku poems for geometric solids.
4.) Word Puzzles: Have your students create a word puzzle with vocabulary words for their current chapter (this can be a great summary activity for the end of a chapter). Students should create word puzzles such as crosswords or word jumbles that require them to write clues. This will ensure that students are applying their knowledge of the math terms, such as definitions and examples.
5.) Advice Columns: Have students write fictitious advice columns, as one might find in a newspaper, except these are math advice columns. Have your students think of math-related names to use for their advice column, for example “Dear Algy” (short for algorithm), or “Dear Doctor Pi.” You can either assign a topic for the advice column, or try having your students think up possible math situations when someone might need advice, such as “I keep getting my cosine confused with my tangent. Please help me straighten this out,” or “I can’t remember how to find the slope of a line.”
What is the suggested sequence of addition suggested by Garnett in her article?
[1] + 1 and + 0 principles Adding 1 or 0 to any number
[2] Ties 2 + 2, 3 + 3, 4 + 4, 5 + 5,
6 + 6, 7 + 7, 8 + 8, 9 + 9, 10 + 10

[3] Ties + 1 2 + 3, 3 + 4, 4 + 5, 5 + 6,
6 + 7, 7 + 8, 8 + 9

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[4] Ties + 2 2 + 4, 3 + 5, 4 + 6, 5 + 7,
6 + 8, 7 + 9

[5]+ 10 principle from 2 + 10
through 10 + 10

[6] + 9 facts from 2 + 9
through 9 + 9
use strategy (n +10) – 1

[7] Remaining facts 2 + 5, 2 + 6, 2 + 7, 2 + 8
3 + 6, 3 + 7, 3 + 8
4 + 7, 4 + 8

22. Games & Stations
(a) What are the benefits and drawbacks of using game formats in your classes?
Benefits – keeps students engaged. Varies the tempo and pacing. Teaching content in a new way. Offers a quick snapshot of where kids are, what they know, and what they’re missing. Can be used as an informal assessment. Offers a great way to review material before exams, etc.
Drawbacks – management can be difficult. Procedures must be taught. Some students resist anything with competition. Other students can be overly competitive. Not always a great way to introduce new material. Not always appropriate for some content. Doesn’t always require analysis, usually just tests content knowledge.
What are the benefits and drawbacks of using teaching/learning stations in your classes?
Benefits
• multiple points of entry
• Allows students to move around the room
• Can be easier to differentiate
• Allows use of manipulatives
• Students can teach each other specific content they’ve mastered
Drawbacks
• Management can be an issue
• Procedures must be taught
• Roles are necessary
• Time constraints
• Difficult to assess student’s learning if you’re not at that station

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