SPED 405

Number of instances that occur in a given period of time
Contingent Reinforcement
Specific behavior must occure before that reinforcer will be presented
Noncontingent Reinforcement
Reinforcer is presented at a particular time regardless of the preceeding behavior
Conditioned Reinforcers


stimuli that weren’t originially reinforcing but have become reinforcers by being paired with other reinforcers

Back-up Reinforcers
When a stimulus becomes a conditioned reinforcer through deliberate association with other reinforcers
Primary Reinforcers


-stimuli/events important for survival/biological functioning

-reinforcing without prior learning/conditioning

Token Economies
Behavior Modification program in which individuals can earn tokens for specific behaviors and can cash in tokens for back up reinforcers
If an individual emits a previously reinforced behavior and that behavior is not followed by a reinforver then that person is less likely to od the same thing again when next encountering a simliar situation
Continuous Reinforcement
Arrangement in which each instance of a particular response is reinforced
Intermittent Reinforcement
Arrangement in which a respose is reinforced only occasionally rather than every time
Fixed Ratio Schedule

High steady rate; short post reinforcement pause

Ex: Push ups before taking a break

Variable Ratio

High steady rate; no postreinforcement pause

Ex: Slot machines

Fixed Interval

Gradually increasing rate; long postreinforcement

Ex: Picking up paycheck after fixed time

Variable Interval

Moderate steady rate; no postreinforcement

Ex: Checking for mail

Fixed Interval with Limited Hold

High steady rate (small intervals); short reinforcement

Ex: Waiting for a bus

Variable Interval with Limited Hold

High steady rate; no postreinforcement

Ex: Calling a busy phone line

Fixed Duration

Continuous Behavior

Ex: Worker paid by the hour

Variable Duration

Continuous behavior

Ex: waiting for traffic to clear before crossing

Gradual change over successive trials of an antecedent stimulus that controls a response so that the response eventually occurs to a partially changed/completely new stimulus
Physical Prompt
Guiding learning through touch
Gestural Prompt
Motions that the teacher makes
Modeling Prompt
Correct behavior is demonstrated
Verbal Prompt
Verbal hints/cues
Development of a new behavior by the reinforcement of successive approximations of that behavior and the extinction of earlier approximations of that behavior until new behavior occurs

Time between the controlling stimulus and the behavior

Ex: Time between questions and response

Length of time it lasts
Non-Exclusionary Time outs
Introducing into the situation immediately following behavior
Exclusionary Time Outs
Removing an individual briefly from reinforcing situation after a behavior
Types of Punishment

-Pain inducing


-Time Out


Discrete Trials
Distinct stimulus presented prior to an opportunity for a response to occur and be followed by reinforcement
Importance of Varied Reinforcement

-Never be phony

-Don’t praise when not worthy

-Use even during minor successes

Types of Reinforcement

Differential Reinforcement of low rates (DRL)

Differential Reinforcement of Zero Responding (DRO)

Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI)

Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA)

Positive Reinforcement
Stimulus that when presented immediately following a behavior, causes the behavior to increase in frequency
Behavior Contracts

-Positive Reinforcement intervention used to change student behavior

-Expectations of the student and teacher defined

If a parent tries to teach a child to hold a pencil and make a line on a piece of paper by physically guiding the child’s hand and if over successive trials the physical guidance lessened until the parent stops completely. This is an example of:
Susan praises her child for saying “please” before being given a treat and for saying, “thank you” after receiving the treat
Stimulus Discrimination Training
When a teacher demonstrates a correct behavior
Modeling Prompt
While teaching a child to obtain the appropriate colored object when the teacher said either “Blue” or “green”, the teacher’s pointing to correct object is an example of:
Gestural Prompt
A reinforcer for which tokens can be exchanged in order to maintain their reinforcing power
Back up reinforcer
Stimuli which are reinforcing without prior learning
Primary reinforcers
Money is an example of what kind of reinforcer?
Conditioned Reinforcer
An extinction program may fail because
a desirable alternative behavior was not appropriately strengthened
An increase in responding during extinction is known as an
Extinction burst
The procedure used for developing a new behavior by successively reinforcing cloer approximation and extinguishing preceding approximation to achieve a final desired behavior is referred to as:
A guideline for effective application of shaping is to:
Never more to a new approximation until the student has mastered the previous approximation
Across several practices a summer is reinforced for starting more and more quickly to the sounds of the starter’s pistol
Sally tells her dog to sit while pressing down on the dog’s rump. When the dog is in a complete sitting position, she gives it a dog biscuit over trials, Sally pushes the dog down with less and less force until eventually it is sitting on command
An event which, when presented immediately following a behavior, causes the behavior to decrease in frequency
Strong negative verbal stimulus
A traffic ticket is an example of
Removing individual for a short time from the situation in which reinforcement is occuring
Exclusionary time-out
As a consequence of coming home later than an agreed upon curfew, a teenager loses the privilege of driving the family car for one week is an example of:

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