SPED 405 Final

Token Economies

-better student behavior and achievement

-given as praise

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-encourages students to want to do well or act appropriately

-exchanged for something the children want

-symbol representing congratulations

Bootlegging of tokens

-cannot be easily photocopied


-signed by teacher

-colored with certain colors or design or style

Backup Reinforcers

-meaningful objects, privileges, or activities that individuals receive in exchange for tokens

-food items, toys, extra free time, or outings

Contingent Reinforcement
specific behavior must occur before that reinforcer will be presented. if a mother wants a child to share toys with a sibling, she may offer praise when sharing occurs

“do it yourself” process

helps an individual become more self aware

establish a baseline of symptoms as a way to monitor change

How to set up self-monitoring
  • determine anxious behavior
  • write down with great detail what the behavior is so it is concrete
  • document all behaviors that trigger anxiety IMMEDIATELY
  • daily log of behavior
  • pay attention to any subtle shift in anxiety level

Inclusion Time out

-student stays in learning environment, but is denied the opportunity to participate in activities and receive reinforcement from peers or teachers

-aka non-exclusionary time out

Exclusion time out

-removed from the learning environment and either sent to another area in the room where they face a wall or sent to another teacher’s room

-effective for reducing disruptive behavior in elementary classrooms like noncompliance

Behavioral Contracts

-focuses on observation

-must be observable behaviors and need to be explicitly stated so there’s no room for leeway

-the behavior is either followed or it isn’t followed, no middle ground

Phase One of PECS: Physical Exchange
  • child exchanges picture of desired object for tangible object
  • adult says name of object as its being given to child

Phase Two of PECS: Expanding Spontaneity
  • child given communication book
  • adult stands further from child but repeats process

Phase Three of PECS: Picture Discrimination
  • adult gives child choice between two pictures
  • 2 choices are wanted picture and a picture that the child doesn’t want
  • adut changes it to two pictures that the child desires

Phase Four of PECS: Sentence Structure
  • child begins to form sentences using the “I want…” picture
  • goal is to be able to use a two picture sequence

Phase Five of PECS: Responding to “What do you want?”
  • adult begins to ask “what do you want?”
  • child answers before adult adds the verbal prompt of “I want…”

Phase Six of PECS: Responsive and Spontaneous Commenting
  • adult asks “what do you see?” and child begins to answer question

Video Modeling
  • children observe videos of target behaviors and are then told to practice watched behavior
  • teach variety of skills
  • increase a student with autism’s skills in play, improve self-help skills, and overall increase their communication skills

Motivating Operations
  • event or operation that temporarily alters effectiveness of a reinforcer
  • influences behavior that leads to that reinforcer

doesn’t experience a particular reinforcer
individual has experienced a particular reinforcer to such an event that it’s temporarily no longer reinforcing
Target Behaviors
behaviors to be improved in a behavior modification program
Direct Assessment
observation by person, more accurate than indirect
Indirect Assessment

interviews, questionnaires, role-playing

convenient and doesn’t require a lot of time

time between the question and the response
number of instances
time that a behavior lasts
someone does something that is immediately followed by a punisher, that person is less likely to do the same thing again
Response Cost
removal of a specified amount of a reinforcer immediately following behavior

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