SpEd 391: Including Students with Special Needs by: Friend

Supplementary Education
books and software which helps school students with particular needs. These may include those who are below grade level in a particular subject, or for whom English is a second language. They can also add additional resources to core textbooks.
Title 1
is the part of the US Elementary and Secondary Education Act that provides funding for students who are of a lower socioeconomic background and are not performing at grade-level. Funding can be used to provide additional instructional resources for this population.
Standards movement
is concerned with getting students to a specified level at a particular age or stage. It aims to ensure, for example, that that all nine-year olds have learned how to read at third grade level.
Summative testing
Tests and exams given to students at the end of the school year. In other words, testing what a child has learned rather than testing in order to teach. Performance is measured against progress to the state standards of competency.
School districts
Local education in America is organized by school districts. The senior education executive is called the Superintendent, and is accountable to the local School Board. The School Board consists of elected members of that community. Principals of individual schools report to the District Superintendent.
The INCLUDE Strategy

Step 1: Identify classroom demands
Classroom organization
Classroom grouping
Instructional materials
Instructional methods
Student evaluation

Step 2: Note student’s strengths ; needs:
Strengths:
Academics
Social-emotional development
Physical development

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Needs:
Academics
Social-emotional development
Physical development

Step 3: Check for potential successes
Analyze student;s strengths in view of classroom demands noted in Step 1.
Check for activities or tasks student can do successfully without support.

Step 4: Look for potential problems
Analyze student;s needs in view of classroom demands noted in Step 1.
Check for activities or tasks student may not be able to do successfully unless support is provided.

Step 5: Use information gathered to brainstorm instructional accommodations
Classroom teaching and organization
Teacher/Peer strategies
Performance

Step 6: Decide which accommodations to implement
Select age-appropriate accommodations
Select accommodations that are easy to implement
Select accommodations with demonstrated effectiveness

Step 7: Evaluate student progress
Explain how you will track or assess accommodation effectiveness

Personalized learning

is the direction in which education at all ages is heading. Advances in technology mean that today it is possible to link teaching materials, testing and software so that students can follow a course designed to their own individual need. If a student can’t master a concept, the programme adjusts to a simpler level, or adds more practice, until he or she has reached the required level. And data from their lessons lets teachers and administrators track progress and prescribe appropriate courses.

Open territories
Unlike adoption states, schools and districts in open territories are free to buy programmes according to their own schedule, not on a state-wide basis. In general, therefore, sales in open territories tend to be rather less lumpy and rather more economically sensitive than in adoption states.
NCLB, No Child Left Behind
the US education act, was passed with bi-partisan support in 2002. Under the act, an additional $4bn a year is made available to support initiatives in schools. Programmes funded under NCLB include mandatory state-wide testing from grades 3 – 8 in math and reading, and Reading First, an early literacy initiative.
Formative testing
takes place throughout the school year. A slow stakes’ method of assessment, it helps teachers assess what children have and have not learnt, and to predict progress towards higher stakes end of year tests.
Federal funds
About 92% of US school education is funded by state and local taxes. The balance comes from the Federal government. Federal programmes include No Child Left Behind and Title 1, 2 and 3 funding for students in deprived areas.
ELT, English Language Teaching or English Language Training.
The institutional market for ELT (ie schools, colleges and language schools) is estimated to be worth $1bn worldwide, and Pearson is the world leader. Two billion people are expected to start learning English in the next decade as its dominance as the language of business, science and technology takes hold.
AYP or Adequate Yearly Progress
is the requirement under the No Child Left Behind legislation for schools and districts to show annual improvement towards Federal goals in a number of areas. These range from teachers’ qualifications to students’ test scores. Failure to make AYP can lead to a series of measures including allowing students to transfer to other schools to appointing a new school principal and other punitive measures.
ADA: The Americans with Disabilities Act

The Americans with Disabilities Act. The ADA prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in the areas of employment, public transportation, telecommunications, access to public services programs, and activities of state and local governments, as well as those of commercial facilities, private businesses, and nonprofit service providers. The ADA was signed into law July 26, 1990.

CFR: Code of Federal Regulations

Code of Federal Regulations. The regulations of federal agencies as published in the Federal Register. (The federal regulations for the implementation of the IDEA 2004 were published in the August 14, 2006, Federal Register, Part II, Department of Education, 34 CFR Parts 300 and 30.)

DDA: Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act.

Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act. This Act supports state developmental disabilities councils, state protection and advocacy agencies, university centers on disabilities, and other projects
of national significance to enhance the independence, productivity, integration, and inclusion of individuals with developmental disabilities.

EHA:Education of the Handicapped Act: (now: IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act)

Education of the Handicapped Act (now Individuals with Disabilities Education Act). The name of the original 1975 legislation entitling children and youth with disabilities to a free appropriate public education (FAPE).

ESEA: The Elementary and Secondary Education Act: NCLB: The law is also known as No Child Left Behind.

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act. This law contains several federal programs designed to address the needs of disadvantaged students. The largest, Title 1 (formerly Chapter 1), is designed to ensure that students in high poverty schools meet high standards. The law was amended in 2001 to strengthen provisions around high state standards for all students, accountability for schools and districts that continually
underperform, and strong parental involvement and quality program requirements for schools and districts receiving Title 1 funds. The law is also known as No Child Left Behind.

FAPE: Free and Appropriate Public Education

Free and Appropriate Public Education. A right provided to students with disabilities eligible for special education and related services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.

FERPA: Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. Legislation giving parents the right to inspect and review their child;s educational records, to amend errors or inaccuracies in those records, and to consent to disclosure of records.

FOIA: Freedom Of Information Act

Freedom of Information Act. Enacted in 1966, this law entitles any person to the right to request access to federal agency records or information. There are some exemptions and exclusions that apply. Nearly all state governments have FOIA-type statutes that apply to state and local public agencies.

IDEA: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (formerly EHA).

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (formerly EHA). This law states that children with disabilities have the right to a free appropriate public education, including procedural protections and the right to an education that is standards based. The latest amendments to this special education law were passed in 2004.

NCLB: No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. In 2001, the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (see ESEA) included No Child Left Behind, which requires states to set standards for student performance and teacher quality, and established accountability for the educational performance of disadvantaged students.

NPRM: Notice of Proposed Rule Making

Notice of Proposed Rule Making. A formal notice that a federal agency proposes to publish new or amended regulations to enact a law (such as IDEA). The proposed regulations are issued in the Federal Register for public review and comment. The NPRM designation indicates that these are proposed regulations, out for public comment. Once finalized, regulations are published in the Federal Register as Final Rules and Regulations.

PASS: Plan for Achieving Self-Support

Plan for Achieving Self-Support. A part of the SSI statute that permits the exclusion of income and resources of individuals who are blind or disabled, if an individual needs such income/resources to fulfill an approved PASS. PASS allows income to be set aside in order to reach a goal toward independence, such as starting a business, going to school, or obtaining training for a job. PASS set-aside money does not reduce SSI benefits.

The Perkins Act: The Carl Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act

;

The Carl Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act. The purpose of this act is to develop more fully the academic, vocational, and technical skills of secondary and postsecondary students who choose to enroll in vocational and technical education programs. The act applies to the general population and to the following special populations: individuals with disabilities; individuals from economically disadvantaged families, including foster children; individuals preparing for nontraditional training and employment; single parents; single pregnant women; displaced homemakers; and individuals with limited English proficiency. ; This symbol means ;Section; as in ;;300.8 Child with a disability; as written in the IDEA regulations.

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. A civil rights statute designed to eliminate discrimination on the basis of disability in any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. Some individuals who do not qualify for services under IDEA may receive services and/or accommodations under Section 504.

TWWIIA: Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act.

Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act. Landmark legislation enabling individuals with disabilities to become employed without losing Medicare or Medicaid coverage provided to those who are unemployed and receiving Social Security Disability Insurance and/or Supplemental Security Income. This act allows individuals to buy into these coverages when they stop receiving disability benefits upon gainful employment. Other provisions of the act give individuals the ability to obtain vocational rehabilitation and/or other support services.

In 1999-2000, approximately ______ of students with disabilities received a majority of their education in general education settings.;;;
47%

____________ is the term for placing students in general education settings when they can meet traditional academic expectations with minimal supports.;;;

Mainstreaming

___________ is the philosophy or belief that all students with disabilities should be educated in general education regardless of their ability to meet academic expectations.;;;

Inclusive practices

By the _____________, many school districts provided special education classes for students with disabilities.;;;

1950’s

The federal civil rights law based on and extending the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is _______________________.

Americans with Disabilities Act

The law that was based on established civil rights laws and mandated the concept of least restrictive environment was ________.

Education for the Handicapped Act, P.L. 94-142

P.L. 99-457 extended special education law to children from birth to 5 years of age and required that each young child with disabilities must have an ______________.

Individual Family Service Plan

The two new categories of disabilities added in the reauthorization of I.D.E.A. in 1990 are ___________________________.

Traumatic brain injury and autism

An important change to I.D.E.A.-’97 required that students with disabilities be __________________.

Included in state and local standardized assessments.

I.D.E.A.-’04 requires that students must have a plan for transition services included in their IEP at age _________.

14

I.D.E.A.-’97 requires that paraprofessionals must be ___________.

Trained and supervised.

Those students with a disability that causes dysfunctions in processing information, but have average to above-average intelligence, are _____________________.

Learning disabled

Those students with a disability that causes extraordinary difficulties in communicating with others have ________________.;;;

Speech and language impairments

Those students with ______________________ have significant limitations in intellectual ability and adaptive behaviors.

Mental retardation

Students with ___________________ usually lack appropriate social responsiveness, avoid eye contact, and have problems with social interactions.;;;

Autism

Court’s decision with the proper Case title:

Services needed to ensure child’s ability to attend school should be provided at school district expense?

Cedar Rapids Community School v. Garret F.

Court’s decision with the proper Case title:

Established the two factors that must be satisfied in determining the appropriate placement for a student with disability.

Daniel R.R. v. State Board of Education

Match the Court’s decision with the proper Case title:

Schools may not exclude students with mental retardation.

Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

Match the Court’s decision with the proper Case title:

School segregation denies some students equal educational opportunity.

Brown v. Board of Education

Match the Court’s decision with the proper Case title:

Court held the general education teacher responsible for making accommodations for a student with disabilities.

Doe v. Withers

The professional who meets with you regularly to monitor student progress and address your concerns but does not teach students directly is the ________________.

Consulting teacher

The professional who divides time between directly instructing students and working with teachers is the _________________.

Resource teacher

The professional who might work with students who have severe disabilities to learn skills for feeding and dressing themselves is the ____________.

Occupational therapist

The professional who might assess students’ motor needs and work with teachers, physical educators, or directly with students is the ______________________.

Adaptive physical educator

Which of these persons is NOT legally required to be on the prereferral assistance team?

Parent

A special education teacher or other professional may carry out sample lessons with the student, teaching skills using different teaching methods and trying various rewards. This is known as ______________.

Diagnostic teaching

During the assessment process, parents do NOT have the right to ______________________.

Be present during the assessment procedures

A student’s progress toward meeting his individual IEP goals must be reviewed ____________.;;;

Every year

Information about the student’s academic achievement, social skills, behavior, communication skills, and other areas of concern must be included on an IEP. These are included in the _______.   

Present levels of functioning

The multidisciplinary team’s estimate of what a student should be able to accomplish each year is known as the ____________?

Annual goals

A mandated safeguard that prevents students from remaining in services or placements that may no longer be appropriate for them is the _____________.;;;

Three-year reevaluation

A set of procedures outlined in the law for resolving disagreements between school district personnel and parents regarding their child with disabilities allows ________________.

Parents to use their due process rights

___________ refers to the specially designed instructional services students receive.;;;

Special education

Educational and related services can be provided for students during school breaks and summer vacations under the provision known as the ____________.;;;

Extended school year program

A student’s need for assistance with personal care or to ride a special bus equipped with a lift are called _____________.

Related services

Match the job description to the proper job title:

Divides her time between directly teaching students and working with teachers.

Resource teacher

Match the job description to the proper job title:

Monitors student progress and addresses the teacher’s concerns about students, but does not teach students.

Consulting teacher

Match the job description to the proper job title:

Assesses students’ motor needs and work with teachers, physical educators, and others, or works directly with students.

Adaptive physical educator

Match the job description to the proper job title:

Assesses students’ needs and provide interventions related to gross motor skills.

Physical therapist

Match the job description to the proper job title:

Assesses students’ use of their hands and fingers and provides interventions for improving fine motor skills.

Occupational therapist

Match the job description to the proper job title:

Assists teachers and students to address social and emotional issues.

Social worker

Match the job description to the proper job title:

Assesses a student’s cognitive, academic, social, emotional, and behavior functioning.

Psychologist

The seventh grade team is meeting to plan a unit about the rain forest. Ms. Jones wants to teach the flora and fauna while Mr. Green and Ms. Garcia want to teach the geographic features. What characteristic of collaboration is missing?

Shared goal

Mr. Haley and Ms. Band collaboratively planned a mathematics unit involving a number of complex lessons. During the lesson taught by Ms. Band, the students lose interest and one student becomes disruptive. When the team discusses this lesson later in the day, what characteristic of collaboration must be present?

Shared accountability for outcomes

The activities of (a) identifying a problem, (b) proposing a solution, and (c) evaluating the idea take place when persons are involved in _________________.

Shared problem solving

Which of these is NOT a tip for successful co-teaching?

  • Inform parents of your plans.
  • Move slowly to the complex teaching styles.
  • When disagreements occur, take them to the department chairman.
  • Attend to details

When disagreements occur, take them to the department chairman.

Ms. Boyer wants to give some advice to Ms. Johnson who is not working well on the team, it is best for Ms. Boyer to ________________.

  • Wait until Ms. Johnson requests her help or advice.
  • Wait for a time when Ms. Johnson is in a happy mood.
  • Wait until the advice is needed to complete a specific task.
  • ;Wait until Ms. Johnson makes a mistake so that she may offer the correct answer.

;

Wait until Ms. Johnson requests her help or advice.

Ms. Greenfield, Ms. Cain, and Mr. Brady meet as a formal work group. They have clear goals, are active and committed members, and practice to achieve results because they are __________.

Teaming

When Ms Schaffler and Ms. Settlemyre plan collaboratively and share instruction for a single group of students, they are ___________.

Co-teaching

Ms. George is the school nurse. Today she will meet with Ms. Settlemyre, the special education teacher, to discuss the routine for a new student with diabetes. This is an example of ________.

Consulting
Today when Mr. Lee spoke to you about his son, he said: “Chan is just like my other sons. He loves baseball and silly jokes, hates carrots, and gets into trouble if he is unsupervised for too long. He has a wonderful smile and is very friendly—he is my son.” Mr. Lee’s reaction to his son’s disability is termed as _____________.
Optimism

Ms. Stephens, your paraprofessional, tends to hover over Billy at lunch and recess. She is concerned that he will be hurt in the crush of children in lines and running around the playground. What should you do?

  • Give her clear, alternative directions for her role in the lunchroom and on the playground.
  • Take the problem to your department chairperson.
  • Take over her duties during these times, telling her to take a break.
  • Assign another paraprofessional to these duties.

;

Give her clear, alternative directions for her role in the lunchroom and on the playground.

The business of a team is accomplished when they meet their ________________.

Task goals

The status and functioning of a team are accomplished when they meet their ________________.

Maintenance goals

Which team member is fulfilling a professional role?

  • Suzanne Brown takes notes and reminds the group of decisions from the last meeting.
  • Karen Capps has strong opinions about curriculum development and reminds the team of those opinions frequently.
  • Helen Jones always brings cookies or muffins to team meetings.
  • Bill Allen makes sure the chairs are arranged around the table.

Suzanne Brown takes notes and reminds the group of decisions from the last meeting.

Which team member is fulfilling a personal role?

  • Karen Capps has made coffee and brought donuts for the team.
  • Suzanne Brown takes notes and reminds the group of decisions from the last meeting.
  • Mary Putnam has arranged for a speaker to explain an issue for the team.
  • John Moore makes sure that the chairs are arranged around the table, each person has a pad/pencil, and the room temperature is comfortable.

Karen Capps has made coffee and brought donuts for the team.

Which of the following would NOT be an appropriate task for a paraprofessional?

  • Listen to children read or read to children.
  • Teach a small group about a new math skills
  • Supervise children during playtime.

Supervise children during playtime.

A style professionals choose to accomplish a goal they share. ;;;

Collaboration

A specialized process in which one professional, who has particular expertise, assists another professional or parent.

Consultation;

When two or more teachers share the instructional responsibilities for a single group of students.

Co-teaching

The basis for many activities between teachers when working to find solutions for students with special needs.

Shared problem solving

When formal work groups have clear goals, active and committed members, and practice to achieve their results and keep personal issues out of the work.

Teaming;

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