SPED 3300

Rational as to why we use person 1st language.
-Disability does not define a person
-Gives those with disabilities choices
-emphasis on abilities, not disabilities
Section 504
Rehabilitation Act of 1973
-Guarantees basic civil rights to all people with disabilities
-Requires the provision of accommodations
PL 94-142
Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA)
-Guarantees FAPE in the LRE
-Requires each student to have an IEP
PL 99-457
EHA (reauthorized)
-Adds provisions of services to infants and toddlers
-Requires an IFSPs
PL 101-476
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
-Changed the name of law retroactively
-Adds transition plans
-Adds autism as special education category
-Added traumatic brain injury to category
PL 101-336
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
-Bars discrimination in employment, transportation, public accommodations and telecommunications
-Implements principles of normalization
-Requires phased-in accessibility of school buildings
-Insists on the removal of barriers inhibiting access and participation in society
PL 105-17
IDEA ’97 (reauthorized)
-Adds ADHD to the “other health impairments” category
-Adds functional behavioral assessments and behavior intervention plans
-Altered transition plans to become an IEP component
PL 107-110
NCLB (reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act [ESEA])
-Implemented a high-stakes accountability system based on student achievement
-Requires use of data-based practices and instruction
-Insists o highly qualified teachers
PL 108-364
Assistive Technology Act of 2004 (ATA) (reauthorized)
-Supports schools-to-work transition projects
-Continues a national Web site on assistive technology
-Assists states in creating and supporting device loan programs, financial loans
PL 108-446
IDEA ’04 (reathorized)
-Requires special education teachers to be highly qualified
-Requires that all students with disabilities participate annually in either state and district testing with accommodations or in alternative assessments
-Eliminates IEP short-term objectives and benchmarks, except for those who use alternative assessments
-Changes identification procedures for learning disabilities
-Allows any student to to placed in a interim alternative educational setting for weapons, drugs, or violence
PL 110-235
Americans with Disabilities Amendment Act of 2000
-Broadens definition of disability
-Provides that impairments or conditions that could limit a major life activity but are in remission still be considered disabilities
6 Main Components of PL 94-142
FAPE, LRE, IEP, Parental Participation, Non-Discriminatory evaluation, Due Process
Subsequent Reauthorizations of PL 94-142
1987, 1990, 1997, and 2004
A free appropriate public education. No child can be rejected from a school.
The least restrictive environment is the education environment that best meets the child’s needs.
The individual education plan is an educational roadmap for the child. It identifies there needs, services, and supports.
Parental Participation
Parents are equal partners in the special education process.
Non-discriminatory evaluation
An evaluation as free of bias as possible.
Due Process
The system of checks and balances in special education. Anyone can file.
14 Special Education Categories
Autism, Deaf-Blindness, Deafness, Emotional Disturbance, Hearing Impairment, Mental Retardation, Multiple Disabilities, Orthopedic Impairment, Other Health Impairment, Specific Learning Disability, Speech or Language Impairment, Traumatic Brain Injury, Visual Impairment Including Blindness, Developmental Delay
Array of services
Pull-in programming, co-teaching, consultation/collaborative teaching, itinerant or consultative services, resource room, special education class(2), special education schools
Pull-in Programming (full inclusion)
All special education and related services are brought to the student in the general education classroom setting.
General education and special education teachers teach together in the same classroom for the entire school day. Students may be “pulled out” for related services.
Consultation/collaborative teaching
General education and special education teachers work together to met the needs of students with special needs. Students are seldom removed from the general education class.
Itinerant or consultative services
The teacher and/or student receives assistance from a specialist who may serve many students at many schools.
Resource Room (pullout programming)
Student attends a regular class most of the day but goes to a special education class several hours per day or for blocks of time each week.
Special education class (partially self-contained)
Student attends a special class but is integrated into regular education classes for a considerable amount of time each day.
Special education class (self-contained)
Student attends a special class most of the school day and is included in regular education activities minimally.
Special Education schools (center schools)
Center schools-some private, others supported by the state-typically serve only students with a specific category of disability. Some offer residential services; others do not.
Related Services Types
Adaptive physical education, assistive technology, audiology, counseling services, diagnostic and evaluation services, occupational therapy, orientation and mobility training, physical therapy, school health services, social work, speech/language therapy, transportation.
Adaptive physical education (therapeutic recreation)
Assesses leisure function, provides therapeutic recreation and leisure education
Assistive Technology
Assists with selection, acquisition, or use of any item, piece of equipment, or product system used to enhance functional capabilities
Audiology services
Identifies and diagnoses hearing loss; determines proper amplification and fitting of hearing aids and other listening devices
Counseling services/rehabilitative counseling
Provides psychological and guidance services, including career development and parent counseling, develops positive behavior intervention strategies
Diagnostic and evaluation services
identifies disabilities
Occupational therapy
Improves, develops, or restores the ability to perform tasks or function independently
Orientation and mobility training
Enables students whop are blind or have low vision to move safely and independently at school and in the community
Physical Therapy
Works to improve individuals motor functioning, movement, and fitness
Social health services
Provides health services designed to enable a student with a disability to participate in FAPE
Social Work
Mobilizes school and community resources and works in partnership with family members to resolve problems in a child’s living situation that affect school adjustment
Speech/language therapy
Provides services for the prevention and treatment of communicative disorders
Assists with travel to, from, between, and within school buildings, typically using specialized equipment
7 steps to the IEP
Prereferral, referral, identification, eligibility, development of the IEP, Implementation of the IEP, Program evaluation/annual review
First step in the IEP process that begins to determine a student’s eligibility for special education services
Learning more about the student’s problem
Testing and monitoring progress to be sure a disability exists
Determining whether the student qualifies for an individualized education
Development of the IEP
Specifying an individualized program
Implementation of the IEP
Delivering services
Evaluation and Reviews
Continuing the cycle
IEP Teams
Multidisciplinary teams that guide individualized special education services for each student with a disability
Prevention of overrepresentation
-improving access to health care
-guaranteeing universal vaccinations against disease
-ensuring safe living environments
Bias in Identification
-opportunities for unfair evaluations are created when an individual untrained in multicultural and bilingual techniques gives test
-content on test assumes specific knowledge
-diverse groups are not always represented in the standardization population
Nondiscriminatory testing
assessment that accounts for cultural and linguistic diversity
Multiple intelligences
Multidimensional approach to intelligence; allowing those exceptional in any one of eight areas to be identified as gifted
Federal Intent of PL 94-142
Children dropping out of school, against civil rights, prevention and financing

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