SPED 2000 test 1

the inability to do something or diminished capacity to perform in a specific way. Is an impairment such as blindness
A disadvantage imposed on on individual.
“exceptional student”
Those who require special education or related services to realize their fullest human potential
“special education”
specially designed instruction that meets the unique needs of exceptional learners
1/10. Pre-school- 21years. Majority between 6-17. Nearly 75% are now served primarily in the general education classroom
Prevalence of student eligible for special education
Things to do before you refer a student
1: how and how much the student differs from the average student
2: what resources are available in the school/ community
5 individuals in the history section
Itard, Gallaudet, Se’guin, Elizabeth Farrell, and Howe
wild boy of Avyron; Victor. Dramatically improved behavior through patient, systematic, procedures
Minister. Visited Europe to learn to work with the deaf. Founded a residential school for the Deaf in Hartford, CT
Student of Itard. came to U.S. Believed that “idiotic” students could learn.
Physician and educator. Champion of humanitarian causes and emancipation. Helped found the Perkins Institute for the Blind.
Elizabeth Farrell
in 1922 stared the Council for Exceptional Children. Remains the primary organization for Special Educators.
Parent organizations
should serve 3 essential functions:
1: provide information tho help parents cope
2: provide information regading services and resources
3: provide structure for providing these services
pg. 94-142
1: identification
2: Free appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
3: Due Process
4: Parent/ Guardian/ Surrogate consultation
5: Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
6: Individual Education Program (IEP)
7: Nondiscriminatory Evaluation
8: confidentiality
9: Personnel Development Inservice
PL 94-142
Education For All Handicapped Children Act (1975). became the IDEA in 1990.
Americans with Disabilities Act (1990. Deals with all other aspects besides education.
What an IEP does for students
IEP provides accomodations for students
1: Present Level of Performance
2: Measurable Goals
3: Current Assessment Status and progress reporting procedures
4: Appropriate Modifications/ Accommodations
Correct order for an IEP/ placement meeting
1: Written evaluation (psychological, physical, speech, etc.)
2: Identification (eligibility report)
3: IEP (Developed and accepted)
4: Placement
“philosophy that we should use means which are as culturally normative as possible, to establish and/ or maintain personal behaviors and characteristics which are as culturally normative as possible”
Self- determination
ability to make personal choices, regulate one’s own life, and be a self- advocate. Learned skill
Least restrictive environment
students placed with non-disabled students as much as possible and included in the mainstream of society
FAPE: Free Appropriate Public Education
School systems may no longer deny access to general education classes based on “lack of services”
Arguments for Full inclusion
1: Labeling is harmful
2: special Education “pull-out” model has been ineffective
3: People with disabilities should be viewed as a minority group
4: Ethics are more important than empirical data
Arguments against Full inclusion
1: one set of labels will give way to another
2: Labels can help professionals communicate
3: Labels can help spotlight special needs of individuals
4: Use of interventions automatically applies a label
5: children put on levels

1: General Ed., Sp. Ed., and parents are satisfied with continuum of services
2: General ed. is unalbe to cope with all students with disabilities in the most efficient way
3: “minority” issue is flawed
4: Full inclusion proponents refuse to consider empirical evidence
5: Empirical evidence does not support full inclusion
6: With no data to support full inclusion special education must preserve “continuum of placement”
7: Minority: being a member does not interfere with your ability to learn

Definition of Pyramid of Intervention
Georgia Pyramid of intervention
T1: Standared based classroom learning
T2: need based
T3: Intensive program more than 6 weeks no more than 12
T4: Tested and placed in special education
Purpose of SST (Student Support Team/ Preferetial Team)
provides a place to discuss student concerns in a supportive open environment. The members of the SST share a common mission to strengthen and support students who are having difficulty in the school environment
Collaborative/ Co-teaching
1: Volume or participation
2: shared goals
3: shared accountability
4: shared decision making, trust, and respect
5: shared resources
6: shared responsibility
7: parity of contribution
How students with special needs progress is assessed
Progress Monitoring: quick/ easy measures administered frequently at regular intervals. Evaluates instructional practices to determin if they are appropriate for individual students
Outcome Measures: standard measures administered in group settings. Compare student’s performance with other students
Testing Accommodations
Why early intervention is important
Children are:
1: less likely to be assigned to Sp. Ed. classes or held back
2: more likely to have a positive attitude
3: more likely to graduate
4: less likely to be arrested
5: Less likely to experience teen pregnancy
6: more likely to get jobs after leaving school
RTI response to Intervention (3 lvls)/ Pyramid of Intervention (4 lvls)
Georgia Pyramid of intervention
T1: Standared based classroom learning
T2: need based
T3: Intensive program more than 6 weeks no more than 12
T4: Tested and placed in special education
Difference between accommodation and (adaptation/ modification)
Accommodations: changes in instruction, student response, types of assessment, extended time
Adaptations: changes in curricular content o r conceptual difficulty of changes in objectives
Modification: more significant changes of instruction and accommodations
Flaw in “minority” issue (Full inclusion use it to imply it’s not a disability it’s because they are a minority) Minority has nothing to do with your ability to learn.
classify handicapped as a minority
FBA Functional Behavior Assessment and BIP
educators attempt to determine and alter the factors that account for the student’s misconduct

positive reinforcement

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Goal of Special Education
The goal of special education is to provide an instructional program that will minimize student disability and maximize learning opportunities. The purpose of the program is to provide individualized instruction to meet the needs of eligible students ages 3 through 21 and to develop academic social/emotional and vocational skills
Percentage of school age population in special education
about 10%
INDIVIDUAL Family Service Plan
Like IEP with family included. Services accessable to child and family.
Criticism of deinstitutionalization
Lead to homeless and inclusion. Just placing someone somewhere is not enough. Family raised disabled. Closure of institutions that led to many problems.
Least restrictive environment
focus on integration but also allows for separation when it is in the best educational interests of the student

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