SG-Curriculum 5&6

 

 

 

The Instructional Planning Cycle

Phase 1

a.Review curriculum plans

      b. State and select objectives

    c. Organize content by time

Phase 2

a. Assess student ability

                 b. Determines relevance to student

               c. Reform objectives if necessary

Phase 3

a.Consider possible methods

   b. Review existing knowledge

Phase 4

               a. Implement instructional strategies

           b.Make corrections as appropriate

Phase 5

a. Select assessment devices

               b. collect evidence of student growth

Phase 6

a. Judge success of strategies

  b. makes planning adjustments

       c. Match outcome to expectations

Six – Step cycle of Instruction Delivery

1. Determine teaching tasks

                2. Match objectives to student abilities

         3. Design the instructional process

         4. Deliver the planned curriculum

                5. Use feedback to analyze curriculum and instruction

      6. Adjust instructional delivery

Comparative Analysis
A thought Process, structured by teacher, that employs the description,classification,and analysis of more than one system,group, or the like in order to ascertain and evaluate similarities and differences
Conference
A one-to-one interaction between teacher and learner in which the learner’s needs and problems can be dealt with. Diagnosis,evaluation.and prescription may all be involved.
Demonstration
An activity in which the teacher or another person uses examples,experiments, or other actual performance,or a combination of these to illustrate a principle or show others how to do something(model)
Diagnosis
The continuous determination of the nature of learning difficulties and deficiencies, used in teaching as a basis for the selection, day by day or movement by movement,of appropriate content and methods of instruction
Direct Observation
Guided observation provided for the purpose of improving the study,understanding ,and evaluation of that which is observed
Discussion
An activity in which pupils, under teacher or pupil direction,or both,exchange points of view concerning a topic,question, or problem to arrive at a decision or conclusion
Drill
An orderly, repetitive learning activity intended to help develop or fix a specific skill or aspect of knowledge
Experimentation
An activity involving a planned procedure accompanied by either control of conditions or a controlled variation of conditions, or both, together with observation of results for the purpose of discovering relationships and evaluating the reasonableness of a specific hypothesis
Field experience
Educational work experience, sometimes fully paid,acquired by pupils in a practical service situation.
Field Trip
An educational trip to places where pupils can study the content of instruction directly in its functional setting, for example, factory, newspaper office, or fire department.
Two levels of planning
Preparation and Delivery

Preparation;and

Delivery of; a lesson

Decisions about classroom variables.

Physical environment – ( formal or informal)

Furniture arrangement (communication or lecture style)

Walls ( stimulating or unfocused and bland)

Instructional materials ( available or retrieved); Consider instructional time (pacing)

Classroom Management and Discipline

Resources and Media

Example of simplified classroom standards

A secure learning environment

A personal and caring program of studies

A developmentally appropriate delivery by the teacher

A use of the best tools, research, and methods

A program focusing on high academic standards

Modern Instructional Theory

Students naturally engage in making sense out of their worlds.

Students lack experience but not reasoning ability.

Teachers understand patterns not noticed by novice learners.

Teachers demonstrate the context of knowledge application.

Technology can help students visualize and understand.

Technology can access an array of information.

Behavioral Learning Theory

Sees classroom from an external standpoint.

assumes learning occurs because of something the teacher does to the student.

Student is neutral until activated by teacher.

Dteacher controlled.

irect instruction ot mastery learning:Teacher delivers specfic structures and predetermined(standard based) lessons without accommodating student needs or differences.

;

Developmental Learning Theory

Focuses instruction on the needs and developmental stages of growth in the student.

teacher presents a predetermined and structured curriculum but adjusts the curriculum to meet student needs.

Student motivation is high.

Perceptual Learning Theory

Students are the keys to learning.

Teacher deliver

Students filter the input through prior knowledge to get meaning.

Classroom climate important

teacher is a guide on the side.

2010 Elementary Curriculum includes:

Implementation of national standard in reading ,writing, and mathematics.

Use of performance- based assessments with rubrics

Competency – based instruction

Academic skills placement tests.

State standards and frameworks along with the assessment items and benchmark tests.

Portifolio assessment systems

Alignment of the curriculum through a deliberate approach designed to teach essential learning skills in a systematic and sequential manner.

Readability Formulas

1. Flesch reading Ease Score; – checking word length and sentences length

2. Wheeler and smith Index Number -; Involves determining sentence length and number of polysyllabic words

3. Cloze Technique – compares twp pieces of material: measure redundancy.

4.Lorge grade -Placement Score Uses averages sentence length in words,number of difficult words per 100 words,number of prepositional phrases per 100 words

5. Fry Graph -; Average number of syllables per 100 words andd average number of sentences per 100 words in three randomly selected 100 -word samples

6. SMOG Grading Plan – counting repetition of polysyllabic words.

7. Spache Grade Level Score – average sentence length and number of words outside the Dale list

Inclusion
Involves keeping special education students in regular education classrooms and taking support services to the child rather than bringing the child to support services.
Integrated Instructional Systems (IIS)
Instructional systems that are replacing older computer -assisted instruction (CAI) systems.
Cooperative Learning
Two or more students working together on a learning task.

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