Science Unit E: Space Exploration

Ancient Views of the Cosmos
Myths, folklore, and legends were used to explain what people observed in the sky.
Solstice
The shortest and longest periods of daylight.
Summer Soltice

the longest period of daylight.

(N hemisphere – June. 21)

Winter Solstice

the shortest period of daylight.

(N hemisphere – Dec. 21)

Equinox
The periods of equal day and night.
Autumnal Equinox

in the fall

(N hemisphere – Sept. 22)

Vernal Equinox

in the spring.

(N hemisphere – Mar. 21)

Geocentric Model

-discover by Aristotle

-earth was the center of universe

Heliocentric Model

-discovered by Copernicus

-sun was the center of the universe.

Ellipses
-Kepler discovered that the orbits of the planets were _____ and added it to Copernicus model.
Merkhet

-device developed by Ancient Egyptians

-invented to chart astronomical position and predict the movement of stars.

Quadrant

-also invented by the Ancient Egyptians.

-to measure the star’s height above the horizon.

Cross – staff

-was invented in the 14th century (Levi ben Gurson)

-to measure the angle between the Moon and any given star.

Early Telescope

-was invented in the late 16th century

-revealed details about the Earth’s closest planetary neighbours, and showed the existence of the other neighbours in our solar system.

Astronomical Unit (AU)

-used for measuring “local” distances, inside our solar system.

-AU is ewual to the average distance of distance from the centre of the Earth to the centre of the Sun (149 599 000 km).

Light – years

-it equals the distance that light travels in one year.

-used to measure the distances between stars and galaxies.

Looking in the Past

-when you look into space at an object yuou are seeing it as it was at an earlier time.

-it takes time for the light from the object to travel to Earth across the great distance in space.

Stars
a hot glowing ball of gas (mainly H) that gives off light E.

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