School Age Child Care

What are Piaget`s 4 stages of development?
1. Sensiormotor 0-2

2. Pre-operational 2-7

3. Concrete Operation 7-11

4. Formal Operations 11-15

Name 5 forms of child care programs.
Latch Key
Family Care
21st Century
School District
Community Centers
What makes a quality child care program?
Enough staff, back round checks are done, training, education, environment, routine based, and activities.
Staff requirements for teacher`s assistants?
18 with high school diploma
Staff requirements for teacher?
21 years old with training hours (CPR, 1st Aid, Comm. Disease)
Staff ratio for 5-11 year olds?
1 teacher to 18 children
Staff ratio for 11-14 year olds?
1 teacher to 20 children
What is an inspection process?
and evaluation of employees
Sigmund Frued`s 3 parts of the human psyche are?
ID, Ego, and Superego
the source of pleasure seeking drives?
Id
The rational aspect of personality is called?
Ego
The part of personality that controls behavior through the development of conscience is called?
Superego
Frued`s Delineated 5 stages of development are?
1. Oral Period (Birth to 1) Awareness through mouth
2. Anal Period (1 to 3)Awareness of anus
3. Phallic Period (3 to 6) Awareness of genital area
4. Latency Period (7 to 11) quiet feelings
5. Adolescence (12 and up) Sexual urges cause struggle to satisfy urges in socially acceptable and safe ways
How might one implement Frued`s Psychoanalytic Theory in the classroom?
Provide guidance and support so that conflicts can be resolved in ways that enhance a child`s self-image.

Include families in decisions regarding problem behaviors.

Provide opportunities for children to acquire and practice social skills.

Who developed stages of development that encompass the entire life span with each stage characterized by a challenge or developmental crisis?
Erik Erikson
What are Erikson`s first 5 stages of overcoming developmental crisis?
1. Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth to 1)basic needs are being met
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1 to 3)gaining control over bodily functions
3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6)being competent in tasks and activities
4. Industry vs. Inferiority (7-11)mastering skills at school, home, and playground
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence and up)search for identity
Kohlberg`s 3 Stages of Moral Development are?
Preconventional Morality (Ages 4-10)
Conventional Morality (Ages 10-13)
Post-conventional Morality (Ages 13 and up)
Pre-Conventional Morality puts an emphasis on what 2 things?
Punishment and Rewards
What are the 2 stages in Pre-Conventional Morality?
1. Punishment and Obedience
2. Naive Egotistical
Conventional Morality emphasizes what?
Social Rules
Conventional Morality includes stages 3 & 4, what are they?
3. Interpersonal Concordance
4. Law and Order
Post-conventional Morality puts an emphasis on what 2 things?
Moral Values and Principles
Stages 5 & 6 are in Post-conventional Morality, what are they?
5. Social Contract
6. Universal principles
a person of reflexes and senses is what stage in Piaget`s stages of development?
Sensorimotor (0-2)
thinks symbolically, learns words are symbols for objects, and experiments is what stage in Piaget`s stages of development?
Pre-Operational (2-7)
understands basic logic, masters reversibility and conservation, and still needs to have 1st hand experience is what stage in Piaget`s stages of development?
Concrete Operations (7-11)
 Understands without concrete examples, can hypothesize, can do things cognitively in their head, is what stage in Piaget`s stages of development?
Formal Operations (11-15)
How can Piaget`s Cognitive Theory be implemented in the classroom?
1. offer many different objects and experiences for exploration.
2. Plan age-stage appropriate activities
3. Provide play as an opportunity to learn
4. Experiences allow children to practice problem solving and decision making skills
5. expose children to ideas of others
This man believed in Classical Conditioning and that behavior can be shaped by controlling events children are exposed to and offering rewards for proper responses.
John Watson
Classical Conditioning?
Stimulus/Response
Believed children are a “blank slate”
John Locke
This man believed children are empty organisms that can be filled with carefully controlled experiences and defined Operant Conditioning.
B.F. Skinner

children play an active part by operating or acting on their environment and are reinforced for their behaviors.

*A system of positive and negative reinforces can be used to shape an individuals behavior. 

Operant conditioning
Believed children observe the behavior of others then pattern their own behavior after that. Defined modeling.
Alert Bandura
Providing an example of desired behavior for the child to imitate.
Modeling

What is growth?

Increase in size, function, or complexity up to some

point of optimal maturity

 

What is Development?

 

How individuals grow and change over a lifetime

 

What is Maturation?

Progression of changes that takes place as one ages

 

What is Learning?

Process by which evironmental influences and experiences bring about a permanent change in thinking, feeling, and behavior.
What is Nature vs. Nurture

 

?Nature:
programmed by genetic makeup
?Nurture:
the result of environmental conditions and experiences

What is Maturation vs. Learning

 

?Dichotomy of human influences
?Most behavior is a product of the interaction of maturation and learning

How do School-agers differ from

preschoolers in the following ways?

 

?Size ?Abilities
?Ways of processing information
?Interests ?Behavior
?Language ?Socialization

What does Physical Development of

School-Aged Children look like:

?Slower rates than preschool years
?No new growth spurt until near adolescents
?Typical growth is 5 lbs/year and 2.5 inches
?Girls and boys are about the same until age 9 when girls pull ahead in height and weight
?School-agers seem slimmer due to changing proportions
?Variations due to genetics and nutrition

A child’s size can impact their…

?Self-esteem
?Ability to fit in
?Sports
?Participation
?Discrimination

How does Obesity affect

School Age Children?

?Survey finds 1/3 of US kids overweight

?Implications of obesity
?Severe medical conditions ?Type II diabetes ?Sleep  apnea
?Joint problems in growing bones ?Hypertension and high cholesterol
?Chronic respiratory problems ?60-80% of obese children become overweight adults

What contributes to obesity:

?Heredity  ?Activity level   ?Overfeeding in infancy
?Sedentary activities
?i.e. television, computer, etc.
?Types of food consumed  ?Attitude towards food
?Specific/traumatic event  ?Physiological problems

What can you do to prevent obesity?

?Plan activities to promote and evaluate good health

?Plan programs that stress good nutrition
?Offer nutritious meals and snacks
?Model behavior
?Become informed about community health resources

What are the differences in motor skills of preschoolers vs. school-agers?

 

?Running
?Jumping
?Throwing
?Fine motor:
?Cutting
?Drawing
?Writing

How do you promote children’s cognitive development?

 

?Language skills
?2nd language development
?Model correct English
?Provide visuals ?Development a buddy system
?Provide a variety of reading materials
?Books, comics, magazines, papers, etc.

Curriculum
The plan of activities that accomplish the goals of the program
Academic approach
Results determined outcomes that can be measured, program helps child reach academic goals
Holistic approach
Curriculum evolves based on individual and group activities and interests
Emergent curriculum
A wide variety of activities available, children help plan
Age appropriate
Planned according to universal and predictable growth and changes
Individual appropriate
Allows for ages and stages at different rates and pace
Something to think about…
A quality school-age program should include what activities in its daily schedule?
A quality school-age program should include in its daily schedule:
Standard routines
Activities that meet children’s interests
Activities that foster competency
A balance of active and quiet activities
Multiple choices to meet all interests
Accommodate diversity and multiple age-groups
Important Functions of Planning
Ensures that short and long term goals are being met
Ensures a variety of activities and needed materials
Lessens the number of conflicts
Divides staff responsibilities
Keeps parents informed
Ensures developmentally appropriate practice
Components of Planning
Age appropriate and developmentally appropriate
Meets interests of children
Students ability to successfully complete activity
Number of participants
Intended outcome
Time frame required
Method of presentation
Evaluation of activity
How does it relate to other activities
Integrating Activities
Linking together activities based on a theme or a unit
Incorporate learning areas
Brainstorm theme ideas
Content standards
Sample Unit
Detective Theme
Arts and crafts
Cooking
Manipulative
Active
Field trip
Game
Science
Literacy
Selecting and Preserving Activities
Where do you get your ideas for activities?
Methods of preserving ideas
Curriculum Area: Games Benifits
Benefits
Fun
Change of pace
Cooperation
Fairness
Reinforce cognitive skills
Physical activity
Cultural appreciation
Curriculum Area: Games Downside
Competitiveness
Stress non-competitive activities
Reward effort
Improvement equals success

Multiple ages – different expectations and skill levels
Optimum equals age based groups
Provide balance

Curriculum Area: Games Safety
Rules for using equipment
Licensing standards met
Consider and eliminate potential hazards
Know procedures for accidents
First aid training/supplies available
Curriculum Area: Games Selecting and evaluating games
Number of primary players
Skills reinforced
Levels of participation
Safety factors
Elimination factor
Age appropriate
Level of fun
Curriculum Area: Games General Development
Grades K, 1, and 2
Large muscles fairly well developed
Small muscle coordination not well developed
Lots of energy, tire easily, recover quickly
Top-heavy
Grades 3 and 4
More skillful
Small muscle coordination better
Better balanced
Attention span longer
Works better in groups
More competitive
Grades 5 and 6
Highly coordinated
Good skill and success is important socially
Willing to practice
Group and game spirit is strong
Want to please their peers
Need rules
Sensitive to physical growth
What is the difference between arts and crafts?
Craft activities:
Product oriented
Engage cognitive skills and problem solving
Require specific materials and instruction
Art activities
Process oriented
Engage imagination and feelings
Basic supplies & open ended instruction
Curriculum Area: Arts and Crafts Benefits
Benefits
Fun – the joy of creativity and the satisfaction of mastery
Learning skills
Thinking, feeling, relating, coordinating
Discover special talents
Foster creativity – the act of making something new
Develop appreciation
Curriculum Area: Arts and Crafts Plans for success
Incorporate a balance of arts and crafts
Include music and performance activities
Have supplies and materials ready
Stress participation not perfection
Curriculum Area: Literacy Benefits
Benefits
Improves reading and writing skills
Increases vocabulary and communication skills
Promotes self-expression
Leads to lifelong enjoyment
Good readers are typically more successful in school
Curriculum Area: Science Benefits
Benefits
Satisfies curiosity
Abilities improve as cognitive thinking skills develop
Consider biological, physical, and Earth science
Curriculum Area: Science scientific skills
Scientific skills
Observation – fosters curiosity
Classification – sort objects by characteristics or size
Predicting – consider alternatives when answering questions about consequences of different actions
Measuring – chart or quantify results; facilitates classifying and comparing
Inferring – predict outcomes based on knowledge from past experience
Communicating – sharing information
Observations
What observations have you made about the behavior of the children in this age group?
How is their age or their gender related?
What have you noticed about how they interact with each other?
What is going on in the child care setting to help the students feel good about themselves?
What techniques or classroom management practices have you observed that you will emulate?
How important is getting along with others to the school age child?
Children who have good social skills tend to develop friendships, get better grades in school, and learn the skills to function more effectively as an adult.
Children who lack social skills do not develop friendships easily, tend to have difficulties in school, may become bullies, can exhibit passive or aggressive behavior and have emotional problems.
How can care givers help children develop positive behaviors?
Be aware of the Hidden Curriculum
Sharing, taking turns, communication, social skills, etc….
Know your students and understand their skills & abilities
Coach children to find effective ways of behaving and interacting with others
Teach children appropriated ways to react to situations
Encourage children to communicate their needs
Remind them to use their words
Provide them with the words
Help them understand their impact on others
Promote cooperative activities
Select activities that teach social skills and help children learn about friendship and respect.
Method of Problem Solving where each child will
Decide to resolve conflict
Tell the story using “I” messages and conveys their feelings
State what they need for resolution
Brainstorm for options to solve the problem
Evaluate the solution
What is Self Image?
Our perception of ourselves
The perceptions conveyed to us by others
How does Self Image effect behavior?
When children receive positive reactions they behave in ways to gain further approval
When children have negative perceptions or reactions about self they may use negative behavior to gain attention
How can caregivers promote positive self esteem and cooperation?
Developing a genuine interest and provide support to each student
Select activities that are at the child’s developmental level
Modeling behavior
Providing adequate space and supplies
Selecting activities that promote cooperation over competition or work toward a common goal
Reinforcing positive behavior
Based on Behaviorist theory and implies that behaviors followed by positive feedback will result in repeat of desired behavior
Provide rules and guidelines for behavior
Providing Rules and Guidelines for Behavior
Involve children in decision making and setting the rules for behavior
Encourage communication that helps change behavior
Establish consequences for actions
Types of Rules
Mandatory Rules
Rules that are not open for discussion or negotiation.
Non-negotiable
Discretionary Rules
Rules that are based on choosing one of a limited number of alternatives
Negotiable
Optional Rules
Rules that children can reasonably control themselves
Negotiable
Types of Consequences
Time Out
Removal from activity, generally to sit by oneself for a specific amount of time. Best when followed by a meaningful discussion.
Logical Consequence
Tool to help child learn from and change behavior
Behavior Contract
Agreement with child, parent, and center stating what specific behaviors are expected and listing specific consequence for actions.
What is Discipline?
…the sensible and firm guidelines that will lay the foundation for self control
How would you handle a Overly aggressive child
Exhibits anger and frustration. Often an instigator while claiming to be a victim. May have experienced many failures and feels powerless. May compensate by bullying others.
Can be helped by
Make sure they understand rules and consequences
Be consistent with consequences
Select activities they can complete successfully
Try to anticipated triggers and actions
Praise when praise is appropriate
HOw would you help a Overly quiet child
Often overlooked because they do not create problems. Will do what they are told but usually stays by themselves. Can appear anxious or depressed. May be shy or insecure about competency. May be afraid of rejection.
Can be helped by
Encouraging interests and plan activities which they can complete successfully
Make specific suggestions about things to say or do to enter into group activities
Encourage activities /role playing that practice communication skills
HOw you you help a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or other activities
Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities
Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli
Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat
Is often “on the go” or acts as if “driven by a motor”
Praise for appropriate behavior and successes
Post simple rules and review them often
Establish a routine schedule
Provide transition, warning about change with reminders and announcements
Reduce stimuli when giving directions
Get to their level. Make eye contact.
Develop system to organize belongings
Maintain good communication with parents
Plan physical activity
Make expectations explicit and give clear directions
Allow for escape valve, plan ahead of time
Help child become more self aware in a constructive way
Inclusion:
Refers to placing children with diagnosed disabilities in settings with same age peers
Typically Developing
Refers to children without disabilities
Accommodations:
Changes that are necessary when planning activities to include special needs children
Individualized Education Plan (IEP):
Sets of goals determined by a team of professionals and parents to reflect what the child should accomplish within a year’s time
How would you care for a child with special needs>
Develop a positive attitude
Learn about the child: interests, temperament, and how to work with the child
Establish a working relationship with the parents and be part of the team that supports the child
Address the accommodations that may need to be implemented
Be consistent and provide a structured routine
Respect confidentiality
A child with disabilities must be included in your program unless
The child’s condition poses a direct threat to the other children, or staff, and the direct threat cannot be eliminated through reasonable accommodations
The child’s condition would require architectural changes that cannot be readily achieved
The child’s requirement for special equipment or services would impose an undue burden or would fundamentally alter the nature of the program and there would be no reasonable alternatives
The child’s condition would require changes in policies, practices or procedures that would fundamentally alter the nature of the program

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