Schedules of Reinforcement

schedule of reinforcement
a rule that states under what conditions a reinforcer will be delivered
continuous reinforcement
each occurrence of a response produces a reinforcer
intermittent or partial reinforcement
some responses produce a reinforcer and others do not
schedule effects
the particular pattern and rate of performance produced by different schedules
4 basic types of schedules
ratio schedules, interval schedules, rate schedules, response independent schedules
fixed ratio schedule
a reinforcer is delivered following a constant number of responses. FR 20 – 20th, 40th, 60th, etc, would be reinforced
fixed ratio schedule effects
post reinforcement pause, followed by a high rate of response run, followed by reinforcement, followed again by a post reinforcement pause. repeating pattern
variable ratio schedule
reinforcer is delivered following a variable number of responses which average to a certain number. VR 5 – 2, 10, 14, 20, 25, etc. are reinforced.
variable ration schedule effects
high, steady rate of responding
fixed interval schedules
first response after a fixed period of time has elapsed is reinforced. FI 60 – first response after 60 seconds producess a reinforcer and then the clock resets for another 60 seconds
fixed interval schedule effects
post reinforcement pause, followed by a gradual increase in response rates as interval progresses, followed by reinforcement, process starts over. scallops.
variable interval schedules
first response after a variable period of time produces a reinforcer. VI 10 – first response after a 5s interval, a 15s interval and a 10 s interval
variable interval schedule effects
slow and steady response rate
thinning intermittent reinforcement
most commonly gradually increasing the response ratio or the duration of the time interval
ratio strain
result of abrupt increases in ratio requirements. characteristics include avoidance, aggression and unpredictable pauses in responding.
duration schedules
reinforcement is contingent of the continuous performance of behavior for a fixed period of time
progressive schedules of reinforcement
systematically thins each successive reinforcement opportunity independent of the participant’s behavior
compound schedules of reinforcement
combined elements of continuous reinforcement, the 4 intermittent schedules of reinforcement, differential reinforcement of various rates of responding and extinction.
concurrent schedule of reinforcement
occurs when two or more contingencies of reinforcement operate independently and simultaneously for two or more behaviors
The Matching Law
rate of responding typically is proportional to the rate of reinforcement received from each choice alternative.
matching law in concurrent interval schedules
participants typically do not allocate all of their responses exclusively to the richer schedule
matching law in concurrent ratio schedules
participants are sensitive to the ratio schedules and tend to maximize reinforcement by responding primarily to the ratio that produces the higher rate of reinforcement
multiple schedules of reinforcement
presents two or more basic schedules of reinforcement in alternating random sequence. A stimulus is correlated with each schedule and is present while that schedule is in effect
chained schedules of reinforcement
two or mroe basic schedules of reinforcement occuring in a specific order, behavior may be same for all elements or different behaviors may be required for different elements, conditioned reinforcement for first behavior in the chain is the presentation fo the second element and so on.
mixed schedule of reinforcement
same as multiple schedule, but no discriminative stimuli

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