Renaissance, New Monarchs, Exploration

Dictator like ruler. Ruled Italian city-states.
Sforza family
Ruled Milan
Why did the italian city states decline? (15th century)
They weren’t united, attacked by outside nations.
Who encouraged France to invade Italy and why?
Milan. Wanted balance of power.
Girolamo Savonorola
Unofficial leader of Florence 1494-1498. Tried to convince them France was great.
The Prince – Machiavelli
Told people to act decisively for the good of the state. Wanted to unite Italy. Human beings are selfish. Ends justify the means.
Revival of ancient Greek/Roman ideas. Believed in individualism (humans had potential)
Education in Renaissance
Secular. Emphasis on reason.
Civic Humanism
Serve the citizens. Education should prepare leaders.
Francesco Petrarch
Father of Humanism. Wrote in vernacular (local language). Thought Scholasticism is useless.
Giovanni Boccaccio
Wrote Decameron — A plague stricken Florence. Important b/c talked about plague, critical of human behavior (secual misconduct, economic misconduct)
Leonardo Bruni
Civic Humanist. First to use word humanism. 1st modern historian.
Lorenzo Valla
Father of Modern Historical Criticism. Challenged Church in “On the False Donation of Constantine” and “The Latin Vulgate”
Neo platonism
Plato expressed flattering view of human nature, ideas revived.
Pico de la Mirandola
Member of Platonic Academy. people had free will and potential for greatness.
Marsilio Ficino
Founded Platonic Academy.
“The Book of Courtier” Renaissance man
Paying money for support of something.
Why was Renaissance centered in Italy?
Lot of patronage for art.
Where in Italy was the center of the Renaissance?
Represented body in 3D. Glorified human body.
Raffaelo Sanzio (Rafael)
Painted Betrayal of the Virgin. Had famous scholars in it.
Pope Leo X
Medici, spent all the money, sold indulgences to compensate.
Christian Humanism
Improve society and reform the church.
In Praise of Folly —- Reform Church, not destroy it.
Sir Thomas More
Writes Utopia. About perfect society.
Francois Rabelais (not super important)
French writer, education key to moral life
English, uses ideas of ancient greece and rome.
Miguel de Cervantes
Don Quixote, earth realism with Religious idealism.
Northern Renaissance Art
late medieval attention to detail. Realistic. Intense landscapes. Emphasis on peasants.
Louis XI
Spider King. Fought w/ nobles. Gained power of church. Encouraged economic growth.
Francis I (Concordat of Bologna in 1516)
King had power to appoint bishops to Gallican Church.
Direct tax on land and property
War of the Roses
Yorks v Landcasters, Yorks win start Tudor dynasty
Henry VII
Started star chamber (secret police, etc)- wanted to limit power of nobility.
Ferdinand and Isabella
Marriage Unites spain.
Removed moors and jews from Spain.
Pope Sixtus IV
Authorizes inquisition.
Jews who pretended to convert to stay in spain.
Cardinal Jimenez
successfully got rid of abuse and opposition to the church in spain (1500)
Maximilian I
Gained territory for HRE in France from marriage, started hapsburg-valois war.
Charles V
Power HRE ruler, ruled at height of power.
Cause of Commercial Rev
Population Growth, States wanted economic power.
Hanseatic League
Association of German States controlled trade in north
Center of beginning of stock market.
Limited amount of wealth. Acquire gold and silver to be rich.
Lighter, faster, stronger, ship built by Spain.
Age of Exploration cause (3 g’s)
God Glory Gold
Prince Henry the Navigator
Rich supporter of Navigation.
Bartholomeus Diaz
Rounded tip of Africa first
Vasco de Gama
First to India all water route.
Amerigo Vespucci
Explored Brazil and Venezula for Portugal
Christopher Columbus
Sailed the ocean blue in 1492, founded America trying to get to India.
Bartolome de las Cases
wrote about mistreatment of Amerindians.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Split new world between spain and portugal
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Pacific Ocean founder
Ship first navigated world. He died.
Hernando Cortez
Wiped out Aztecs.
Francisco Pizarro
Captured Incans.
Jacques Cartier
Founded Quebec looking for Northern Passage

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