Ready for RICA study Chapter 3

Sound Matching (sound identity)
An ability to identify or provide words that have the same sound in the beginning, middle, or final position as a target word. To teach this the teacher provides a target sound (for example) /s/, and says “Find something in the box that starts with the /s/ sound.”
Sound Isolation
The student must identify which sound occurs in the beginning, middle, or end of a word. For example, the teacher would ask, “Which sound starts these words, tea, top, take?” This is the reverse of sound matching.
Sound Blending
The student must be able to manipulate individual sounds by combining them to form a word. In the simplest lesson to teach this, the teacher says sounds, pausing only briefly in between each sound. The children then guess the word.
Sound Substitution
Students should be able to substitute a sound everytime a target sound appears in a phrase, for example substituting cat for bat or ke, ko, ka for be, bo, ba.
Sound Deletion
The teacher says a word then removes a sound and asks students what the new word is.
Sound Segmentation
The teacher says a word and the student must identify each separate sounds in the word.
Alphabetic Principle
Speech sounds are represented by letters.
The Phonetic Alphabet
Phonetic alphabets are created by linguists so that each phoneme is always represented by the same phonemic symbol.
Graphemes
Are the english letter or letters that represent phonemes.
Vowels
Are sounds made when air leaving your lungs is vibrated in teh voice box and when there is a clear passage from the voice box to your mouth. It is always represented by a, e, i, o, and u.
Consonants
Are speech sounds that occur when the airflow is obstructed in some way by your mouth, teeth, or lips.
Onsets and Rimes
Occur in a single syllable. In a syllable it is the initial consonant sound or consonant blend; the rime is the vowel sound and any consonants that follow.
Phonograms
Rimes that have the same spelling.
Blends
Are combined sounds of 2 or 3 sounds
Digraphs
Are combinations of letters that make a unique sound that is unlike the sound made by any of the individual lettters within it such as the ph in phone and sh in share.
Dipthongs
Are glided sounds made by such vowel combinations as oi in oil and oy in boy.
Beginning, medial, and final
Refer to the location of phonemes
Books with Wordplay
These are books with texts that ryhme and/or feature alliteration and assonance.
How does one assess phonemic awareness?
One widely used test is the Yopp-Singer Test of Phonemic Segmentation. In this test, the teacher says 22 words. The child must provide each sound of the word in order.
What are the two modalitiesin which one teachers phonemic awareness?
Through implicit (ryhming games, songs and chants) and explicit (sound matching, sound isoluation) teaching.

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