READ 409- Phonics Pt. 1

The Roman alphabet has ____ letters to represent approximately ____ English sounds (phonemes). 
26, 44
phonics
the relationship among the letters of the alphabetic writing system and the sounds in spoken words, as well as an approach for teaching these relationships
phonics
makes it possible for beginning readers to learn new words through a process of changing the letter and sound relationships of unfamiliar written words into familiar spoken words
phonemic awareness
the understanding that words consist of sounds and the ability to act on this understanding 
There is a close relationship between _____, _____, and ____.
phonemic awareness, phonics, and success in learning to read
Phonics instruction is most effective when it is: (4)

1. done early, intensely, directly, and systematically 


2. combined with instruction in reading comprehension


3. taught throughout the day


4. integrated with ongoing classroom instruction in spelling

The language of any people is the ____ system by which the individuals communicate with one another. 
sound
The written language is merely a system of ____, a code, used to represent the spoken language.
symbols
One of the basic steps in the reading process is _____.
decoding
translating the codes into the sounds of the spoken language
decoding
the smallest unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another
phoneme
the symbol /b/ refers to the ____ represented by the key symbol b
phoneme
the slight variations in pronunciation
allophones
variant forms of a single phoneme
allophone
the written representation of the phoneme
grapheme
the unit in the written code
grapheme
a speech sound
phoneme
naturally occurring variations in the phonemes of the English language
allophones
phonemes that produce a puff of air 
aspirated
phonemes that do not produce a puff of air
unaspirated
never consists of a less than a letter, but it may consist of more than 1 letter
grapheme
We can consider the American-English language to contain 44 separate ____.
phonemes
the understanding that spoken language consists of words, syllables, rhymes, and phonemes
phonological awareness
the understanding that spoken words are composed of phonemes and the understanding that individual phonemes, when blended together, form meaningful words
phonemic awareness
the reader attaches 1 or more phonemes to a word or word part
phoneme addition
removing 1 or more phonemes from a word
phoneme deletion
the reader deletes 1 or more phonemes from a word (or word part) and replaces them with 1 or more different phonemes
phoneme substitution
consist of the 26 letters and combinations of these letters (graphemes), the 44 sounds (phonemes), and the system of relationships among the letters and the sounds (phonics)
graphophonic cues
readers use ___ cues to translate the written code into the sounds that form from the words of spoken language
graphophonic
a synonym for graphophonic
letter-sound
the manner in which words are ordered to form phrases, clauses, and sentences
syntax
readers who use _____ recognize the manner in which word order and grammatical function are clues to the identity of a word
syntactic clues
refers to the meaning of language; therefore, the meaning of a passage provides readers with ____ clues
semantic
In order to read, we must be able to ____, that is, to translate the written symbols into the correct speech sounds.
decode
The smallest unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another is called a ____. 
phoneme
For all practical purposes, the American-English language contains ____ phonemes. 
44
Phonemic awareness consists of the ability to ____ words into their individual phonemes and ____ individual phonemes together to form meaningful spoken words. 
segment, blend
Separating the word sat into its individual phonemes, /s/, /a/, /t/ is an example of ____. 
segmenting
Combining the three phonemes /s/ + /a/ + /t/ to produce the word sat is an example of _____. 
blending
A ____ is the written representation of a phoneme. 
grapheme
Clues within words that indicate which phoneme a letter represents are called _____ clues. 
graphophonics
The way that words are ordered and function in sentences provides ____ cues to word identification.
syntactic 
The meaning of a passage provides readers with ___ cues to the identities of words.
semantic

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