Quiz 1

Applied Linguistics
The relationship between linguistics and external factors such as communication, social identity, education, health, economics, community, politics, and justice.
Linguistics applied
The application of general linguistics to language learning and teaching.
TESOL
Teaching of English to Speakers of Other Languages
T/ESL
Teaching English as a Second Language (usually refers to classrooms in countries where English is the most commonly used language)
T/EFL
Teaching English as a Foreign Language (usually refers to classrooms in countries where English is NOT the most commonly used language)
TOEFL
Test Of English as a Foreign Language
EAL
English as an Additional Language
ELL
English Language Learner
EIL
English as an International Language
EAP
English for Academic Purposes
ESP
English for Specific Purposes
NES/NNES
Native English Speaker / Non-Native English Speaker
NEST/NNEST
Native English Speaking Teacher / Non-Native English Speaking Teacher
synchronic variation
variation in language at the same period of time (American English vs. Australian English)
diachronic variation
variation in language from two different periods of time (Modern English vs. Old English)
What are 5 questions that act as a diagnostic for distinguishing VARIATION vs ERROR?
How many people use the variation?
(demographic)

How widely dispersed is it? (geographical)

Who uses it? (authoritative)

Where is the usage sanctioned?
(codification)

What is the attitude of users and non-users to it? (acceptability)

What is pragmatics?
The study of how context affects meaning (or, how extra-linguistic factors and knowledge of social conventions allow us to interpret meanings).
BICS
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills – skills required for day-to-day communication (social situations)
CALP
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency – academic language skills required for subject area content material
Lexical Ambiguity
ambiguity that results from a word that can have more than one possible meanings

e.g. “I like this drill.”
(do we mean drill as in “practice” or as in “power tool”?)

Structural Ambiguity
ambiguity that results from a sentence whose structure can have more than one possible interpretation

e.g. “I looked at the man with binoculars.”
(Does it mean that the man had binoculars, or that I used binoculars to look at the man?)

Discourse Function
the purpose of an utterance (declarative, interrogative, imperative)
Declarative
statement (e.g. “I am going to school.”)
Interrogative
question (e.g. “Are you going to school?”)
Imperative
command (e.g. “Go to school!”)
Speech Act
an action that is performed just by saying it (e.g. “I apologize” or “I hereby sentence you to 10 years in prison”)
Adjacency Pair
an type of conversational turn-taking where one utterance provokes a certain type of response (e.g. (1) “See you tomorrow!” (2) “Okay, see you!”
IRF Sequence
Initiation-response-feedback sequence, which is a pattern of communication between a teacher and student. Teacher initiates communication, student responds, and teacher gives feedback.

e.g.
T: How is the weather today?
S: It’s cloudy.
T: That’s right, it is cloudy!

What are the four Gricean Maxims?
Relation, Quality, Quantity, Manner
Explain the Maxim of Relation.
Be relevant (bridging assumption)
Explain the Maxim of Quality.
Do not say what you believe to be false.

Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence.

Explain the Maxim of Quantity.
Make your contribution as informative as is required (for the current purposes of the exchange).

Do not make your contribution more informative than is required.

Explain the Maxim of Manner.
Avoid obscurity of expression.

Avoid ambiguity.

Be brief (avoid unnecessary prolixity).

Be orderly.

register
A variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting (e.g. academic, informal, workplace, etc.).
Field
the subject matter or topic – What is being talked about?
Tenor
the roles of the participants in an interaction – Who is participating and what is their relative status and power?
Mode
the channel of communication – How is the language delivered (speaking, writing, etc.)?
What are the six types of cohesion that we discussed in class?
lexis
cohesive nouns
reference
substitution
conjunction
ellipsis
Give an example of lexis cohesion.
The ART GALLERY was exhibiting all his PAINTINGS, but not the SCULPTURE or his early ETCHINGS.
Give an example of a cohesive noun.
The two cars collided on the flyover. However, nobody was hurt in the ACCIDENT.
Give an example of substitution cohesion.
I need to buy some new shoes and those blue ONES look lovely!
Give an example of reference cohesion.
My rooms is very dark and HERS is SIMILAR.
Give an example of conjunction cohesion.
The dog bit him, THEREFORE he needed medical attention immediately.
Give an example of ellipsis cohesion.
Here is the deck of cards, now take any four. (cards)
What is discourse?
language in context – language “beyond the sentence”

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