Pt Education

Reasons PTs educate
community
patients (dx, prevention, etc)
peers & healthcare professionals
Hx of pt ed: scientific method became prevalent
1900
Hx of pt ed: 85-90% of med grads specializing
1960
Hx of pt ed: Nixon mandates pt ed for pts & families
1970
Hx of pt ed: Am Hospital Assoc (AHAS) publishes Pt’s Bill of Rights
1973
Hx of pt ed: failure to provide informed consent = negligence
1974
Hx of pt ed: AMA makes pt ed ‘integral part of healthcare’
1975
Hx of pt ed: the JC makes pt ed an entitlement
1976
Principles driving pt ed rights (6)
autonomy (pt’s choice)
veracity (truth-telling)
confidentiality (HIPAA)
nonmaleficence (do no harm)
beneficence (do good)
justice
Hx of pt ed: APTA develops educational criteria
1978
Why Ed Tech class? We should know how to… (5)
how to best change our pts’ skills/beliefs
ID how our pt feels
educate pts, family, etc
use various learning styles
change behaviors (multi-culturally)
HOW do we educate? (4)
information (knowledge)
show & instruct
observe & correct
non-verbal, lifestyle
Characteristics of TEACHING (v. learning) (4)
facilitating learning
organizing info into easy chunks
provide practical application
communicate in easy terms
Characteristics of LEARNING (v. teaching) (2)
acquiring skills
putting knowledge into action
Pedagogy:
art and science of educating children
Andragogy:
art and science of educating adults
**Teaching Concepts (4)
knowledge
transformation
instruction
reflection & evaluation
Teaching Concept: Teach is an expert!
ways of acquiring knowledge: (5)
research
mentoring
con ed
medical journals
reading
Teaching Concept: Transformation
transform knowledge to students’ level (
suitable level of understanding
direct & clear
confirm relevance
understand
know your student
Teaching Concept: Instruction
how to: (3)
relate (pt hx, pt goals)
draw (info out of pt)
develop (POC)
Teaching Concept: Reflective Evaluation
metacognition; process of… (3)
reviewing
reconstructing
critically analyzing
Metacognition =
monitoring one’s own thinking/learning process
Learning Theories (3)
behavior ism
cognitivism
constructivism
Behaviorism – learning =
reacting to external stimuli
Cognitivism – learning =
acquiring & storing info
Constructivism – learning =
constructing subjective reality based on previous knowledge
Behaviorism – behavior =
explained without mental states/consciousness
Cognitivism – behavior =
a reflection of what’s in people’s minds
Constructivism – behavior =
result of testing personal hypotheses
Classical conditioning: founder
JB Watson
Operant conditioning: founder
BF Skinner
(EL Thorndike – puzzle box)
Behaviorism – classical conditioning: belief regarding the mind
no mind or consciousness
Behaviorism – operant conditioning: belief regarding the mind
mind exists, but we can’t study it; can only observe behaviors
Stages of Cognitive theory (4)
sensorimotor (birth – 2yo)
pre-operational (2-7yo)
concrete operational (7-11yo)
formal operational (adolescent-adult)
Cognitive theory – sensorimotor:
learn by interacting c environment; differentiating self from environment
Cognitive theory – preoperational:
no abstract thinking; concrete only
objects classified by important features
Cognitive theory – concrete operational:
beginning abstract thinking & conceptualization
create logical structures to explain experiences
Cognitive theory – formal operational:
deductive/hypothetical reasoning;
abstract thinking
Social cognitivism – aka…
classical modeling theory
Social cognitivism =
people learn by observing others’ behaviors
(interaction of person/behavior/environment)
Cognitive theory – R Gagne
“hierarchy of learning”

facts
concepts
principles
problem solving

Gagne’s hierarchy of learning: pyramid (bottom to top) (6)
knowledge (recall)
comprehension (understanding)
application (using knowledge in new situation)
analysis (critical thinking)
synthesis (creative thinking)
evaluation (judgment)
Constructivism – founder
John Dewey
Constructivism – learning = (3)
begins c problem
needs a context
is *experiential*
Constructivism – characteristics (4)
hands-on projects
problem solving
group work
service learning
Learning Theory v. Learning Style
Theory = what it means to learn
Style = the way we learn
Myers-Briggs: first letter
Introvert or Extrovert
describes how people interact c environment
Myers-Briggs: 2nd letter
Sensing or INtuition
how people gather information
Myers-Briggs: 3rd letter
Thinking or Feeling
how people make decisions using the info they’ve gathered
Myers-Briggs: 4th letter
Judging or Perceiving
how people deal with the outside world
Myers-Briggs: reliability
good reliability
Myers-Briggs: validity
questionable validity
Myers-Briggs: uses
counseling
career management
employment
Canfield Learning Styles Inventory
assesses learning preferences
30 items, 4 categories (conditions, modes, content, expectancy)
Canfield Learning Styles Inventory: reliability
high reliability
Canfield Learning Styles Inventory: validity
marginal validity
Kolb: defn of learning
“process by which knowledge is created through the
Transformation of Experience”

internal cognitive process
acquisition of abstract concepts

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Kolb’s Learning Styles (4)
diverging (feeling & watching)
assimilating (watching & thinking)
converging (doing & thinking)
accommodating (doing & feeling)
Learning Styles – general categories (3)
perceptual modality (adapting to data)
information processing (how we solve problems, remember info)
personality patterns (attention, emotion, values)
Memletics learning styles (Gardner – 9)
verbal-linguistic
musical
logical
spatial
kinesthetic
interpersonal
intrapersonal
naturalist
existential
Perceptual modalities (4)
visual
auditory
kinesthetic
tactile

(most people have dominant & auxiliary modalities)

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