Praxis PLT

cognitive process; existing schemata is restructured to fit child’s environment
Accretion Learning
the subconscious or subliminal process by which individuals learn important things like language, prejudices, habits, social rules and behaviors; individuals are totally unaware that learning is taking place; accounts for about 70% of what individuals know and comprehend
the conscious choice of how students want them to learn; involves self-instruction, experimenting, inquiry, exploring, and general curiosity; accounts for about 20% of what individuals learn
an attachment to the end or beginning of base words or roots; a generic term that describes word parts “fixed” to the base word
alphabetic principle
letters making a word have corresponding sounds, thus letters and sounds put together build words
the cognitive process where information from the environment is integrated into existing schemata to use and apply recently learned knowledge into one’s own thought pattern in solving problems
Authentic Assessment
used to examine students’ collective abilities via real-world challenges that requires them apply their relevant skills and knowledge
theory of animal and human learning that focuses on observable behaviors and ignores psychological activities
choral reading
two or more individuals reading aloud from the same text in unison to enhance oral reading fluency
classical conditioning
suggests that behavior is somewhat controlled by association and illustrated after a neutral stimulus accepts the eliciting properties of an unconditioned stimulus through the pairing of some unconditioned stimulus with the neutral stimulus
cognitive coaching
teaching students to use their own thinking processes to solve problems
theory developed by Edward Thorndike stating that learning is the result of associations forming between stimulus and response; these associations or ‘habits’ become strengthened or weakened by the nature and frequency of the stimulus/response pairings
cooperative learning
instructional approach that encourages students to work collaboratively as partners or in small groups on clearly defined tasks
based on a general framework for instruction based on the study of cognition; the belief that children construct meaning from their experiences, and are not just passive receivers of information; linked to the child development theories of Piaget, this theory suggests that students reflect on their experiences, and construct an understanding of the world they live in, governed by their own rules to make sense of their experiences
conventional spelling
standard spelling that is the correct form for written documents
critical thinking

the thought processes students are able to rely on relative to problem solving;

students use creativity,analysis, and logic regarding their ability to analyze facts, make comparisons, generate ideas, defend view points, draw inferences, evaluate arguments, and solve problems

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deductive reasoning

initiated from general to specific, and often referred to as the “top-down” approach;

primarily concerned with testing hypotheses;

in contrast to inductive reasoning, it is more open-ended and exploratory, especially during the beginning of an investigation



two letters that represent one speech sound

Ex: ea in bread, ch in chat


two vowel combinations where both vowels are heard, but not quite making their usual sounds due to blending
echo reading

where teacher reads a line or passage with good expression, and calls on students to read it back;

a good technique to use with emergent readers to help build fluency


emergence learning

manifested through structuring, patterning, and constructing meaning;

understanding ideas that did not exist initially;

involves insight, reflection, creative expression, and/or group interactions;

dependent on intellegence, synthesis, intuition, creativity, and problem-solving skills;

accounts for only 1-2% of what students learn in a lifetime


Emergent Reader

the reader at the beginning stages of learning to read and developing an association of print with meaning;

children engage in reading play and retelling familiar stories from memory and using pictures to make predictions


Emergent spelling

typical of preschoolers, ages 3-5, involving stringing and scribbling of letters to form words;

a natural, early expression of the alphabet and other concepts about writing;

although children might use both upper and lowercase letters, they tend to prefer uppercase letters


the history or study of words
experiential learning

credited to Carl Rogers who suggested that all human beings have a natural propensity to learn;

the role of the teacher is to facilitate learning via setting a positive classroom environment, clarifying the purpose and rules, organizing and providing learning resources, balancing both intellectual and emotional components of learning, and ensuring that students engage in self-evaluation to assess their progress and success



coined by Piaget to identify a process that regulates tension between assimilation of information and accomodation of learning;

implies that individuals learn through experiences somewhat different from previous experiences, thus, their mental structure is modified in small steps;

individuals learn best when the new incoming information is slightly different from existing information; the process allows the new information to be assimilated with a small degree of accomodation


Formative evaluation
ongoing evaluation in an instructional sequence allowing midstream adaptation/improvement of the project
Gestalt theory

relates to a sense of wholeness; emphasizes higher-order cognitive process relative to behavior, and endorses the notion of grouping characteristics of stimuli to allow for the interpretation of a problem;

key terms include proximity, similarity, closure, and simplicity


Guided reading
a strategy where experienced readers provide structure via modeling strategies in order to move beginning readers toward independence

use of words perculiar to a particular language with a meaning that differs from typical syntactic patterns or from the literal meaning of its parts taken together;

examples of idiomatic expressions include, “john kicked the bucket” and “chill out”


information processing
theory advanced by Miller who stressed the idea that short term memory could only hold 5-9 chunks of information; the term chunk represents any meaningful unit (digits, words, pictures, etc) and the concept of chunking and the limited capacity of short term memory became a basic element of all subsequent memory theories
Initial blends
the joining of two or more consonant sounds, represented by letters that begin a word without losing the identity of the sounds (bl in black), or the joining of the first consonant and vowel sounds in a word; this skill is important in learning phonics
interactive writing (shared pen)
teachers and students compose passages and stories that are written collaboratively; students are free to print some words or interact with the print as facilitated by the teacher
invented spelling
technique used by beginning writers to spell words using whatever knowledge of sounds or visual patterns when formal spelling strategy is not yet learned
learning centers

multi-level stations where activities designed for specific, instructional purposes provide reinforcement, independent practice, and discovery;

In an early childhood program, this is an area that contains materials such as blocks, pretend household items or art supplies, where children can explore their own interests at their own pace


letter name spelling

common with children 5-7 years of age; students learn to represent phonemes in words with letters;

shows that students have a rudimentary understanding of the alphabetic principle, suggesting a link between letters and sounds


language experience approach
method of teaching reading by using the reader’s own dictated language; allows the reader to read words common to their environment
literature circles
important to the cooperative reading process; Tompkins(2002) endorsed 4 components of literature circles including reading, responding, creating projects, and sharing
mastery learning
proposes that all children can learn when provided with the appropriate learning conditions in the classroom
involves several important elements including designing, monitoring, and assessing a specific plan of action

associated with direct instruction and skill-and-drill activities; teachers use the mini lesson to teach about reading and writing procedures, skills, and strategies;

or indirect teaching where teachers teach a brief lesson in response to students’ questions



word forms and another component of syntax;

the smallest meaningful unit in language and word parts that could also change the meaning of a word



terms used to describe words whose pronunciations suggest their meaning

ex: buzz


operant conditioning

based on the premise that learning is a function of change in overt behavior; this change is a result of the student’s response to events occurring in one’s environment;

response produces a consequence; when the stimulus-response pattern is reinforced, the individual is conditioned to respond;

today’s teachers use the term behavior modification to describe this reinforcement as it is used to control student behavior and motivate students



study of nature and the use of symbols in a writing system;

correct or standardized spelling


minimal sound unit of speech that, when contrasted with another phoneme, affects the naming of words in a language
teaching reading and spelling that stresses basic symbol-sound relationships and their application in decoding words in beginning instruction
phonological system
important in both oral and written language; there are 26 letters and 44 sounds and many ways to combine the letters, particularly the vowels, to spel many sounds


(also called rime, spelling pattern, word family)


succession of letters representing the same phonological unit in different words
portfolio assessment
provides a body of work that can be used to evaluate student performance over time
reading workshops

designed to encourage students to read self-selected books independently or in small groups;

after or during their reading, students are expected to respond to books through loges, discussion, projects or sharing;

this approach helps students become fluent readers and to deepen their appreciation of books and reading


reflective teaching
the ability to research and explore, question and analyze, and make changes to both lessons and curriculum based on learning results experienced in the classroom
the part of the syllable (not a word) consisting of its vowel and any consonant sounds that come after it
round-robin reading

an outdated reading strategy that attempts to teach students to read by having them follow other students in reading a passage or text identified by the teacher;

not recommended because it supposedly hampers fluency, is boring, and it causes students to lose interest in story


set of scoring guidelines for assessing student work including summary listing of the characteristics that distinguish high quality work from low quality work

metamorphic term used by Vygotsky to show how parents and teachers provide temporary assistance to children by modeling appropriate behavior or skills;

In the classroom, teaches model or demonstrate specific strategies and gradually shift responsibility to the student to demonstrate



a data structure for representing the generic concepts stored in memory;

there are 3 types: content (systems of factual knowledge, values, cultural conventions), language (includes sentence structure, grammatical inflections, spelling, punctuation, vocabulary, and cohesive structures), and textual (the rhetorical structure of different modes of text such as recipes, fairy tales, and text books)


the meaning in language and the analysis of the meanings of words, phrases, sentences
shared reading
an activity where the teacher and student sit around a big book, so that all can see print and pictures; individual students are selected to point to the print and other students join in and read at their own level of expertise; sometimes, the teacher reads the passage while pointing to the words to help young readers learn
sight word
easily recognized as a whole and does not require work analysis to decode for identification or pronunciation
Situated learning

general theory of knowledge acquisition that is manifested as a function of the specific activity, context, or culture in which it occurs;

contrasts with most classroom learning activities which involve knowledge that is usually abstract and out of context;

learning requires social interaction and collaboration within an authentic context (settings and applications that would normally involve that knowledge)


student-centered classroom

some believe that the teacher can best serve a student individually in the classroom;

teachers function as collegues rather than leaders;

if we believe learning is enhanced when students are engaged in the process of information, then our challenge as teachers is to find creative ways to design dynamic learning environments that involve students in doing and thinking about specific subjects


summative evaluation
evaluation that comes at the conclusion of unit or program
syntactic system

structural organization of English that regulates how words are combined into sentences;

word order is important and during pre-k years, children learn to understand, ask questions, construct statements, and many of the capitalization and punctuation rules that elementary students learn reflect the syntactic system of language


teacher-centered classroom

students are passive recipients of the teacher’s knowledge, and later expected to regurgitate what they have learned on meaningless tests;


trade books

books written specifically for children;

story books, books of poetry, picture books used to teach language arts


transmission learning
process by which information, knowledge, ideas and skills are gained from instruction, guidance, and demonstration; it has been determined that this approach is not very effective and only accounts for about 10% of actual learning
whole language
approach to reading instruction focusing on reading for meaning and the integration of the four aspects of language: reading, writing, listening, and speaking
whole word method
use of flash cards/ word lists before the students start reading a story with unfamiliar words to be encountered in the context of sentences
within word spelling

common to 7-9 year olds;

shows that students understanding of the alphabetic principle is further refined in this state as they learn how to spell long-vowel pattern words and r-controlled vowels;


Zone of proximal development

the gap between what individuals know and do not know about a specific topic;

a range of specific tasks children can perform with assistance from parents or teachers, but are unable to perform on their own;

children’s ability to learn is facilitated via their interaction with adults, therefore, extensive, meaningful conversations between adults and children is important to the learning process


in loco parentis
when school, teacher, or and administrator acts in position or place of a parent
advance organizer
prepares students for material they have not seen yet
self concept
a general idea concerning how we think about ourselves. It is developed through actions, reflection, and interactions with others, especially with expectations of self and others
how we feel about or value ourselves
sensorimotor level
children from birth to age 2 base their thoughts primarily on their senses and motor abilities
preoperational stage
children ages 2-7 think mainly in symbolic terms–manipulating symbols used in creative play in the absence of actual objects involved
concrete operational stage
children ages 7-11 think in logical terms. They are not very abstract. At this stage, children need hands on, concrete experiences to manipulate symbols logically. They must perform these operations within the context of concrete situations
formal operational stage
children from 11-15 years develop abstract and hypothetical thinking. They use logical operations in abstract rather than concrete
students construct their own knowledge when they interact in social ways. Learning involves taking risks and making mistakes, but over time, students develop greater moral and intellectual capacities
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral development
based on cognitive reasoning.

Preconventional level (stage1-2) “egocentric point of view”

Conventional level (3-4) maintenanve of positive relations and the rules of society

postconventional level (5-6..few people reach) reasoning from an abstract point of view and possessing ideals where precedence takes over particular societal laws

English immersion instruction
instruction entirely in English. Teachers deliver lessons in simplified English so that students learn English and academic subjects
English as a second language instruction
similar to immersion instruction but may have added support for individuals using their native language
transitional bilingual education
instruction is in the students’ native language, but there is also instruction each day on developing english skills
two-way bilingual education (dual-immersion)
instruction given in two languages to the students.
Kolb’s theory of learning styles
Concrete experiences: being involved in a new experience

Reflective observation: watching others or developing observations about their own experience

abstract conceptualization: creating theories to explain their observations

active experimentation: using theories to solve problems and make decisions

4MAT Curriculum Development Model
Allows teachers to create approaches that reflect different learning styles, mult. intelligences, and differences in students. Works in cyclical manner beginning with:

Propose WHY questions to the students
Engage in WHAT activities
Encourage students to ask HOW
Answer IF questions

holistic scoring
each element of a student’s work is used to assess the total quality of the students work and receives one score
analytical scoring
one score is given after separate grades are recorded for each element of hte student’s work based on whether elements are correct or not, and quality is not considered

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