Praxis II PLT

Ability Test
Standardized tests used to evauluate an individual’s performance in a specific area
Achievement Test
Written for a variety of subjects and levels designed to measure a student’s knowledge or proficiency in something that has been learned or taught. E.G. (SAT)
Analytical Rubrics
Designed to provide specific information about each aspect of a task in order to share specific strengths and weaknesses of a student
Anecdotal Records
The written notes teachers maintain based on their observations of individual children
Aptitude tests
Standardized (norm-referenced) tests that are designed to measure a student’s ability to develop and acquire skills and knowledge
Authentic assessment
measure student understanding of the learning process and product, rather than just the product
Criterion-referenced tests
determines how well a student performs on an explicit relative to a predetrmined performance level, such as grade-level expectations or mastery. Do not help teachers compare student results tot hose of other test takers
Diagnostic evaluations
usually standardized or norm-referenced and are given before instruction begins to help teachers understand students’ learning needs
Essay questions
requires students to make connections betwen new and previously learned content, apply information to new situations, and demonstrate that they have learned the new information
formative evaluation
provide information about learning in progress and offer the teacher and the student an opportunity to monitor and regulate learning
Journals
can be used as an authentic assessment of a student’s understanding of key concepts or their ability to communicate ideas in writing, usually used as places to draft and the teacher assesses the process, not the product, informally
Norm-referenced test
AKA Stanardized tests
Observation of students
arguable the most important assessment tool in your teaching toolkit, aka kidwatching by Ken Goodman in 1960s it allows observe and reflect on student performance.
performance assessments
require a student to perform a task or generate his own response during the assessments (essays)
portfolio
a carefully selected collection of student products, and sometimes teacher observations collected over time, that reflect a student’s progress in a content area
Rubrics
scoring guide used in assessments
Self-evaluation
Allows the teacher to see what the students’ perspective is on their own growth and how a teacher may improve
Standards-based assessment
measure student progress towards meeting goals based on local, state, and/or national goals.
Summative Assessment
provide information about learning to be used to make judgements about a student’s achievements and the teacher’s instruction
Age-equivalent scoring
This type of scoring allows comparisons between student performace to typical students in that same age group.
Analytical scoring
Typically used to assess constructed-response test questions (essays, short answer) and includes detailed descriptins of the criteria
Grade-level equivalent scoring
demonstrate the grade and month of the school year to which a student score can be compared. E.G. 5.1 means 5th grade 1st month
Holistic scoring
typically used for constructed-response questions (essays, journals, short answer), it uses general descriptions of the criteria for success on each question
Percentile rank
shows the percentage of students in a group (either national or a local norm) whose score falls above or below the given student’s score
Quartiles
When you divide a normal distribution of scores into four equal parts, you can describe student data as it falls into one of the three quartiles. The first or lower quartile (the bottom 25 percent), the second quartile or the media (the middle 50 percent),a nd the third quartile or upper quartile (the top 25 percent)
Raw Score
A student’s raw score is equivalent tot he number of questions he answered correctly on an assessment
Reliability
the extent to which an assessment is consistant with its measures
Samples
A smaller number of participants drawn from a total population
Standard Deviation
a measure of variability that indicates the typical distance between a set of scores of a distribution and the mean score.
standard error of measurement
The standard deviation of test scores you would have obtained from a single student who took the same test multiple times
Stanines
(Deived from standard nine) based on a nine-point standard scale with a mean of 5 and a standard deviation of 2.
Validity
A test if found to be valid if it measures what it was designed to measure

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