PRAXIS II PLT: 7-12

INTELLECTUAL FREEDOM

the right of every individual to both seek and receive information from all points of view without restriction. It provides for free access to all expressions of ideas through which any and all sides of a question, cause, or movement may be explored.

CONSTRUCTIVISM

Knowledge is constructed by the individual through his interactions with his environment.

TRANSFER

A phenomenon in which something that was previously learned facilitates (positive transfer) or hinders (negative transfer) current learning; the influence of previously learned information on new situations or tasks.

ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT

The discrepancy between a child’s mental age (indicated by that static test) and the level he reaches in solving problems with assistance.

METACOGNITION

Consists of 3 basic elements:

  1. developing a plan of action
  2. maintaining/monitoring the plan
  3. evaluating the plan

‘Learning how to learn’

SCAFFOLDING

  • Provides clear directions
  • Clarifies purpose
  • Keeps students on task
  • Offers assessment to clarify expectations (ie: rubrics)
  • Identifies the best sources to find information
  • Reduces surprise, disappointment, and uncertainty
  • Delivers efficiency
  • Creates momentum

Temporary learning aid designed to help the student grow in independence as a learner.

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INSTRINSIC MOTIVATION

An internal source of motivation such as curiosity or the desire to learn; motivation associated with activities that are their own reward.

EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION

Motivation to engage in an activity as a means to an end.; Individuals work on tasks because they believe that participation will result in desirable outcomes such as a reward, teacher praise, or avoidance of punishment.

READINESS

Appropriate time for learning.

SCHEMATA

An internal representation of the world; an organization of concepts and actions that can be revised by new information about the world.

In cognitive learning, large, basic units for organizing information.; Serve as guides describing what to expect in a given situation, how elements should fit together, the usual relationships among elements, and so on.

A model or stereotype.

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CRITICAL THINKING

A process whereby the learner considers a variety of possibilities, then chooses from those possibilities using unbiased, rational thinking.

CREATIVE THINKING

Teams of students work together to solve assigned problems using text provided by the teacher.

HIGHER ORDER THINKING

Any thinking that goes beyond recall of basic facts; enables students to apply facts to solve real world problems, and; improve retention of facts.

INDUCTIVE THINKING

Used in scientific inquiry.; Usually includes searching literature, making observations, generating hypothesis, designing and carrying out experiments, then analysis or results and restarting the cycle.

DEDUCTIVE THINKING

A form of inquiry with 4 basic components; presentation of a generalization, discussion of core elements of the generalization, student exploration of the elements, and student generation of relevant examples of the generalized concept.

INVENTION

An open-ended problem-solving task.;Is the process of creating something to fill a need.

PROBLEM-STRUCTURING

AND PROBLEM-SOLVING

Inductive teaching method.;No direct instruction. Teacher poses authentic (real-world) problem.; Students learn particular content and skills as they work cooperatively to solve the problem.

MEMORIZATION AND RECALL

Actively organizing and working with concepts or terminology to improve incorporating those concepts into memory.

INQUIRY METHOD

A system in which students solve problems or answer questions by forming tentative answers (hypotheses), then collecting and analyzing data to provide evidence for or against their hypotheses.

QUESTIONING

Students apply ‘who, what, when, where, why, how’ to all problems. Or students generate questions.

MEAN

The average score.

MEDIAN

The point on a distribution at which there are equal numbers of scores above and below it.

MODE

The most frequently occurring score.

CONVERGENT THINKING

Ask questions that require students to give factual or specific answers.

DIVERGENT THINKING

Ask questions that encourage students to give complex, creative, and longer answers.

STIMULATING CURIOSITY

  • Make a hypothesis
  • KWL chart
  • Answer ‘What if…”
  • Brainstorming
  • Role playing
  • Simulation

DISCOVERY LEARNING
HEIRARCHY OF NEEDS
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

4 Stages

  • The sensorimotor stage – birth to about two years old. – uses senses and motor abilities to understand the world
  • The preoperational stage – two to about seven years old – symbols, creative play, egocentric, center on one aspect of any problem or communication at a time
  • The concrete operations stage – about seven to about 11 – operations refers to logical operations or principles we use when solving problems – Conservation refers to the idea that a quantity remains the same despite changes in appearance; progressing decentering; classification and seriation (putting things in order)
  • The Formal Operations stage: around 12 on – hypothetical thinking (logical operations, and using them in the abstract, rather than the concrete)

Jean Piaget

MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES

  • Linguistic intelligence (“word smart”): – use words in learning
  • Logical-mathematical intelligence (“number/reasoning smart”) – use numbers or logic in learning
  • Spatial intelligence (“picture smart”) – use pictures in learning
  • Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence (“body smart”) – use movement or physical experience
  • Musical intelligence (“music smart”) – use music
  • Interpersonal intelligence (“people smart”) – use of self-reflection
  • Intrapersonal intelligence (“self-smart”) – use a social experience
  • Naturalist intelligence (“nature smart”) – use an experience in the natural world

Howard Gardner

SOCIAL/OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING THEORY

“Bobo Doll” studies – (Learning = acquisition of knowledge)

Steps in Modeling process:

  • Attention – to learn you must pay attention –the more colorful, dramatic, attractive, prestigious the more people pay attention
  • Retention – ability to remember what you have paid attention to.
  • Reproduction – translate the images or descriptions into actual behavior
  • Motivation. – must be motivated to imitate.

 

Self-regulation — controlling our own BEHAVIOR – self-concept (Behavior = performance based on knowledge)

  • Self-observation. Know thyself! Make sure you have an accurate picture of your behavior.
  • Judgment. We compare what we see with a standard– make sure your standards aren’t set too high.
  • Self-response. Use self-rewards, not self-punishments.

Albert Bandura

 

ADVANCE ORGANIZER

An instructional strategy used to introduce an activity such as a lesson, an assignment, a reading, or a multimedia presentation.  It presents a structured introduction to an activity.

ANECDOTAL RECORD

An observation method consisting of a brief written account that describes the event after is has occurred.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

(PL 101-336)

1990

  • Prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in the private sector
  • Protects equal opportunity to employment and public services, accommodations, transportation and telecommunications
  • Defines disability to include people with AIDS

Articulation

The formation of clear and distinct sounds in speech

Authentic Assessment

Performance tasks that are completed in a real-life context.
BLOOM’S TAXONOMY

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Bandura

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Social (Observational) Learning Theory

Theory: Children learn by observing others; this may be done through modeling or learning vicariously through others. Often leads to self-regulation.

Application: Students learn through the modeling of others.

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The Four Stages

1.;;; The teacher gains the students; attention.

2.;;; The teacher models a behavior or skill to the students.

3.;;; The students reproduce or imitate the behavior or skill. Assessment occurs at this stage.

4.;;; The students are motivated to continue the behavior or skill through external or internal motivators.

Brown vs Board of Education

1954

  • End to ‘separate but equal’ schools
  • Under the 14th Amendment it is unlawful to discriminate arbitrarily against any group of people
  • Basis for future rulings that children with handicaps cannot be excluded from school

Bruner

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Discovery Learning

Theory that students learn best by discovery; the learner is a problem solver who interacts with the environment testing hypotheses and developing generalizations. ;The goal of education should be intellectual development, and that the science curriculum should foster the development of problem-solving skills through inquiry and discovery.

CONCEPT LADDER
A method of organizing words and concepts hierarchically.
CONCEPT MAPPING

A learning strategy that helps to make abstract concepts concrete, make relationships between concepts explicit, promote learning, promote creation of knowledge, and promote use of knowledge.

CONSTRUCTIVISM

A theory that views learning as a process in which students create new knowledge by building on their own past experiences and constructing knowledge as they interact with their teachers and peers.

Chunking

Breaking skills or information into smaller, more manageable segments in order to help students in special education succeed. The term can often be found in Specially Designed Instruction (SDIs)as a way to adapt the curriculum in a Child’s IEP.

Cognitive Assessment

Measure intellectual ability.

Criterion-Referenced Tests

Commercial tests that measure a student’s performance with respect to a specific content domain, such as self-help skills or knowledge of mathematical operations.

Curriculum-based Assessment (CBA)

An approach used for program planning and monitoring, this assessment approach consists of test items aligned with classroom curriculum that address specific areas of student knowledge or skills.

Curriculum-based Measurement (CBM)

An assessment approach that includes both assessing student knowledge;in specific;areas of the curriculum and graphing the results to make instructional decisions and implement interventions.
DURATION RECORDING

A method of conducting an observation in which the observer measures the length of time that an event or behavior occurs.

Dewey

good education should have both a societal purpose and purpose for the individual student. The long-term matters, but so does the short-term quality of an educational experience. Educators are responsible, therefore, for providing students with experiences that are immediately valuable and which better enable the students to contribute to society.

Differentiated Instruction

An inclusive approach for working with all students.

Involves providing students with different avenues to acquiring content, to processing, constructing, or making sense of ideas. Developing teaching materials so that all students within a classroom can learn effectively, regardless of differences in ability.

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Dysgraphia

A;learning disability that affects writing abilities. It can manifest itself as difficulties with spelling, poor handwriting and trouble putting thoughts on paper.; A student with disorders in written expression will benefit from specific accommodations in the learning environment, as well as additional practice learning the skills required to be an accomplished writer.

It;is a processing disorder in which;difficulties can change throughout a lifetime. However since writing is a developmental process -children learn the motor skills needed to write, while learning the thinking skills needed to communicate on paper – difficulties can also overlap.

If a person has trouble in any of the areas below, additional help may be beneficial.

  • Tight, awkward pencil grip and body position
  • Illegible handwriting
  • Avoiding writing or drawing tasks
  • Tiring quickly while writing
  • Saying words out loud while writing
  • Unfinished or omitted words in sentences
  • Difficulty organizing thoughts on paper
  • Difficulty with syntax structure and grammar
  • Large gap between written ideas and understanding demonstrated through speech.

Dyslexia

A language-based disability in which the student has difficulties in understanding, reading, and expressing language.
EVENT RECORDING
A method of conducting an observation in which a behavior or event is recorded each time it occurs.

EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE

Also known as research-based practices and scientifically based research.

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Refers to a body of research that supports the effectiveness of teaching methods, strategies, therapies, supplemental aids, and services in the classroom.

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IDEA defines the term scientifically based research as ‘…research (that) involves the application of rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant to education activities and programs’

Ecological Perspective

Emphasizes the importance of interactions between the child and the child’s environment in emotional and behavioral disorders.

Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA)

(PL 94-142)

1975

  • Requires states to provide a free and appropriate education (FAPE) to children with disabilities ages 5-18
  • Parents must receive notification and procedural safeguards
  • Requires individualized assessments
  • Requires IEP
  • Provide necessary related services
  • Defined LRE as setting most like that of non-disabled students that also meets each child’s educational needs

Education of Handicapped Act Amendments

(PL 99-457)

1986

  • Requires states to extend FAPE to children (ages 3-5) with disabilities
  • Establishes early intervention programs for infants and toddlers with disabilities (ages birth-2 years)

Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)

1965

  • Supports many initiatives that help low-income families access high-quality education programs.
  • Includes provision for free and reduced lunches and additional teachers in disadvantaged communities.
  • Applies to children who need additional support to benefit from public school education programs.

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Erikson

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Personal ; Social (Psychosocial) Development

Theory: Children move through a series of stages as they develop. During each stage they encounter crises that need to be resolved. If not resolved, the children encounter difficulties later on.

Application:;Emphasizes the importance of children;s environments and the varying roles of teachers, parents, and peers. Teachers can have significant impact on how students feel about themselves.

Expressive Language

The language used to communicate with others.
FAMILY EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AND PRIVACY ACT(FERPA)

gives parents certain rights with respect to their children’s education records. These rights transfer to the student when he or she reaches the age of 18 or attends a school beyond the high school level. Students to whom the rights have transferred are “eligible students.”

  • Parents or eligible students have the right to inspect and review the student’s education records maintained by the school. Schools are not required to provide copies of records unless, for reasons such as great distance, it is impossible for parents or eligible students to review the records. Schools may charge a fee for copies.

  • Parents or eligible students have the right to request that a school correct records which they believe to be inaccurate or misleading. If the school decides not to amend the record, the parent or eligible student then has the right to a formal hearing. After the hearing, if the school still decides not to amend the record, the parent or eligible student has the right to place a statement with the record setting forth his or her view about the contested information.

  • Generally, schools must have written permission from the parent or eligible student in order to release any information from a student’s education record. However, FERPA allows schools to disclose those records, without consent, to the following parties or under the following conditions (34 CFR § 99.31):

    • School officials with legitimate educational interest;
    • Other schools to which a student is transferring;
    • Specified officials for audit or evaluation purposes;
    • Appropriate parties in connection with financial aid to a student;
    • Organizations conducting certain studies for or on behalf of the school;
    • Accrediting organizations;
    • To comply with a judicial order or lawfully issued subpoena;
    • Appropriate officials in cases of health and safety emergencies; and
    • State and local authorities, within a juvenile justice system, pursuant to specific State law.

Schools may disclose, without consent, “directory” information such as a student’s name, address, telephone number, date and place of birth, honors and awards, and dates of attendance. However, schools must tell parents and eligible students about directory information and allow parents and eligible students a reasonable amount of time to request that the school not disclose directory information about them. Schools must notify parents and eligible students annually of their rights under FERPA. The actual means of notification (special letter, inclusion in a PTA bulletin, student handbook, or newspaper article) is left to the discretion of each school.

FREE APPROPRIATE PUBLIC EDUCATION (FAPE)

ensures that no child or youth (3-21 years of age) will be excluded from an appropriate public education because of a disability, including students with profound disabilities, students with disruptive behaviors, and students with contagious diseases.;

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT (FBA)

A comprehensive and individualized strategy to:

  • Identify the purpose or function of a student’s behavior.
  • Develop and implement a plan to modify variable that maintain the problem behavior.
  • Teach appropriate replacement behaviors using positive interventions.

Steps:

  1. Define the problem behavior
  2. Devise a plan to collect data
  3. Compare and analyze the data
  4. Formulate the hypothesis
  5. Develop and implement a behavior intervention plan (BIP)
  6. Monitor the plan

 

Fluency

The ability to read phrases and sentences smoothly and quickly, while understanding them as expressions of complete ideas. Students with Learning Disabilities (LD) in Reading Comprehension and basic reading skills frequently have weaknesses in reading fluency. Typically, they do not process groups of words as meaningful phrases. They may also make decoding errors in reading which slow them down and prevent them from grasping the meaning of the sentence. As a result, they do not understand and remember meanings of passages. They may miss the larger meanings of chapters and books as well.

Formative Assessment

A procedure of gathering information on a regular basis to inform instruction and to monitor student progress.

GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
A strategy that organizes information in a visual image.

Gardner

 

Multiple Intelligences

Theory: An individual can have up to 8 separate intelligences, including linguistic, logical, mathematical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. Does not support traditional intelligence tests as they do not assess these separate abilities.

Application: Know your students well enough to know their strengths in the above areas. Use a variety of assignments, activities, and assessments so that students can develop their competence in any or all of the intelligences.

HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS

Include critical, logical, reflective, metacognitive, and creative thinking. They are activated when individuals encounter unfamiliar problems, uncertainties, questions, or dilemmas. Successful applications of the skills result in explanations, decisions, performances, and products that are valid within the context of available knowledge and experience and that promote continued growth in these and other intellectual skills. Grounded in lower order skills such as discriminations, simple application and analysis, and cognitive strategies and are linked to prior knowledge of subject matter content. Appropriate teaching strategies and learning environments facilitate their growth as do student persistence, self-monitoring, and open-minded, flexible attitudes.

IDEA (Amendment)

(PL 105-17)

1997

  • Requires that students with disabilities continue to receive services, even if expelled
  • Students with disabilities who exhibit behavior management problems must have included in their IEP a proactive behavior management plan with positive behavior supports
  • Behavior manifestations are required within ten school days of any proposed change in placement for disciplinary reasons
  • Allows states to extend their use of ‘Developmentally Delayed’ category for students through age 9
  • Requires states to assume greater responsibility for ensuring that students with disabilities have access to general education curriculum
  • Allows special ed staff working in mainstream to assist general ed students when needed
  • Requires the general education teacher to be a member of the IEP team
  • Requires students with disabilities to take part in statewide and district wide assessments
  • Requires consideration of special factors in the IEP

INTENSITY RECORDING

A method of conducting an observation that measures various degrees of behavior such as low, medium or high.

INTERVAL RECORDING

An observation method that measures whether a behavior occurs within prescribed time segments, such as a 30-second or 1-minute intervals.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

(PL 101-476)

1990 

  • Renames and replaces EHA
  • Establishes ‘people first’ language
  • Extends special education services to include social work, assistive technology, and rehabilitation services
  • Extends provision for due process and confidentiality for students and parents
  • Adds two categories of disability; autism and TBI
  • Requires states to provide bilingual education programs for students with disabilities
  • Requires states to educate students with disabilities for transition to employment and to provide transition services
  • Requires that students have individualized transition programs by the age of 16
  • Provides more funding for projects to improve services to infants, toddlers, and young children with disabilities

 

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA Reauthorization)

(PL 108-446)

2004

  • Allows districts to use Response to Intervention (RTI) in determining whether a child has a learning disability; No longer requires a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability to be eligible
  • Increases federal funds to provide early intervention services to students who do not need special education or related services
  • Raises standards for special education licensure

Inner Language

The use of language during thinking, planning, organizing, or other thought processes.

Kohlberg

 

Moral Development

Theory: Children pass through 3 levels (6 stages) as they develop their moral reasoning. Stage I focuses on children following their self-interests, Stage II emphasizes the role of family & community, and Stage III is based on ethical principles. While ages are not established, most children are in the early part of Level II by age 9-10 & fewer than 25% individuals reach Level III. 

Application: Young children may focus on their own needs, “As long as I don’t get caught, I’ll take the cookie.” Teachers should explain the importance/need of consequences. As children mature, they take on the rules of the community. Teachers need to allow students to assist in making classroom rules & consequences.

LATENCY RECORDING

An observation method that measures the amount of time that elapses between a request and the occurrence of a behavior or event.

Learned Helplessness

The belief that our own behavior does not influence what happens next, that is, behavior does not control outcomes or results. For example, when a student believes that she is in charge of the outcome, she may think, “If I study hard for this test, I’ll get a good grade.” On the contrary, a learned helpless student thinks, “No matter how hard I study for this test, I’ll always get a bad grade.” This phenomenon relates to poor grades, underachievement, and behavior difficulties. Students who experience repeated school failure, because of repeated academic failure, these students begin to doubt their own abilities, leading them to doubt that they can do anything to overcome their school difficulties. Consequently, they decrease their achievement efforts, particularly when faced with difficult materials, which leads to more school failure. This pattern of giving up when facing difficult tasks reinforces the child’s beliefs that he or she cannot overcome his or her academic difficulties.
MODELING
The act of a teacher or student serving as an example of a behavior that other students can emulate or learn from. Primarily used to demonstrate desirable behavior, but can be used to demonstrate negative behavior, as well.
MOTIVATION
Forces that initiate, direct, and sustain individual or group behavior in order to satisfy a need or attain a goal.

Maslow

 

Hierarchy of needs

 

·         Behavioral Approach: Students receive incentives such as grades, recognition, and rewards. Those students with extrinsic motivation may react more favorably to these motivators.

 

·         Humanistic Approach: Students’ deficiency needs must be met before their growth needs can be addressed.

 

·         Motivation can be influenced by family, peers, ethnicity, socio-economic status, and gender.

 

Metacognition
Involves learning how to learn and think.
NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT

Designed to improve student achievement, placed renewed emphasis on key provisions, including:

  • early childhood education and the development of language skills and prereading skills;
  • assessments that align with state academic cpntent and achievement standards;
  • ongoing assessments each year in Grades 3-8 and at least once during Grades 10-12; and
  • detailed report cards to parents concerning their child’s progress.

No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)

2001

  • Increases school, district and state accountability for all students, including those from minority populations and those with special needs
  • Provides that states can be more flexible with federal funds;if standards of accountability are met
  • Offers school choice for students enrolled in failing schools
  • Implements early reading interventions

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Overlearning

Defined as practice of a skill beyond 100% accuracy or beyond successful performance.

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PROBES

are teacher developed questions or informal test items that provide a quick estimate of a specific detail.; Typically admistered when a teacher meets individually with a student to assess achievement or diagnose areas of weakness in content areas.

Phoneme

The smallest unit of sound that has meaning in a language.

Phonemic Awareness

The ability to segment and manipulate speech sounds.

Phonics

Knowledge of how specific spoken sounds relate to particular written letters

Phonological Awareness

Increasing ability to understand and identify the individual sounds that make up a word.

Piaget

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Cognitive Development

Theory: Children move through a set series of stages as they develop their cognitive abilities. Throughout these stages they learn by interacting with their environment. This interaction often results in disequilibrium and requires that they adapt their schemes in response to their environment through the processes of assimilation ; accommodation.

Application: Children interact with their environment, thereby constructing their own knowledge of the world. This is the basis for constructivism. Provide developmentally appropriate lessons that include hands-on activities whenever possible and activate their prior knowledge. Remember that children move through all stages, but develop at different rates.

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Pragmatics

Focuses on how people use language, signs, and gestures;in social;situations.
RUBRIC

An assessment scale that identifies the component(s) of performance and the various levels of achievement.

RUNNING RECORD

An observation method that involves writing a description of events as they occur.

Receptive Language

Understanding the language used by others.
Response Cost

attempts to reduce behavior through withdrawal of specific amounts of reinforcers contingent upon the behavior’s occurrence, most often used with a token economy system.

Guidelines for implementation:

• should be implemented immediately after target behavior occurs

• should be applied consistently

• learner should not be allowed to accumulate neg. points

• ratio of points earned to points lost must be controlled.

• subtraction of reinforcers should not be punitive or personalized.

• appropriate behavior should be praised frequently.

 

Needs to be tied to the occurrence of a specific, observable behavior.

SEQUENCING

Breaking down a larger task, response, or behavior into its components so that a student can complete one component at a time.

SETTING EVENT

Events that affect the physical or emotional state of an individual at any given time.

Scaffolding

Teaching strategies that support students as they acquire knowledge and skills.  As learners take more responsibility for their learning, the structures, supports and scaffolds can be faded and learners can work independently.  In order to be effective, it should be:

  • relevant and related to the task, response, or behavior that the student is asked to do;
  • provided when needed; and
  • diminished or faded over time.

 

Self-efficacy

one’s belief in one’s ability to succeed in specific situations

Skinner

 

 

 

Operant Conditioning

Theory: Children’s learning is influenced by consequences that follow a given behavior. Strengthen behaviors through positive & negative reinforcements. Reduce behaviors using punishments.

Application: Reinforcers must be carefully selected; what works for one student will not work for another. Praise should be specific. Use punishment sparingly.

 

Summative Assessment

Assessment that takes place at the end of the unit or marking period to show student growth and progress.

Syntax

Involves not following rules for the correct arrangement of word sequence.

Think/Pair/Share

 

 

a strategy designed to provide students with “food for thought” on a given topic enabling them to formulate individual ideas and share these ideas with another student.

VENN DIAGRAM

A diagram usually made up of two or more overlapping circles.  Can be used to show similarities and differences between events, people, situations, ideas, and concepts.

Vocational Rehabilitation Act, Section 504

(PL 93-112)

1973

  • Civil Rights law which prohibits discrimination against individuals (adults & students) with disabilities in federally funded programs (ie: public schools)
  • Defines ‘handicapped person’ and ‘appropriate education’
  • A student, with a documented disability, not found eligible to receive special education services can receive specific types of assistance. These students include those with health problems (ie: asthma, extreme allergies, ADD/ADHD)

 

Vygotsky

Cognitive Development

Theory: Children learn signs (language, thinking, problem solving) through interaction with others in their culture. It is when children are helped by others when they are working within their zone of proximal development that they develop cognitively. Children eventually learn to self-regulate or think & solve problems without others’ help. Private or self-speech is a part of this development.

Application: Teachers must teach within a child’s zone of proximal development (that level just beyond a child’s current level of understanding) using scaffolding (modeling, think alouds, questions, etc.) to provide the needed support to assist the child in his/her development. Encourage oral communication within the classroom and provide opportunities for children to learn from one another.

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