Praxis II: Fundamental Knowledge, Social Studies

affirmative action
policies or programs designed to confront historical injustices that may have been committed against racial/ethnic minorities or other specified groups by making special efforts to provide these groups with access to educational and/or employment oppurtunities
alien
anyone who is not currently a citizen of the country in which he or she lives
amend
to change the wording or meaning of a motion, bill, constitution, and so on through a formal procedure
budget
the management of current money that requires choices and an analysis of the current situation
bureaucracy
the organizations that implement government policies
census
the periodic and official count of the number of persons living in a country
concurrent powers
powers that may be exercised by both the federal government and the state governments, completing such tasks as imposing taxes, borrowing/lending money, and supporting the general welfare
constituent
a person who is represented by an elected official at the local, state or federal level
consumption
the use of resources by citizens and institutions
delegate
a person who acts for or represents others at the local, state or federal level
depression
a long period of financial and industrial decline of the economy
enumerated powers
the powers that are precisely granted to Congress through the Constitution
equal opportunity
an equivalent and unbiased chance for all persons in such areas as education, employment, and political participation
exclusionary rule
the judicial doctrine that is based on the Fourth Amendment and the protection against illegal searches and seizures
fiscal policy
the method in which to regulate the economic activity of the people
foreign policy
the policies of the federal government that are directed to affairs beyond U.S. borders especially those pertaining to relations with other countries
fundamental rights
the rights that are considered to be the most basic needed and most essential to the people
general welfare
the good of a society as a whole, referring to the common or public good
inalienable rights
those rights that are not capable of being taken away or transformed
inflation
the increase in overall prices for products and services in society
minority rights
the rights of any group that constitutes less than a majority
natural rights
the most basic human rights demonstrated in The Declaration of Independence as the rights to “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness”
recession
a period of slow economic growth plagued with high unemployment and minimal spending
revolution
a complete or drastic change of the government and the rules by which government is conducted and may be the first step toward battle engagement
separation of powers
the division of the government’s powers among other institutions that must cooperate in the overall decision making
social equality
the absence of the inherited titles of a hierarchical class in the social system
treaty
a formal agreement among nations to develop or restrict the rights and responsibilities, often used to settle a war
enumerated rights
those rights that were not exactly listed in the Constitution or Bill of Rights, but have been observed and recognized, therefore being protected under the court system
veto
the constitutional power of the president giving him the ability to refuse to sign a bill passed by Congress, which prevents it from being a law

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