Positive Punishment

conditioned punisher
stim change that functions as punishemnt as a result of one’s conditioning history
verbal analog conditioning
previously neutral stimuli can also become conditioned punishers for humans without direct physical pairing with another punisher
generalized conditioned punishers
are free from the control of specific motivating conditions and will function as punishment under most conditions
factors that influence effectiveness of punishment
immediacy, intensity, schedule or frequency of punishment, availability of reinforcement for target behavior, availability of reinforcement for alternative behavior
side effects of punishment
escalation of undesired emotional response and aggression
escape and avoidance
increased rate of problem behavior under nonpunishment
modeling undesirable behavior
not teaching learner what to do
overusing punishment because of the negative reinforcement it provides the punishing agent
modeling undesirable behavior
decades of research have found strong correlation between exposure to harsh punishment and antisocial/behavior disorders
response blocking
physically intervening as soon as the person begins to emit the problem behavior to prevent or block the completion of the response
contingent exercise
required to perform response that is not topographically related to problem behavior
learner required to engage in effortful behavior related directly or logically related to the problem
contingent electric stimulation
can be safe and effective for self-injurious behaviors
rigorously researched and carefully applied procedure for implementing punishment by electric stim. for self-inflicted blows to head or face
guidelines for punishing effectively
conduct punisher assessments, use least intensity of punishment that is effective, experience punishment personally, deliver immediately, deliver at beginning of response chain, deliver unemotionally, punish each instance, reinforce alternatives, watch for side effects, record and graph data
overall restrictiveness
function of its absolute level of restrictiveness and the amount of time required to produce a clinically acceptable outcome and the consequences associated with delayed intervention

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