Physical Education Praxis

Throwing Levels

1. trunk faces targe; throwing hand in front of body; feet facing target and side by side

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2. trunk faces target; throwing hand moves beside or behind head

3. trunk faces target; foot is forward on throwing side

4. thrunk faces target; arm and leg opposition

5. non-dominant shoulder faces targe, arm/leg opposition; thansfer weight


Catching Stages of learning

1. ball rebounds off body, little or no visual tracking

2. arms pull ball to body

3. hands pulll ball to body

4. hands catch away from the body, thumbs up; palms facing each other

5. hand catch, thumbs touching; palms facing ball

Kicking Stages of Learning


1. walks into ball; no leg preference

2. straing leg push forward, no back swing

3. bent knee back swing; upright posture

4.back swing form the hip, use arms for balance limited follow through

5. full leg swing; compsensating trunk movements; arm/leg opposition; follow through


Striking Stages of Learning

1.trunk faces pitcher, chopping down motion with one or both hands

2. trunk faces pitcher nearly horizontal swing with one or both hands

3. non-dominant shoulder faces pitcher, horizontal swing with one or both hands; feet stationary

4. non-dominant shoulder faces pitcher; horizontal swing with on or both hands; transfer of weight with a step

5. non-dominant shoulder faces pitcher; horizontal swing with both hands; sequential rotation (step belly button bat) transfer of weight with a step


1.side-step foot pattern, slight trunk lean, rigid arms

2. shuffle step foot pattern slight trunk lean rigid arms

3. alternat stepping; some use of arms, tense posture

4. alternating stepping; relaxed upright posture; compensating movements

5. alternate stepping; relaxed upright posture; compensating movements in all levels, directions and turns

Jumping stages of learning

1. one foot take off; stepping

2. two foot take off alternate foot landing

3. 2 foot take off, 2 foot landing, upright posture, litto or no use of arms

4. preliminary crouch; arms remain back or out

5. preliminary crouch; full arm swing; extension at take off; body weight forward on landing

Locomotor Skills

Walking-both feet contact ground

Running- both feet in air at same time

Hopping-one foot at a time

Jumping- two feet leave ground

Skippin- step hop step hop

Galloping- one foot leads, other slides

Sliding- sideways gallop

Leaping-leave ground on one foot, land on opposite

Manipulative game


Cooperative Game


Inventive Game

Man- add equipment to games


Coop- partner or group oriented (not necissarily competitive)


Inventive- children get to create rules and stradegy

Movement Concepts

body awareness- body parts

spatial awareness- general vs. personal space

qualities- speed, force, flow

relationships- over, under, through, partnering, or equipment

Concepts of Health Related Fitness

muscular strength- max force through given ROM

muscular endurance- capacity of muscle to exert force through ROM

Cardiovascular Endurance- ability to continue training past 20 minutes

flexibility- ability of a joint to move through ROM

body composition- ration of lean body mass to fat

BMI- healthy=18-24

over weight= 25-29

obese= 30+

Components of Skill related fitness

agility- rapid change of direction

balance- maintain equalibrium

coordination- ability to perform motor tasks smoothly and accurately

power- amount of force muslce can exert

reaction time- ability to respond quickly to stimuli

speed- amount of time i tatkes body to perform specific task

Principles of Exercise

Frequency- how often

Time- how long

Intensity- effort

Type- what are you doing

“Physical education must have

an aim as broad as education itself

and as noble and inspiring

as human life”

Dr. Thomas Wood
In germany, a social gymnastics and sports club was known as a
Historically physical educators who were more physical trainers were generally from what two fields?
Medicine and Gymnastics

first secretary of the Allied Alliance for

health physical education recreation and dance.

He was also a graduate of medical school

and concerned about lack of traing for professional physical educators

William Anderson
“education throught the physical”
develop calestenics for females
Sweddish System

Regained national pride


therapeutic based

medical gymnastics


Person opposed German System

admired Breecher

lighter approach to physical edcuation

Dio Lewis
German Gymnastics

Friedrich Ludwig Jahn

Build strong bodies

balanced academic/ physical

Brought by- follen, beck, leiber to US

Sport ethics consists of:



fair play


character building


military style activity

standard Phys Ed test

1st true american system

developed exercise machines





L- release from ordinary demands after work

P- all people do everywhere, NO RULES

G- any form of playful competition, outcome dertermined by skill, stradegy, chance

S- gain something at others expense

all decisions are controled by teacher
students execute teacher prescribed movemtn tasks on their own
partner helps in some teaching perscribed by teacher, usually includes a checklist and students give each other feed back (peer check)
self check
teacher plans and students monitor their own performance agains criteria and includes a check list
planned by teacher, students monitor personal progress and are provided choices, easy, middle and challenging at which to perform to their level of skill providing greather sucess and motivation
guided discovery
teacher provides clues to solving movemnt problesm, usually online ONE anser is possible but students must solve problem on their own
student finds answers to problems set by teacher.  usually more than one solution to the problem with students must solve without teacher providing answers
teacher sets conent student plans programs
self teaching
student is teacher and learner, take responsibility for own learning
formative assessment
give in middle of unit (quiz)
exam at end of unit
authentic assessment
assess form and movements during game situations
product assessment
quanitative (7/10 baskets)
Process Assessment

How they do it (BEEF for basketball)


Direct Instruction is characterized by

task orientation

structured learning activities

clear instruction goals

best way to teach basic skills

Good cues should be
accurate, critical, few and appropriate
movement schemata
generalized motor patterns
Serial Skill

series of discrete skills strung together to make a new more complex skill

ex: fielding catching ball, triple jump, handstand forward roll

discrete skill

brief well defined action that has a clear beginning and end.  single and specific skill required in many sports

ex: hockey penalty shot, cartwheel, free throw

continuous skill

no obvious beginning or end

ex: running, swimming, biking

Gross skills

involve large muscles and movements are not very precise and include many fundamental movement patterns

ex: running, jumping, walking

Fine skill

precise movements using small muscle groups usually involving high level of hand eye coordination

ex: playing piano

Social Learning Theory
People learn through other peoples behaviors, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors
Front crawl

simplist, most efficient and fastest way to swim

on stomach arms and legs stretched, alternating arms and legs

most power is given by the forward arm movement

push pull and recovery

flutter kick

back stroke

arms and legs stretch with alternating motions and flutter kick

move arms in windmill motion

bend elbows under water

Breast Stroke

Face down in water hands like a prayer.

bring knees into stomach extend arms and legs

extend legs outward and back like frog legs

arms push forward and open bring head and shoulders up for air

most important part is the glide


Most difficult stroke

both arms come out of water performing similar to front crawl

chest and head come up for air and descend under

Invasion/Territory Games
invade other teams area
soccer, football, hockey
Net/Wall Games
Send object over net or off wall to more open space
Racket ball, tennis, volleyball, badminton
Batting/ fielding/ running
striking ball with bat into open spaces
baseball softball cricket
fielding, throwing, catching
Target Games
Send object towards target, do not interfere or interact with other players
archery, bocce, golf
Public Law 94-142
free public education will be given to all handicapped students
Public Law 93-380
Family Education and Rights privacy act
students are allowed to see any and all files kept on them
Public Law 95-687 Amateur Sports Act
Nations governing bodies for each olympic sport
Dance basics and techniques
Football throwing stance
hips forward
shoulders open
opposition with feet and throwing arm
egocentric localization
immature and limited spacial awareness
all or most aspects of a child’s understanding of the surrounding are noted in reference to him/herself
objective localization
child is capable of referencing object in space relative to objects other than the self
temporal awareness
understanding of time relationships
ability to predict the time at which a ball will arrive
moment of force that causes rotation
fast powerful movements train speed and agility
crystalline lens becomes opaque
most difficult locomotor skill
bowling “striking out”
finishing game with a series of strikes
target archery- specified number of ends
6 arrows shot in a row
connect bone to bone and permit/restrict ROM
connect muscle to bone
blood does not clot normally
action potential
exchange of ions causing change in resting conditions in a muscle membrane
to take off one foot and land on the other
static stretching
used to stretch while body is at rest
ballistic stretching
series of quick bouncing type stretches
compression force
pressing or squeezing force directly axially through a body
rate of change in velocity
concentric contraction
muscle shortening
eccentric muscle contraction
muscle lengthens
aerobic workout
Oxygen provides the catalyst for a chemical reaction in our muscles (including the heart) that generates aerobic energy. If it were not for other factors – such as insufficient muscle fuel (notably, carbohydrate or, more specifically, glycogen) over-heating and dehydration, we could theoretically continue to exercise aerobically indefinitely.
short-term energy system provides energy for up to 90 seconds Many of us will be familiar with the burning sensations we feel in our muscles after a near flat-out effort (this is the result of the short-term energy system going into overdrive and the over spilling of one of the energy producing chemicals, lactate and its conversion to lactic acid).
movement away from the midline
pull towards the midline
what provides the most energy per gram
When saving a drowning person
use the front crawl keeping victim insight then switch to chest up breast stroke
large multinucleate cell found in growing bone that resorbs bony tissue, as in the formation of canals and cavities.
bone forming cell
beginners should work cardiovascular fitness..
3-5 days a week
what is the by-product of an activity that requires oxygen and the body cannot provide it in sufficient quanities?
lactic acid
Adult CPR
1- call 911 if victim is unresponsive
2- 30 times at a rate of 100 chest compression per minute (2 inches)
3-tilt head back, pinch nose, blow for 1 second till chest rises and give 2 breaths
Child CPR
30 compressions to 2 breaths, if you are alone with child perform for 2 minutes then call for help
training program that slightly increases weight over six months everyday is
progression- increasing reps or sets
overload- increasing weight
positive feedback
P- skill performed correctly giving a successful outcome
N- corrective feedback to stop certain performance or behavior
E-feedback from another person
I- comes from perform how they think the skill was performed
T- given before or after performance, strengthens the schema in the memory
C- gathered during performance, coach shouting information or intrinsic
moment of inertia
inertial property for rotating bodies that increase with both mass and the distance the mass is distributed form the axis of rotation
tendency of a body to resist a change in it’s state of motion
is take off and landing on 2 feet
choking up on the bat
increase chances to hit the ball, but sacrifices power
3 parts of aerobic exercise
warm up
exercise time (more than 20 minutes in target zone)
cool down
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
is the energy currency for biologic work. The chemical breakdown of ATP to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) produces an immediate energy source for muscular contraction.
oxygen deficit
s the delay in oxygen consumption during exercise when the oxygen needed for energy production remains below the required amount. The deficit is greatest during short-term intense exercise when the energy is supplied anaerobically. This exercise induced oxygen deficit produces an excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) above the resting level even following mild activity. The EPOC is needed to restore the oxygen deficit and physiologic function to the resting state.
an energy supplying chemical compound stored in muscle cells that anaerobically produces ATP for muscular contraction.
anaerobic threshold
defines the upper limit of exercise intensity that can be sustained aerobically. The anaerobic threshold is attained during more intense exercise where anaerobic metabolism represents a significant proportion of the required energy supply. The onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), aerobic-anaerobic threshold, individual anaerobic threshold, point of metabolic acidosis, and lactate threshold essentially mean the same thing.
aerobic capacity
is the highest amount of oxygen consumed during maximal exercise in activities that use the large muscle groups in the legs or arms and legs combined. Aerobic capacity, aerobic power, functional capacity, functional aerobic capacity, maximal functional capacity, cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular fitness, maximal oxygen intake, and maximal oxygen uptake are terms that are often used interchangeably.
sport that originated in the United States
volleyball- combination of tennis, basketball, baseball, handball
a conditioned runner has a higher
VO2 Max
measure pulse
coratid artery
radial artery
direct physiological consequence of warm down
increase speed of recovery, remove CO2 and lactic acid, ensure greater venous return, prevent blood pooling
Components of levers
Fulcrum- pivot, point at which lever rotates
Load- the force applied by the lever system
Effort- force applied by user of lever system
Classification of Levers
Class 1- The fulcrum lies between the effort and the load (tricep extension)
Class 2- fulcrum is at one end, the effort at the other end and the load lies between the effort and the fulcrum (standing heel lift)
Class 3- fulcrum is at one end, the load at the other end and the effort lies between the load and the fulcrum (bicep curl)
Types of Play
-on looker
U-stationary, no purpose in movement
S- playing alone, does not notice other children (2-3 yrs)
O-takes interest in others play but does not join
P- mimic other children’s play but does not interact
A-more interested in each other than the toys, first stage of social interaction
C- some organization formed, adopt rules, working in group,
Main objective of learning locomotor movement is..
to move through space to one place or another
Bloom’s Taxonomy learning domains
knowledge comprehension application analysis synthesis evaluation
Fitness Gram
created 1982 by cooper institute, criterean referenced standards to see if students are in the healthy zone,
PACER test, shoulder flex, trunk flex, BMI, curl ups, push ups, flex arm hang
Presidential Fitness Test
Consists of five activities:
sit ups
push ups or flex armed hang
shuttle run
mile run
sit and reach
Awards given to those who meet/exceed standards

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