Physical Disabilities, Health Impairments, and ADHD

What are the two IDEA disability categories that serve children with PD and HI?
“Severe orthopedic impairment” and “other health impairments”.
What, according to IDEA, is a “severe orthopedic impairment”?
Adversely affects educational performance. Includes impairments caused by congenital malformation (missing limb), disease (bone tuberculosis), and other causes (cerebral palsy).
What does an orthopedic impairment involve?
The skeletal system: bones, joints, limbs, and associated muscles.
What does neuromotor impairment involve?
The central nervous system. Affects ability to move, use, feel, or control parts of body.
What, according to IDEA, is “other health impairment”?
Having limited strength, vitality, or alertness (including heightened alertness). Adversely affects a child’s education.
What is cerebral palsy?
Disorder of voluntary movement and posture. Permanent condition resulting from a brain lesion or abnormality of brain growth. Can be treated but not cured.Usually not detected until 2 or 3 years old. Can range from mild to severe.
What is the most prevalent physical disability in school-age children?
Cerebral palsy
What is Athetosis?
Occurs in 20% of all cases of cerebral palsy. Causes large, irregular, twisting movements that cannot be controlled.
What is Ataxia?
Only 10% or less of cerebral palsy cases. Causes poor sense of balance and hand use.
What is the most common type of cerebral palsy?
HyPERtonia (not hypo)
What is hypotonia?
Type of cerebral palsy. Causes weak, floppy muscles, particularly in the neck or trunk.
What is hypertonia?
Occurs in 60% of cerebral palsy. Causes tense, contracted muscles, jerky movements, and poor coordination.
What is Spina Bifida?
A “neural tube defect” in which the vertebrae do not enclose the spinal cord, causing the nerves in lower body not to develop.
What is muscular dystrophy?
Group of 40 inherited diseases marked by progressive wasting away of the body’s muscles. Most common type is Duchenne.
What are the types of spinal cord injuries?
Quadriplegia, and paraplegia.
What is epilepsy?
When seizures occur chronically amd repeatedly, causing a loss of muscle control and movement.
What is diabetes?
Chronic disorder of the metabolism that effects 7% of US population. Type 1 and Type 2. System cannot obtain and retain adequate energy from food.
What is cystic fibrosis?
genetic disease in which the body’s endocrine glands excrete thick musuc that can block the lungs and part of the digestive system. Causes difficulty breathing, malnutrition and poor growth.
What is AIDS?
body cannot resist and fight off infections because of a breakdown in the immune system. Caused by HIV. Can be transmitted to fetus during pregnancy.
What is ADHD?
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
Too much or too little of expected attention and actions.
What broad dimensions do symptoms of ADHD occur in?
Symptoms of faulty attention and those related to hyperactivity and umpulsivity.
What percent of ADHD students qualify for special education?
40% to 50%
What are treatments for ADHD
Drug Therapy and Behavioral Intervention,
What is behavioral intervention?
Methods for teaching children with ADHD. Includes positive reinforcement, modifying assignments, and systematically gradually teaching self-control.
What is the difference between a PT and an OT?
PT (physical therapist) are involved with development and maintenance of motor skills, movement, and posture. OT (occupational therapists) are concerned with participation in activities useful in employment, recreation, communication, and daily living.
What does OT mean?
Occupational Therapist
What does PT mean?
Physical therapist
What does TVI mean?
Teacher of the visually impaired
What does TAI mean?
Teacher of the Auditory Impaired
What does O mean?
Orientation and Mobility
What does SLP mean?
Speech language pathologist
What does an SLP do?
(Speech Language Pathologist) provides speech therapy, language interventions, oral motor coordination, and alternative communication services
How does Idea define Assistive Technology Device?
any item/equipment/system that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilites of a child with a disability. Does not include surgically implanted devices
How does IDEA define assistive technology service?
Any service that directly assists a child with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of assistive technology device
What is an IHCP?
Individualized Health Care Plan. Part of student’s IEP. Includes information about how to handle routine healthcare procedures, physical management techniques, and medical emergencies that may arise while child is at school
What is OHI?
Other health impairments
What is VI, AI, and SI?
Visually impaired, Auditory impaired, and Speech impaired

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