Phil. & Theory

Fun Theory
“Fun is defined as a social-emotional interactional process wherein persons deconstruct social-biographical inequalities to create a with-equal-other, social-human bound.” Fun is volutary, situational,natural, and relative. Why use? Stress reducer, relaxed alertness, suspension of social reality, intrinsic motivation. Can engage and inrinsically will seek out other similar experiences. Stress becomes postiive “Eustress”.
Self-efficacy
Albert Bandura developed theory. Is one’s belief in her/his capacity to succeed at a task. Helps produce personal accomplishments. Healthy, unhealthy. Sources – prior mastery experience, vicarious experience, emotional arousal, and verbal persuasion.
Rites of Passage
refers to the process by which one moves from one level to the next. Is psychologically, spiritually, and physically intense. Separation, transition reintegration. 5 stage: symbolic journey, the challenge, opening the door to the dreaming, responsibility, comm.participation.
attribution theory
How people explain their successes or failures. Do you believe you are in control or external factors are controlling outcomes. Stability, locus of control, and locus of causality. Key terms external and internal (depends on situation). How do we encourage healthy attribution behavior?
Human and nature
Biophilia – that we inherently have a biological connection for nature. Psycho-evolutionary theory – outdoor education as a way to reclaim our connection with nature. Indiginous consciousness (genetically stored). Lifelike features and environments.
Adaptive dissonance
Risk – the potential to lose something of value. Competence – capability to deal effectively with demands from the natural environment. Definition of AD – two conflicting ideas or thoughts about oneself or situation.
Arousal Theory
Individuals naturally seeking appropriate level of arousal. (individualized) Paradigm – exploration and experimentation to peak adventure. Leaders must provide flexibility in programs.
Sequencing
Microsequence – flexible, can be manipulated. Macro is fixed.
Socrates
Believed in placing the learner in direct contact with the subject learned. Knowledge is based on experience.
PLATO
Believed in the development of virtues like wisdom (judgment), courage (tolerance to adversity), Morality (responsible citizen). We should help develop virtues. Taking risk is important for learning.
Aristotle
believed that one not only had to practice a skill to become skillful, but that one must also experience virtues in order to learn them. We should help develop virtues.
Rousseau
believed that physical activity was important for education of a child. Learning in the natural world promotes the development of a moral character. (responsible citizen.
Comenius
the use of the senses are the avenues in which children come into contact with the natural world
Pestalozzi
Lead your child out into nature..they will listen better, and the sense of freedom will give them more strength. Nature is the only true educator.
Descartes
believe we could know with certainty those things which we knew through reason (reflection).
Continental Rationalism
rationalist said that knowledge without experience is possible. (pomegrannete example)
Hume
believed that all knowledge comes from empirical sense data, and all knowledge should be traced to its empirical evidence for validation. (empiricism)Direct experience and observation is important
Empircist
argued that experience is the only true source of learning. Scientific methods and theories vs. intuition and faith
Kant
bridged the gap between contintental rationalism and empiricism. BOth experience and reflection are good for learning.
Dewey
FATHER OF experiential education. Believes learning through direct experience and then reflecting. (learning by doing)
Paul P.
Actionary figure of adventure education. NOSL, LNT, experienced based judgment, EB, wilderness leadership strategies.
Kurt Hahn
VIsionary – 6 declines of modern life. Salem school 1920. OB 1941. Duke of Edinburgs award. Congressional award. United World Colleges inspired by Hahns school.
Self concept
nature and organization about beliefs about ones self.
Self esteem
deals with general self worth or value
Self confidence
deals with the belief in ones personal worth and likelihood of succeeding

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