Orgs concepts

Activity-based budgeting
COURANT & Knepp
revenue to units is based on activities, i.e. whether they make or lose money
U-M – University Budgeting (UB) 1999
Activity-based budgeting definition from article p.141 an activity-based” budget system, in that increase in certain activities lead to automatic flows of resources and costs to the units that do the work and obtain the revenue. Revenue follows revenue-generating activity and units that engage in revenue-generating activity are given (at least) the lion’s share of those revenues. At the same time, increased activities generally create increased costs, both directly in those units and indirectly in other university administrative areas, and so associated costs generally also rise as revenues increase.
Anticipatory socialization
TIERNEY
(Merton)
“Anticipatory socialization is the process, facilitated by social interactions, in which non-group-members learn to take on the values and standards of groups that they aspire to join, so as to ease their entry into the group and help them interact competently once they have been accepted by it.” Wikipedia
Augmenting bias
small samples of info overvalued, used to make decisions as though it were larger sample.

Ex: We made some small change and in resulted in record enrollment so therefore we’re going to commit to more of the same, ignoring that it’s a small sample of data.

Availability heuristic
MARCH & HEATH
Wikipedia: “The availability heuristic is a phenomenon (which can result in a cognitive bias) in which people predict the frequency of an event, or a proportion within a population, based on how easily an example can be brought to mind.”
Belief conservation
MARCH & HEATH
Decision makers tend to interpret new experiences and information in ways that make them consistent with prior beliefs.
Tendency to retain one’s beliefs even in face of evidence to the contrary
Bureaucracy
BIRNBAUM
Cognitive complexity
BENSIMON & NEUMANN (?)
Bieri for extra
“. A person who is measured high on cognitive complexity tends to perceive nuances and subtle differences which a person with a lower measure, indicating a less complex cognitive structure for the task or activity, does not.” – WP
Cognitive repairs
HEATH et al.
Cognitive repairs improve the mental procedures individuals use to decide which task to pursue and how to pursue it.

Cognitive repair is one of the two classes of organizational repairs, the other repair is motivational repairs.

Collegium
BIRNBAUM
“Community of colleagues” “in which status differences are deemphasized and people interact as equals”
Competency traps
MARCH & HEATH
It arises in various forms in many adaptive systems and reflects the ways in which improving capabilities with one rule, technology, strategy, and practice interferes with changing that rule, technology, strategy, or practice to another that is potentially superior (but which the decision maker had little current competence).
Cooling-out function
CLARK

Idea that community colleges are society’s way of “cooling out” less apt students to make them feel better about still being college students. Reinterpreted in later literature as counseling students to have less ambition.

Cosmopolitans and Locals
GOULDNER

Mnemonic: Sipping a martini (cosmo) in a room made of GOLD

“The interdisciplinary structure of the university was designed, in part,
to make faculty loyal to the university rather than to their own discipline
or specialisation, fostering a community of locals rather than cosmopolitans”

Coupling (tight and loose)
WEICK
Culture
SWIDLER

“publicly available symbolic forms through which people experience and express meaning”

Differentiation
PORTER
Setting oneself apart from competitors, providing a value proposition not found elsewhere.
Discipline
ABBOTT
“groups of professors with exchangeable credentials collected in strong associations” (American concept of disc.)
Exchange model of power
MARCH & HEATH
Ppl improve positions by exchanging resources.
Experiential learning
MARCH & HEATH
Experiential learning is one of the four psychological mechanisms. Individuals learn to evoke (or not evoke) an identity in a situation by experiencing the rewards and punishments of having done so in the past. Identities in which they have had extensive positive experiences are more likely to be evoked than will those with less extended or less positive experience.
Feedback loops, amplifying loops
BIRNBAUM

A increases B, B increases A, etc., the loop amplifies the phenomenon with time.

Fractal change
Garbage can theory/Organized anarchy
COHEN
streams of individuals/problems/solutions, decisions result when all 3 come together
Individual attributes of power
PFEFFER, BIRNBAUM
Attributes of the individual are helpful to attaining power.
Institutions
DACIN citing Barley
[I]nstitutions are
collective social forms that consistently reflect as well as pattern action but that vary in scope and intensity.
Legitimacy
BIRNBAUM
legitmacy of rules affected by the use of them by others; adoption of appropriate behavior as interpreations of whats already observed; The most effective organizations are those in which the processes through which coordination is attempted are accepted as legitimate.
Limited rationality
MARCH & HEATH
Decision makers try to be rational, but they suffer from constraints on cognitive capability and available information.
Logics of appropriateness
MARCH &
Actions are matched to situations by means of rules organized into identities. Rule following is grounded in a logic od appropriateness.
Logrolls
Manifest / latent functions
MERTON in BIRNBAUM
Manifest functions – things that we explicitly say we are going to do.
Latent functions are those things we are going to do that are not ‘explicitly intended.’ If you know both types of functions in your organization, it means you probably have a good sense for your environment and what it expects of the organization.
Moral seduction
MOORE in BASTEDO
The prioritization of external interests is often a gradual process where
participants come to believe more in the fundamental rightness of their own
judgments than in the organizational mission as constructed by others. This
process can be characterized as moral seduction, and there are many reasons
why it may occur even among conscientious organizational leaders “
Open system
SCOTT in BASTEDO
“a system that is capable of self-maintenance on the basis of throughput of resources from the environment”
Profession
ABBOTT
Knowledge system governed by system of abstractions that allows them to defend their jurisdiction from interlopers and seize new problems
Professional
CLARK
In context of “fragmented professionalism” – “on the back of specialisation”- faculty historically became more specialized, took on more attributes of the academic profession.
Professional regression and degradation
ABBOTT
Regression: Routine duties that were originally part of the work of a profession and later these routine activities that are not dependent on expertise become the responsibility of nonprofessionals, leaving professionals with more specialized, complex, abstract work.
Degradation: Professional degradation occurs when one profession is subjugated under another profession. The work of these professions that used to be highly specialized often gradually becomes more routinzed (and not governed enough by abstraction), and these jobs thus become nonprofessional careers that full under the supervision of another more specialized
Rational choice theory
MARCH & HEATH
Rational choice theory assume that all decision makers share a common set of (basic) preferences, that alternative and their consequences are defined by the environment, and that decision makers have perfect knowledge of those alternatives and their consequences.
Real and illusory teams
BENSIMON & NEUMANN
Three domains: utilitarian, expressive, cognitive. Real team fills all 3 roles, illusory team only 1 or 2.
Resource dependence theory
PFEFFER
Organizations depend on resources.
These resources ultimately originate from an organization’s environment.
The environment, to a considerable extent, contains other organizations.
The resources one organization needs are thus often in the hand of other organizations.
Resources are a basis of power.
Legally independent organizations can therefore depend on each other.
Power and resource dependence are directly linked:
Organization A’s power over organization B is equal to organization B’s dependence on organization A’s resources.
Power is thus relational, situational and potentially mutual.
Responsibility-centered management
COURANT
“A budgeting and resource allocation system that gives units
(schools, colleges, organized research units, etc.) credit for revenues
generated and costs incurred. The basic principle is to treat units as
“profit/cost centers.”” (direct quote)
Ritual
MARCH
Rituals are sets of ceremonial forms by which traditions are preserved and meanings sustained.
Saga
CLARK
narrative of heroic exploits, of a unique development that has deeply stirred
Satisficing
MARCH
Combination of satisfy and suffice – choosing the first alternative that’s “good enough” without necessarily weighing every possible option.
Sensemaking
WEICK, MARCH
“attempts to provide causal stories about ambiguous events”
Simplification processes
MARCH & HEATH
editing, decomposition, heuristics, framing
Slack
MARCH
The resulting cushion of uneexploited opportunities and undiscovered economies-the difference between a decisions maker’s realized achievement and potential achievement-is slack.
Socialization
TIERNEY
The process by which a neophyte to an organization is brought into the community, involving an imparting of the community’s values.
Specialization
CLARK
Strategy
PORTER
Success-induced risk
MARCH & HEATH
People take risks – some of them succeed just by random chance. In an org. where skill is held to be more important than it actually is, the risk takers who succeed are held in higher esteem than their skills would warrant
Superstitious learning
MARCH & HEATH
People associate actions and outcomes even when no causal relationship – they “superstitiously” believe actions caused the outcomes.
Unit-driven power
PFEFFER
Pfeffer – right unit – aka “subunit power” (I think the same thing)
Power that comes from being in a particular unit.
“comes from being unified, being able to deal w/ critical org problems
Virtual adoption
BIRNBAUM
Institution might virtually “adopt” the latest fad but only in official policy, not in implementation.

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