Neurology Part 2 pathophysiology

The meatus of the ear appears above the __________?
mastoid process
________________ promote conductivity of sound between the external ear and middle ear.
mastoid air cells
Symptoms of ear pain, fever, irritability, an inflamed tympanic membrane and fluid in the middle ear are signs of?
acute otitis media
nonsuppurative and suppurative are classifications of?
acute otitis
Impaired judgement and decision making?
confusion
beginning loss of consciousness?
disorientation
limited spontaneous movement or speech, exhibits slow vocalization, decreased motor skills and oculomotor activity?
lethargy
mild to moderate reduction in arousal, continuous stimulation is needed for arousal and the eyes are usually closed?
obtundation
deep sleep or unresponsiveness, vocalization only in response to painful stimuli?
stupor
Displays no vocalizatoin, no spontaneous eye movement, and no arousale to any stimulus, BUT brain stem reflexes are intact?
Coma
Eye opening, best verbal response and best motor response are parts of the standardized ____________ to determine the severity of the patient’s brain injury?
Glasgow Coma Scale
Compression of the brain stem can be caused by?
hematoma, hemorrhage, aneurysm, cerebellar hemorrhage, infarcts, abscesses, neoplasms and demyelinating disorders
Extracerebral disorders include?
neoplasms, closed-head trauma with subsequent bleeding and subdural accumulation of pus
Sudden abnormal electrical activity in the brain is __________
seizure
Rapid and uncontrollable shaking of he body?
convulsion
repeated seizures occuring over time?
epilepsy
Occurrence of 2nd, 3rd or multiple seizures before regaining consciousness from the preceding seizure?
status epilepticus
Generalized tonic clonic movement is AKA
grand mal seizure
absence AKA
petit mal seizure
Generalized tonic-clonic movement and absence involve ___________ areas
bilateral
focal motor and psychomotor seizures involve __________ area?
unilateral
cerebral dysfunction secondary to drug intoxication or nervous system disease as classified as?
acute confusional states
Loss of more than one cognitive or intellectual function is ?
dementia
Severe cognitive dysfunction in older people which is chronic and is an irreversible dementia?
Alzheimer disease
Alteration in cerebral hemodynamics due to increase of extracellular or intracelluarl fluid within the brain after brain insult from trauma, infection, hemorrhage, tumor, ischemia, infarct or hypoxemia?
cerebral edema
Flaccidity is a type of ?
hypotonia
Spasticity and rigidity are types of?
hypertonia
Spasticity and rigidity are types of?
hypertonia
paresis and paralysis are types of?
hypokinesia
Blunt brain trauma is AKA
closed
Open brain trauma is AKA
penetrating
Most common type of brain injury?
concussions
force of impact on the brain typically produces _______ on the brain?
contusions (bruises)
Immediate loss of consciousness, loss of reflexes transient stop of respirations, brief bradycardia and drop in blood pressure are manifestions of?
a contusion
Extradural hematomas, epidural hematomas or epidural hemorrhages most often have a/an _________ as the source of bleeding?
artery
Tearing of the bridging veins occurring either rapidly and or subacutely are indicative of ?
subdural hematoma
When small blood vessels are traumatized by shearing forces?
intracerebral hemaotma
Structural defect involving the lamina (neural arch of the vertebra)?
spondylolysis
When vertebra slide forward in relation to inferior vertebra, common at L5-S1?
spondylolisthesis
Entrapment of single nerve root in the lateral recess or diffuse central stenosis involving many roots may represent?
spinal stenosis
Ischemic (thrombotic or embolic), global hypoperfusion (as in shock) or hemorrhagic are types of?
CVA(s)
HTN, smoking, elevated blood lipoprotein-a, DM, insulin resistance, impaired cardiac function, non-rheumatic afib, coag disorders, polycythemia, thrombocythemia, postmenopausal estrogen use are risk factors for?
CVA
TIA, strokes-in-evolution, completed strokes are ____________
thrombotic strokes
strokes or infarcts that involve small arteries and occur frequently in the basal ganglia, internal capsules and brain stem are _____________
lacunar
AVM, cavernous angioma, capillary telangestasis, venous angioma are types of _________
vascular malformations
A tangled mass of dilated blood vessels is known as ___________
AVM
_____________ headaches are seen mostly in men age 20-50, several attacks during the day followed period of spontaneous remission?
cluster
Most common type of heaache, occurs in 40-60% population, is bilateral, mild to moderate in severity, sensation of tight band or pressure around head, comes in episodes – may last hours or several days?
tension
primary or metastatic are classification of _________ tumors?
cranial
Astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, oligodendrogliomas, ependyoma adn meningiomas are classifications of _______?
common primary brain tumors
Bacterial meningitis affects the _____________?
pia mater, arachnoid and subarachnoid space, CSF and ventricles
aseptic meningitis affects ______?
meninges
encephalitis affects _________?
meninges, white and gray matter
Infectious agents of bacterial meningitis are _________?
Neisseria, pneumococci, haemophilus
Infectious agents of aseptic meningitis are ?
enteroviral viruses and herpes simplex I
Infectious agents of encephalitis are?
arthropod-borne viruses, herpes simplex I, complications of systemic viral infection
With this infection meningeal vessels become hyperemic and permable?
bacterial meningitis
With this infection there is nerve cell degeneration?
encephalitis
This infection is similar to a bacterial infection?
aseptic meningitis
bacterial meningitis manifestations?
throbbing headache, flexion of legs and thighs, neck stiffness, projectile vomiting and confusion
aseptic meningitis manifestations?
mild symptoms as compared to bacterial meningitis, but similar
encephalitis manifestations?
fever, delirium, confusion, coma, seizure, cranial nerve palsies, paresis and paralysis
viral, nonpurulent or lymphocytic meningitis are also known as?
aseptic meningitis
Progressive cognitive dysfunction in conjunction with motor and behavioral alterations in an HIV patient is?
HIV encephalopathy
Multinucleated giant cell encephalitis involving diffuse degeneration of the spinal cord in an HIV patient – manifesting as a progressive spastic paraparesis with ataxia, leg weakness, upper motor neuron signs, incontinence, and posterior column sensory loss is diagnosed as?
vascular myelopathy
HIV patient with painful dysthesias and paresthesias in the extremities, weakness, and decreased or absent distal reflexes is diagnosed as?
peripheral neuropathy
HIV patients may develop this diagnosis at the time of positive seroconversion manifesting as headache, fever, meningismus with cranial nerve involvement especially of V and VII?
aseptic meningitis
Papovavirus, demyelinating disorders, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, cytomegalovirus encephalgitis in a patient with HIV are known as?
opportunistic viral infections
Peripheral nervous system consists of?
nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord
___________ is the main function of the PNS?
connect to the CNS
PNS is divided into __________?
somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
radiculopathies and radiculitis are disorders of?
spinal nerve roots
Guillain-Barre syndrome is caused by immunologic reaction directed at?
peripheral nerves
myasthenia gravis involves __________ muscles?
voluntary or striated
Parkinson disease affects?
basal ganglia, degeneration of dopaminergic receptors
Huntington affects?
basal ganglia, frontal cortex, depletion of GABA
Multiple sclerosis affects?
CNS, demyelination
ALS affects?
Scarring of corticospinal tract in lateral column of spinal cord, upper and lower motor neurons.
Parkinson disease is caused by?
dopamine insufficiency, trauma infection, neoplasms, drugs and toxins
Huntington disease is caused by?
autosomal dominant, chromosome 4
Multiple sclerosis is caused by?
Immunogenetic viral, genetic, environmental, T cells become auto-reactive to myelin protein.
ALS is caused by?
genetics, defective superoxide dismutase gene.
Parkinson age onset?
>40, peaks in 60s
Huntington age onset?
30s and 50s
Huntington age onset?
30s and 50s
Multiple sclerosis age onset is?
between 20 and 40
ALS age onset ?
40s, peaks in 50s
anencephaly is?
absence of skull and parts of the brain that results from early closure of the anterior neural tube
encephalocele is?
herniation of the brain and meninges through a midline defect in the skull
meningocele is?
protrusion of meninges through a vertebral defect
Myelomeningocele is also known as?
spina bifida
Myelomeningocele is?
herniation of the meninges, spinal fluid, spinal cord and nerves through a vertebral defect.
Spina bifida occulta is?
Defect occurring in the lumbar or sacral area of the spine because of incomplete fusion of the vertebral laminae and is not visible to the naked eye.
craniosynostosis is?
premature closure of cranial suture during the first 20 months of life.
congenital hydrocephalus is?
increase in CSF volume, a defect in the reabsorption or a blockage of the ventricular drainage system
cerebral palsy is?
static encephalopathy
cerebral palsy is?
syndrome of motor disabilities that may be accompanied by mental retardation, seizures or both – is an assorted group of neurologic syndromes such as spasticity, ataxia, dyskinesia.
PKU is?
encephalopathy caused by inherited metabolic disorder and is progressive in nature.
Reye syndrome is?
acute encephalopathy believed to be caused by an interaction of aspirin, viruses and liver dysfunction.
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a type of?
seizure disorder
CNS consists of?
brain and spinal cord
This part of the brain performs sensory, motor and reflex functions; controls cardiac, vasomotor and respiratory centers; centeral nerve reflex?
brain stem
This part of the brain coordinates the activities of groups of muscles; maintains equilibrium; controls posture?
cerebellum
This part of the brain deals with conscious recognition of crude pain, temperature and touch, relays sensory impulses (except smell) to cerebrum; emotions, arousal mechanism; complex reflex movements?
diencephalon thalamus
This part of the brain links nervous system to endocrine system, corrdinates autonomic mnervous system controls body temperature, hunger thirst and sleep?
hypothalamus
This part of the brain deals with voluntary control of sekeletal muscles, unconscious skeletal muscle movement, speaking and writing?
frontal
This part of the brain deals with interpretation of odor and sound?
temporal
This part of the brain deals with general body sensations?
parietal
This part of the brain deals with sight?
Occipital
This part(s) of the brain deals with memory; emotions; reasoning; intelligence?
all lobes
This part of the brain deals with language, numeric skills; controlls right side of body?
left hemisphere
This part of the brain deals with musical and artistic awareness; space and pattern perception; insight and controls the left side of the body?
right hemisphere
contusions produce?
epidural hemorrhages, subdural hematomas and intracerebral hematomas
contusion, extradural hematomas, subdural hematomas and intracerebral hematomas are all types of ____________?
traumatic brain injuries

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