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Age of Pericles
A period (455-431 BC) of Greek history in which sufficiently great strides were made in human advancement to generate an organized concern for formal education.
Socrates
One of the world’s great philosophers. From Athens. 470-399BC. Created the Socratic Method of teaching. His fundimental principle was “Knowledge is Virtue”. Was brought to trial for inciting the people against the government. When given the option to stop teaching or be put to death, he chose death.
Sparta
A militaristic state in Greece whose educational system was geared to support military ambitions. Spartan education was centered on developing such ideals as courage, partiotism, obedience, cunning and physical strength. There was relatively little intellectual content in Spartan education.
Athens

A Greek city-state, which developed an educational program that heavily stressed intellectual and aesthetic objectives. Some boys, aged 8-16, attended a series of public schools (grammar school for reading, writing, and counting; gymnastics school for sports and games; and a music school which taught history, drama, poetry, speaking, science and music).

 

Athenian education stresssed individual development, aesthetics and cutlure.

Socrates, Plato and Aristotle

The three great philosopers of the early western world. All were Greek.

 

Socrates – 470-399 BC

 

Plato – 427-347 BC

 

Aristotle – 384-322 BC

Socratic Method
A method of teaching in which the teacher asks a series of questions that lead the student to a certain conclusion.
Plato

427-399 BC. Student of Socrates. Wrote Republic which set forth his recommedations for an ideal society. He believed that each person’s abilities should be used to serve society. His educational aim was to discover and develop each individual’s abilities.

 

I call education the virtue which is shown by children when the feelings of joy or of sorrow, of love or of hate, which arise in their souls, are made comfortable to order”

Republic
Plato’s writing that set forth his recommendations for the ideal society. He suggested that society should contain three classes of people: the Artisans, to do the manual work; Soldiers, to defend the society; and Philosophers, to advance knowledge and rule the society.
Aristotle

384-322 BC. Believed that a person’s most important purpose in life was to serve and improve humankind. His educational method was scientific, practical and objective, rather than philosophical. Believed that the quality of a society was determined by the quality of education found in that society. 

 

He was the most influential on humankind throughout the middle ages.

Ludi
Roman schools where the rudiments of reading and writing were taught. These schools existed before 146 BC.

Grammaticus

(Latin grammar schools)

Where boys would study Latin, literature, history, mathematics, music and dialects.
Quintillian
One of the most influential Roman educators. Wrote 12 books, The Institutes of Oratory, describing current educational practices, recommending the type of educational system needed in Rome, and listing the great books in existence at that time.
Quintillian’s statement regarding the motiviation of students
Let study be made a child’s diversion; let him be soothed and caressed into it, and let him sometimes test himself upon his proficiency. Sometimes enter a contest of wits with him, and let him imagine that he comes off the conqueror. Let him even be encouraged by giving him such rewards that are most appropriate to his age.
What is most commonly sited as the cause of the Western world’s plunge into the Dark Ages?

The Roman Catholic Church’s rise to power.

 

Speciffically because focus was shifted toward gaining entrance into heaven rather than making intellectual advances and the betterment of life while on Earth.

The Dark Ages
400-1000 AD. A time when human learning and knowledge not only stood still, but regressed due to political and religious oppression of the common people.
Charlemagne
742-814 AD. A ruler who realized the value of education. He ruled a large part of Europe. He established schools and encouraged scholarly activity.
Alcuin
735-804 AD. A teacher from England who served as Charlemagne’s chief educational advisor. The most famous teacher of his day.
Seven Liberal Arts
A medieval curriculum that consisted of the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, and logic) and the quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy).
Thomas Aquinas
1225-1274 AD. Helped change the church’s views on learning. This change led to the creation of medieval Universities. Formalized scholasticism. Wrote Summa Theologica which became the doctrinal authority of the Roman Catholic Church. His educational and philosophical views were formalized in Thomism – a philosophy that has remained important in Roman Catholic parochial education.
Scholasticism
The logical and philosophical study of the beliefs of the church.
the Medieval Universities

University of Bologna 1158 – specialized in law

University of Paris 1180 – specialized in theology

Oxford University 1214

University of Salerno 1224

 

(By the time Columbus sailed to N. America there were already approximately 80 universities in Europe)

What two very important movements took place during the educational transition period of 1300-1700 AD?
The Renaissance and the Reformation.
The Renaissance
The Renaissance represented the protest of individuals against the dogmatic authority the church exerted over their social and intellectual life. Began around 1300 in Italy when people began to aquire a thirst for knowledge again much as was prevalent in ancient Greece. This resulted in a general revival of classical learning called humanism.
The Reformation
This represented a reaction against certain beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church, particularly those that discouraged learning and that, in consequence, kept lay people in ignorance.
Vittorino Da Feltre
1378-1446 AD. An educator during the Renaissance. Studied at the University of Florence. He believed that people could be educated and also be Christians at the same time (this was not a belief held by the Roman Catholics at the time). He established several schools, taught in a variety of others, and generally helped to advance the development of education. He helped rekindle an interest in the value of education during the Renaissance.
Erasmus
1466-1536 AD. One of the most famous humanist educators. Wrote The Right Method of Instruction and The Liberal Education of Boys. These books helped form a humanistic method of education.
What was Erasmus’ statement concerning the aims of education?
The duty of instructing the young includes several elements, the first and also the chief of which is that the tender mind of the child should be instructed in piety; the second, that he love and learn the liberal arts; the third, that he be taught tact in the conduct of social life; and the fourth, that from his earliest age he accustom himself to good behavior based on moral principles.
What are Erasmus’ “elements” of instructing the young?

1. He should be instructed in piety.

2. He must love and learn the liberal arts.

3. He must be taught tact in the conduct of social life.

4. He should be accustomed to good behavior, based on moral principles, from his earliest age.

Martin Luther
1483-1546 AD. An educator during the Prodestant Reformation. Published 95 theses in 1517 which stated disagreements with the Roman Catholic Church. He felt not only that the church had itself misinterpreted the Bible, but also that people were intended to read and interpret the Bible for themselves. This made education important as a way of obtaining salvation.
Ignatius of Loyola
1491-1556 AD. Organized the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in 1540 to combat the Reformation movement. The Jesuits worked to establish schools to further the cause of the Roman Catholic Church. The Jesuits grew in to a great teaching order and were very successful in training their own teachers.
Who are the Jesuits?
The Society of Jesus. Established in 1540 by Martin Luther. They worked to establish schools to further the cause of the Roman Catholic Church and stem to spread of the Reformation. Their main interest was religious however they grew into a great teching order that was very successful in training their own teachers.
What was one of the main contributions the Jesuits made to education?
The improvement of teacher training.
What invention during the 1400’s was essential to growth of education by making it possible to produce books rapidly and economically?
Printing
Johann Amos Comenius
1592-1670 AD. Wrote many textbooks including Orbis Pictus. His books were among the first to contain illustrations. His writings reflected the icreasing interest that was developing at that time in science.
John Locke
1632-1704 AD. An influential English educator. Wrote Some Thoughts on Education and Essay Concerning Human Understanding. He viewed a child’s mind as a blank slate (tabula rosa) on which an education could be imprinted. He believed that a learning environment should be non-threatening – a revolutionary idea at that time.
The Age of Reason
The beginning of the modern period of education, a period in which European thinkers emphasized the importance of reason. The writing of Voltaire strongly influenced the rationalist movement.
By what name was Francois-Marie Arouet better known?
Voltaire
Voltaire
1694-1778 AD. A french writer who was one of the leaders of the Age of Reason. He is known to have been brilliant, clever, witty, and vain. He is credited by many to be a large influence on both the French and American Revolutions.
What were the people who joined the Age of Reason movement called and why?
Rationalists. Because of the faith they placed in human rational power.
Rene Descartes
1596-1650 AD. Laid the foundations for the rationalism.
What are the axioms that evolved through the philosopy of rationalism?

1. Reason is supreme.

2. The laws of nature are invariable.

3. Truth can be verified empirically – by exact methods of testing. 

Frederick the Great
1712-1786 AD. The leader of Prussia. Also a leader of the Age of Reason and friend of Voltaire’s. Supported that education had value. He was a liberal thinking and did not try to force the common people into a particular form of religion. He permitted an unusual amount of free speech and generally allowed the common people a degree of liberty that most considered dangerous. Under his reign laws were passed regarding education and teachers were required to obtain special training as well as licenses to teach.
Emergence of Common Man
A period during which the idea developed that common people should recieve at least a basic education as a means to a better life (politically, economically, socially, and educationally).
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
1712-1778 AD. One of the leaders of the Emergence of Common Man movement. Wrote Social Contract. He was a philosopher, not an educator, but he wrote a good deal about education. His most important educational work was Emile. He felt that the aim of education should be to return human beings to their “natural state”. His views became known as Naturalism. His most important contributions to education were his belief that education must be a natural process, not an artificial one, and his compassionate, positive view of the child. He believed that children were inherently good, not full of sin.
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
1746-1827 AD. He was a Swiss educator who put Rousseau’s theory into practice. He established two schools for boys. Teachers came from all over the world to observe and learn his teaching methods. He wrote the book Leonard and Gertrude which enumerated his educational views. He believed that teachers should treat students with love and kindness, unlike most educators of his time. His method includes the expression of love, understand and patience with children; compassion for the poor; and the use of objects and sense perception as the basis for acquiring knowledge.
Hebartian teaching method

An organized teaching method based on the principles of Pestalozzi that stresses learning by association and consists of five steps; preparation, presentation, association, generalization and application.

 

These are contained in his works, Science of Education, and Outlines of Educational Doctrine.

Describe the five formal steps of the Hebartian Teaching Method.

1. Preparation: preparing the student to receive a new idea

2. Presentation: prestenting the student with the new idea

3. Association: assimilating the new idea with old ideas

4. Generalization: generalizing the new idea derived from combination of old and new ideas

5. Application: applying the new knowledge

Friedrich Froebel
1782-1852 AD. A European educator influenced by Rousseau and Pestalozzi. Made significant contributions to education including the establishment of the first Kindergarten, an emphasis of social development, a concern for cultivation of creativityf, and the concept of learning by doing. He also originated the idea that women are best suited to teach young children.
What were the Southern Colonies made up of? What were the immediate primary sources of labor?
The Southern Colonies were made up of tobacco plantations. While you would think slavery would have been an immediate early source of labor, there were no slaves until the first 5 were imported in 1619. The major source of labor was indentured servants who agreed to provide labor in exchange for passage across the Atlantic to the New World. Indentured servants were very much like slaves. Two classes of people emerged as a result, the few wealthy landowners and the large mass of laborers.
Who settled the middle colonies?
People of various national (Dutch, Swedish) and religious (Puritan, Mennonite, Catholic) backgrounds.
Old Deluder Satan Act
An early colonial education law (1647) that required colonial towns of at least fifty households to provide education for youth.
What was the first colonial college?
Harvard (1636)
Where and when was the first Monitorial school in the US established?
New York – 1805
What was a Monitorial school
A school established in an attempt to provide economical mass elementary education for large numbers of children.  Typically the teacher would teach hundreds of pupils, using the better students as helpers.
Why did the Monitorial schools close?
The children had not learned enough to justify continuance of this type of school.
Horace Mann
1796-1859 AD. Secretary of the state board of education in Massachusetts. Helped establish common elementary schools. He also published The Common School Journal.
Common Elementary Schools
Schools that originated in the mid-ninteenth century designed to provide a basic elementary education for all children.
Compulsory Education
School attendance that is required by law on the theory that it is of benefit to the state or commonwealth to educate all people.
When and where was the first compulsory education law passed in the United States?
1852 Massachusetts
Henry Barnard
1811-1900 AD. The first US commissioner of education. Founded the American Journal of Education. Prior to serving as US commissioner of education he served as the Rhode Island commissioner of public schools and as the chancellor of the University of Wisconsin. He also strongly supported Kindergarten programs for very young children and high school programs for older students.
Until the late 1800’s, what were the motive, curriculum and administration of elementary education geared toward?
Religion
Who established The American Academy? When? Where?
Ben Franklin. 1751. Philidelphia.
What was the name of the first high school in America? When and where was it established?
The English Classical School (which later changed it’s name to the English High School) opened in Boston in 1821.
About when werre the first Junior High Schools established?
1910
What is a hornbook?
The most common teaching device in early colonial schools. A single page containing the alphabet, syllables, a prayer, or other simple words, tacked to a wooden paddle and covered with a thin transparent layer of cow’s horn; used in colonial times as a beginner’s first book or preprimer.
What was the first textbook to be used in colonial elementary schools?
The New England Primer
What was the textbook written by Noah Webster that eventually replaced the New England Primer?
The American Spelling Book (the Blue-Backed Speller)
Why was the American Spelling Book referred to as The Blue-Backed Speller?
Because it’s cover was made up of thin sheets of wood covered by light blue paper.
What was contained in The Blue-Backed Speller?
The first part of the book contained rules and instructions for using the book, which was followed by the alphabet, syllables, and consonants. The bulk of the book was taken up with lists of words arranged according to syllables and sounds. It also contained rules for reading and speaking, moral advice, and stories of various sorts.
What book replaced the Blue-Backed Speller?
McGuffey’s Readers.
Who made the first attempts to educate slaves of African decent?
French and Spanish missionaries in an effort to introduce them to the Bible.
Elias Neau
Established one of the first northern schools for African Americans in New York City in 1704. He was an agent of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts.
When was the first schoolhouse for African Americans built in the District of Columbia?
1807 by several free African Americans including George Bell, Nicholas Franklin, and Moses Liverpool.
Who was the first African American teacher in the District of Columbia? What year did this person begin teaching there?
1824, John Adams
Who established an academy for African American girls in the District of Columbia in 1851? Is it still functioning? If so, what is operating as today?
Myrtilla Miner. It is functioning today as the School of Education at the University of the District of Columbia.
When was the first primary school for African American children established in the city of Boston?
1820
Frederick Douglass
1817-1895 AD. Born in slavery in Maryland. Ran away and  spoke to abolishonist groups about his experiences in slavery. He firmly believed that if he devoted all his efforts to improving vocational education, he could greatly improve the plight of African Americans.
John Chavis
1763-1838 AD. A free man born in Oxford, NC. He became a successful teacher of aristocratic whites. He was sent to Princeton by his white neighbors “to see if a Negro would take a college education”. He was greatly successful learning under Dr. Witherspoon.
Prudence Crandall
1803-1890 AD. Established a boarding school in Canterbury, Conneticut. She admitted an African American girl which created great anger among the whites in the area. The whites withdrew their children from the school. Ms. Crandall then recruited African American students. She was arrested and tried however the case was eventually dropped. She worked for the abolition of slavery, for women’s rights and for African American education.
Booker T. Washington
1856-1915 AD. Founded the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama in 1880 so African American could gain an eduction in order to compete in society. The institution provided basic and industrial educaiton in its early years and gradually expanded to provide a wider ranging college curriculum. It still stands today.
In what year was slavery abolished?
1865
Where were the earliest formal schools on this continent established? By whom?
Mexico and the southwestern part of what is now the United States by Spanish missionaries.
Emma Willard
1787-1870 AD. A pioneer and champion for the education of females. Opened one of the first female seminaries in 1821 in Troy, New York.  This school offered an educational program equal to that of a boy’s school.
Maria Montessori
1870-1952 AD. Developed her own theory and methods of educating young children. Her methods utilized child-sized school furniture and specifically designed learning materials. She emphasized independent work by children under the guidance of a trained directress.
Ella Flagg Young
1845-1918 AD. Earned a doctorate at the age of 50. Was appointed head of the Cook County Normal School in Illinois, and became superintendent of the gigantic Chicago public school system in 1909. She was also elected the first female president of the National Education Association.
Mary McLeod Bethune
1875-1955 AD. The first of seventeen children in her family and the only one not born in to slavery. She attended a free school for African American children and would return home and teach her brothers and sisters what she had learned. She believed that education was key in helping African American children move into mainstream american life. She devoted her life to improving educational opportunities for African American women. Started the Daytona Normal and Industrial School for Negro Young Women and later Bethune-Cookman College, where she served as president until 1942. She served as founder and head of the National Council of Negro Women, firector of the Division of Negro Affairs of the National Youth Administration, President F.D. Roosevelt’s special adviser on minority affairs, and special consultant for drafting charter of the United Nations.

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