Mental Retardation Ch. 6-7

Transfer/generalization of Skills
Learning or regularly performing a skill can affect, either positively or negatively, the learning of a second skill.
Metacognition
Thinking about thinking – an awareness of how and when to use certain learning strategies.
Distractibility
a condition in which the attention of the mind is easily distracted by small and irrelevant stimuli
Short-term Memory
memory that involves recall of information for a relatively short time (as a few seconds)
Learned Helplessness
a technical term in animal psychology and related human psychology, means a condition of a human person or an animal in which it has learned to behave helplessly, even when the opportunity is restored for it to help itself by avoiding an unpleasant or harmful circumstance to which it has been subjected.
Locus of control
an individual’s perception about the underlying main causes of events in his/her life
Self-concept
how we think about and evaluate ourselves. To be aware of oneself is to have a concept of oneself.
Self-regulation
Self Regulation is the ability to attain, maintain and change your level of arousal appropriately for a task or situation. Arousal is considered a state of the nervous system and describes how alert someone feels. To attend, concentrate and perform tasks according to situational demands, the nervous system must be in an optimal state of arousal (or alertness) for the particular task. Adults use a variety of subtle sensory techniques to maintain their arousal level.
Self-determination
A person’s ability to engage in self-managed, goal-focused, independent, behavior.
Extrinsic motivation
The desire or push to perform a certain behavior based on the potential external rewards that may be received as a result.
Stereotypical Behavior
is a repetitive or ritualistic movement, posture, or utterance, found in people with mental retardation,
Self-injurious behavior
Abnormal behaviors that are harmful to oneself, such as head-banging or scratching or biting oneself.
Attention
Notice taken of someone or something; the regarding of someone or something as interesting or important
Motivation
The reason or reasons one has for acting or behaving in a particular way
Dual Diagnosis
Describes people with mental retardation who also have a psychiatric disorder.

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