Learning Philosophies

Cognitive-Constructivist View of Reading
Reading is a process in which the reader actively searches for meaning in what she reads.
Cognitive Orientation
Cognitive psychologists view the learner and her background knowledge as central to learning and the study of learners’ thought processes as a fundamental focus of their work. They also view learners as active participants, who act on, rather than simply respond to, their external environment as they learn.
Constructivism
Emphasizes the idea that comprehending a text is very much an active process. It holds that the meaning one constructs from a text is subjective—the result of one particular person’s processing of the text.
Word Recognition
Is the ability of a reader to recognize written words correctly and virtually effortlessly.
Fluency
Is the ability to read a text orally with speed, accuracy, expression, and comprehension.
Constructive-Integration Process

  • Construction, in which the reader comprehends sentences and then links ideas from one sentence to another.
  • Integration is the process of using prior knowledge to expand and interpret the meaning the author has put on the pages.
  • Metacognition, the reader confirms that this makes sense.

Schema
Is concerned with knowledge, particularly with the way knowledge is represented in our minds, how we use that knowledge, and how it expands.
Reader Response Theory
It puts a good deal of emphasis on the reader, stressing that the meaning one gains from text is the result of a transaction between the reader and the text and that readers will have a range of responses to literary works.
Sociocultural Theory
It extends the influence on the cognitive-constructivist view out from the reader and the text into the larger social realm.  Learning is viewed as primarily a social rather than an individual matter.

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