Learning and Teaching Chapter 1


the process of requiring students to demonstrate mastery of the topics they study as well as holding teachers responsible for this learning.

Behaviorism and learning

 emphasized the importance of observable, external events on learning and the role of reinforcers in influencing student learning. (dominated first half of 20th century)

          View of learning: accumulation of responses through selective reinforcement

          View of learner: passive recipient of stimuli from environment.

          View of teacher: controller of stimuli and shaper of behaviors through reinforcement

Cognitive psychology and learning

 believed students were not passive learners, but active participants. Student’s characteristics such as background knowledge, motivation, and the use of learning strategies all influenced learning.

          View of learning: development of strategies to encode and retrieve information

          View of learner: active meaning maker through strategy use

          View of teacher: partner in the process of meaning making: teacher of organizational and retrieval strategies


 students as creators of understanding. (consist of 4 components)

1.       Learners construct their own understanding rather than having it delivered or transmitted to them

2.       New learning depends on prior understanding and knowledge

3.       Learning is enhanced by social interaction

4.       Authentic learning tasks promote meaningful learning

Decision making

 involves the application of professional judgment in deciding when, where, how, and why to use the other components of teaching.

          Executive function that governs the application of other teaching components ( knowledge of subject matter, pedagogical content knowledge, knowledge of teaching and learning, teaching strategies)

English language learners (ELLs)

 students whose first or home language is not English.

Knowledge of teaching and learning

  involves a general understanding of learners and how instruction contributes to the process of learning.

Pedagogical content knowledge

the ability of the teacher to know how to represent that information in ways that learners will understand

 (e.g. review, concept, prompting, concrete example, and wait-time)

Professional portfolio

a collection of work produced by a prospective teacher


 thinking about and analyzing your actions and beliefs


 suggested changes in teaching and teacher preparation intended to increase the amount students learn

Teacher effective Research

efforts focused on differences between less and more effective teachers. 

Attempting to find links between what teachers actually do in classrooms and student learning

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