LD Theories and Definitions: Chapter 5 -set #2

Grace Fernald
Developed a teaching approach for reading and writing, while working at a clinical school, at the University of California in 1921.
neurological perspective
To date, the neurological perspective has not resulted in effective treatments for most students with disabilities, with the obvious exception of certain medication treatments for hyperactivity.
hemispheric specialization
Children who experience learning disabilies seem to develop hemispheric specialization for language at a larger stage of development. Otron proposed that children sufferening from learning disabilites had difficulty in reading because of some lag or incomplete development of normal cerebral dominance patters.
Newell Kephart
Worked with Strauss on an early teaching methods textbook for children with brain injuries. He also postulated that all learning was based on perceptual-motor development and thus expanded the concerns of this group of theorists to include various aspects of mortor learning.
Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities
Samual Kirks major accomplishment was the publication of this test. This test was designed to identify visual- and audiory- based language deficits that affected achievement in various academic subjects,.
learning disabilities
Included all children with perceptual and/or language problems. A retardation, disorder, or development delay in one or moreof the processes of speech, language, reading, spelling, writing, arithmetic resulting from a possible cerebral dysfunction and/or emotional or behavioral disturbance and not from mental retardation, sensory deprivation, or cultural or instructional factors. (Kirk 1988)
Helmer Myklebust
Began working with children who were deaf, focusing on disorders of spoken language. However, this interest quickly expanded to include written language and reading. Myklebust advocated instruction through auditory or visual stimuli, based on the strengths of the student in each area.
Task Force I
The National Society for Crippled Children and Adults, along with the Nationa Institution of Neurological Diseases, sponsord this task force with the intention of providing an adequate definition for learning disabilities.
cognitive-processing perspectives
They were all medically based. The learning was presumed to reside within the child rather than in the interaction beteen the child and the learning environment. The theorist believed that a deficit in the cognitive or psychological process was based on some type of malfunction in the brain wasthe casual factor in learnin disabilites. The cognitive processes were believed to take place within the CNS and include such things as language, memory, attention, and perception.
metacognition
Suggest that children need to think about and plan out their thnking and theiractivities in order to complete a complex educational task.
Joseph Torgesen
Reviewed research to suggest that children with learning disabilites do not give themselves such self-instruction with the same frequency or degree of accuracy as other children. He demonstrated that students with learning were often unengaged or inactive in their learning efforts, and he used the term inative learner as one early conceptualization of this idea.
Donald Deshler
Developed an array of learning strategies for use with secondary school students with learning disabilities.
learning-strategies approach 
 
Emphasizing metacognition skills for all students.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

x

Hi!
I'm Erick!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out