K-5 Educator Terminology/UNCW-Watson EDNL 331

Academic English
The English language ability required for academic achievement in context-reduced situations, such as classroom lectures and textbook reading assignments. This is sometimes referred to as Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency (CALP).
Academically Engaged
Students are academically engaged when they are participating in activities/instruction in a meaningful way and understanding the tasks in which they are involved.
Accuracy
Accuracy is the ability to recognize words correctly.
A little vague. Not only the ability; it’s in fact reading words by saying the correct sounds.
Accuracy (part of fluency
Reading words in text with no errors.
Active Reading:
Discovering the “meaning” behind the words in reading material. Active readers are active thinkers, drawing their own conclusions and consciously agreeing or disagreeing with the author’s ideas. Studies suggest that active readers are among the most efficient of all readers. Aspects of active reading include: applying what you know (prior knowledge); interacting with the author (responding critically to the text); predicting (trying to determine the importance of the selected text); solving problems (slowing to understand confusing passages); and summarizing (two-line summaries of the material, either at the end of each page or where convenient).

It is helpful for readers to stop reading occasionally and ask what the author is really saying, what ideas are being presented in the text, and evaluate the importance of those ideas. Active reading is almost like carrying on a virtual interchange with the author and the subject matter. Active readers should be responsive, comparing the book’s information with other books already read, and generally think for themselves (rather than allow the author to do all the thinking).

Adequate yearly progress
An individual state’s measure of yearly progress toward achieving state academic standards. “Adequate Yearly Progress” is the minimum level of improvement that states, school districts and schools must achieve each year.
Advanced Phonics:
Strategies for decoding multisyllabic words that include morphology (the meaning of morphemes — pro (towards), re (again) tion (the act of) duc (word root—Latin for lead) and information about the meaning, pronunciation, and parts of speech of words gained from knowledge of prefixes, roots, and suffixes.

reproduction re/pro/duc/tion

Sound out each part and say it fast. Sound out all parts in a sequence fast.

Aesthetic Response
An aesthetic response is an affective response or reaction to a text. It reflects the reader’s personal and emotional response based on background knowledge, attitudes, and experiences. Aesthetic responses to a text are student-initiated and will vary from reader to reader. (Adapted from Rosenblatt. The Reader, the Text, and the Poem.)
Affix
A general term that refers to prefixes and suffixes.
Affix
An attachment to the end or beginning of base or root word. A generic term that describes prefixes and suffixes.
Affixes
Affixes are word parts that are “fixed to” either the beginnings of words (prefixes) or the endings of words (suffixes). The word disrespectful has two affixes, a prefix (dis-) and a suffix (-ful).
word families:
: Also known as phonograms, word families are groups of words that have a common pattern. For example, the an word family contains the words fan, pan, ran, plan, man, and so on. Go here for a list of the 37 most common phonograms. These 37 make up 500 words!
After Reading Comprehension Strategies
Strategies that require the reader to actively transform key information in text that has been read (e.g., summarizing, retelling).
Alliteration
The repetition of the initial phoneme of each word in connected text (e.g., Harry the happy hippo hula-hoops with Henrietta).
Instructional design:
: Instructional design in reading refers to the process of translating key learning objectives and goals into a delivery system to meet those goals. When we discuss the instructional design of a reading program, we are referring to the underlying framework of a reading program, the way the curriculum is constructed.
Design features would include the sequence of knowledge units taught (e.g., logical progression of elements taught first); scheduling of review and practice; when to introduce work on generalization and fluency after acquisition of new knowledge; what kinds or scaffolding to use (reminders, wait time, visual cues) and when; formats (communication) used to teach each skill; the range of examples used to teach each skill; methods for correcting errors, firming up weak skill parts, or even reteaching.
Alliteration —
The repetition of initial phoneme either across syllables or across words. For example, “Happy hippos hop on Harry.” See onset.
Allomorph
— An alternative manifestation of a morpheme (a set of meaningful linguistic units). Allomorphs vary in shape or pronunciation according to their conditions of use, but not as to meaning. In English, the negative prefix in has several allomorphs, such as INcapable, ILlogical, IMprobable, IRreverent.
In other words, allomorphs are a group of difference words or word parts that mean the same thing. See morpheme, above, and allophone below.
Allophone
A phonetic variant of a phoneme in a particular language. For example, p and pH are allophones of the phoneme /p/; t and tH are allophones of the phoneme /t/.
That is, when slight differences in the sounds do NOT make a difference in meaning of the words in which they occur. For example, a quick and quiet p and a p with a slight puff in the words pickle and pin would NOT change the meaning of the words. Therefore, the sounds p and p/h are part of the same phoneme, and are called allo (same) phones.
Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA
The Americans With Disabilities Act gives civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities similar to those provided to individuals on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin, age, and religion. It guarantees equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities in public accommodations, employment, transportation, state and local government services, and telecommunications.
Goals in Reading and Speed Reading:
: Reasons for learning to read more rapidly. Skill speed readers have learned that faster reading means better comprehension, improved concentration, and more retention of the reading material. Five factors that can improve reading skills: understanding the reading process; a desire to read faster; understanding the reasons behind slow reading; becoming acquainted with new and more efficient reading skills; and practicing newly learned techniques for speed reading. Most readers can benefit greatly from spending 15 minutes each day on techniques to raise their reading rates and reading efficiency.

More efficient and faster reading occurs by reading with purpose, reading for ideas, reading as much as possible, and reading with understanding. One goal in speed reading is for readers to always be trying to challenge themselves to do better. Dedicated practice towards reading faster can quickly double or triple “normal” reading rates – which can be retained and improved through regular practice of speed-reading techniques.

Analogy Phonics
[image]This is a type of analytical phonics. It might also be called ‘chunks’ or ‘word families’ as it looks at a ‘chunk’ of a word/s. For example a teacher might be looking at a group of words that end with ‘at’, ‘an’ or ‘ip’. The first sound may be added or changed to make different words: c-an, f-an, m-an or r-an like the example given below.
Analogy-based phonics
In this approach, children are taught to use parts of words they have already learned to read and decode words they don’t know. They apply this strategy when the words share similar parts in their spellings, for example, reading screen by analogy to green. Children may be taught a large set of key words for use in reading new words.
This simply means that many words share common parts. So, if you are taught common parts, such as tract says trrraaakt and reen says rrreeeeennnn, then you can GENERALIZE this knowledge to new words.

“Oh, here’s a new word. preen. I wonder how you say it? Well, reen usually says rrreeeeennnn. So, I’ll read preen as prrrreeeennn.”

Analytical Phonics
With analytical phonics children are likely to be asked to analyse a particular sound within a word or words. So for example a teacher may place up on the board a list of words such as: ‘cloud’, ‘house’, ‘loud’ and ‘mouse’. The teacher will then draw the children’s attention to the common sound that she wishes them to note, in this case the ‘ou’ sound.
Children will not be asked to blend the sounds together to form words like they are in synthetic phonics. Instead they will start with the whole word and then analyse a part of it (the complete opposite of synthetic phonics).
In analytical phonics children will also be taught many consonant blends, for example: ‘br’, ‘st’ and ‘bl’.

This approach, like embedded phonics, is commonly used alongside whole language teaching.

Analogy:
Comparing two sets of words to show some common similarity between the sets. When done as a vocabulary exercise this requires producing one of the words (e.g., cat is to kitten: as dog is to _____?).
Analytic phonics
In this approach, children learn to analyze letter-sound relationships in previously learned words. They do not pronounce sounds in isolation.
For instance, if the teacher, over a period of time, or in rapid succession, presents (juxtaposes) words like this….

master—mmmaaasssteeerrr.

faster—ffffaaasssteeerrr.

…students may figure out (infer) that the letter m says mmmm and the letter f says fff, even though she never explicitly TAUGHT m says mmmm and f says ffff. Students “analyzed” the juxtaposed words and figured out the difference (letters m and f) that MADE the difference in pronunciation.

This is one of the big differences in approaches to reading instruction. In synthetic phonics, the teacher first teaches the letter-sounds and THEN shows students how to put this knowledge together (synthesize it) INTO reading words.

Some persons believe that students can efficiently learn the letter-sounds if teachers juxtapose words that show how different letters change the pronunciation—analyze words to learn the specifics (sounds of letters).

Other persons believe it is more efficient to teach the letter-sounds and then have kids assemble (synthesize) these into words.

However, even reading programs that are MOSTLY synthetic phonics, USE analytic phonics to FIRM UP students’ reading similar words that are pronounced differently. For example,
Students have already been taught the letter sounds….

s l i p Teacher reads this and has kids read this as sssllliiip.
s l i p s Teacher reads this and has kids read this as sssllliiipSSSS.

This CONFIRMS that the s on the end indeed SAYS sssss. The s accounts for why the teacher said s l i p vs. s l i p sss.

Anecdotal Record
An anecdotal record documents an informal observation of what students are learning, their learning behaviors, social interactions, and academic performance. While anecdotal records may be brief recordings of single learning situations, they are most beneficial when they are gathered over time to reveal meaningful patterns that can guide the teacher’s planning. (Harp and Brewer, 2000). When taking an anecdotal record, teachers should record only what they see and hear without making judgments or interpretations. Because of their informal nature, anecdotal records are often used while observing children in learning centers. These observations allow teachers to assess children’s understanding of specific concepts as well as how children are using these concepts in reading and writing.
Antonym:
A word opposite in meaning to another word.
Trade Book:
A book intended for general reading that is not a textbook.
Assessment
Assessment refers to specific practices that are informal, classroom-based, and reflect the curriculum and daily instructional routines. Assessments are developed and used by teachers to determine children’s literacy needs and to plan appropriate instruction. Classroom assessments are authentic, multidimensional, collaborative, and ongoing. Often, teachers of young children will focus on one or two students each day to assess their literacy performance and behaviors throughout the day. Teachers assess both the process and products of learning during regular instructional times. This might include taking a Running Record during guided reading time, assessing comprehension with story retellings during class discussions, or completing a checklist for students in Writing Workshop.
Attention deficit disorder (ADD
Attention deficit disorder is an older name for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Root
A bound morpheme, usually of Latin origin, that cannot stand alone but is used to form a family of words with related meanings.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the inability to use skills of attention effectively. Studies suggest that five to ten percent of children, adolescents, and adults may have ADHD.
Limited English proficient (LEP)
Limited English proficient is the term used by the federal government, most states, and local school districts to identify those students who have insufficient English to succeed in English-only classrooms. Increasingly, English language learner (ELL) or English learner (EL) are used in place of LEP.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the inability to use skills of attention effectively. Studies suggest that five to ten percent of children, adolescents, and adults may have ADHD.
Literacy
Literacy includes reading, writing, and the creative and analytical acts involved in producing and comprehending texts.
Not JUST the reading and writing. The concept—literacy—also implies a certain degree of proficiency at reading and writing. A person whose reading is both inaccurate and slow, and who can answer few questions about what she’s reading, is NOT, by definition, literate.
Auditory Reassurance
Hearing” words while reading text. Auditory reassurance is characterized as “inner speech,” or “hearing” the unspoken sounds of the words in the text. Sometimes called subvocalization, it is the most subtle form of word-by-word reading, resulting in slower reading rates and less comprehension.

Sounding words while reading forces a slower rate of reading, almost equal to the rate of oral reading. Eliminating or reducing auditory reading allows readers to think about the meaning of words rather than how they sound.

Author’s Message:
The ideas of the author of a selected text. Efficient readers are sensitive to the ideas and tone of the author, which raises their ability for anticipation (of the author’s direction), for active reading and thinking, and for improved comprehension of the subject matter.
Invented Spelling
A child’s attempt at spelling a word using what they know about the English spelling system is referred to as invented or temporary spelling. Invented spelling allows emergent writers to explore written language and experiment with writing at a very early stage. Early writing is a valuable developmental indicator of the conventional spelling patterns and the sound/symbol relationships the child has internalized. It can be used to help the teacher’s instruction. (Adapted from Harris, and Hodges. Literacy Dictionary, 128)
Reading Pace Accelerators:
A class of reading machines designed to set the pace or otherwise control reading speed. As a table-top machine, they were operated by applying an opaque sheet or bar that could be lowered at varied time rates over printed pages of a book or magazine placed on a sloped platform. In addition, they could be speeded up or slowed down according to the purpose of the reader.
Automaticity
Automaticity is fast, effortless, and accurate word recognition that grows out ot repetition and practice. Automaticity does not refer to reading with expression or evidence of comprehension. Games and activities using lists of high-frequency words, personal word lists, and word walls help students develop automaticity. Automaticity allows students to concentrate more on other aspects of reading, such as comprehension. (Adapted from Armbruster, Lehr, and Osborn. Put Reading First, 22 and 24).
Background Knowledge
Background knowledge is the collection of ideas and concepts one has for a given topic or situation based on experiences and/or reading. The background knowledge of English Language Learners may differ from that of mainstream learners.
Automaticity
Automaticity is a general term that refers to any skilled and complex behavior that can be performed rather easily with little attention, effort, or conscious awareness. These skills become automatic after extended periods of training. Examples of automatic skills include driving a car through traffic while listening to the radio, sight reading music for the piano, and reading orally with comprehension. With practice and good instruction, students become automatic at word recognition, that is, retrieving words from memory, and are able to focus attention on constructing meaning from the text, rather than decoding.
Technical subjects
A course devoted to a practical study, such as engineering, technology, design, business, or other workforce-related subject; a technical aspect of a wider field of study, such as art or music.
Automaticity:
Reading without conscious effort or attention to decoding.
Background Knowledge
Forming connections between the text and the information and experiences of the reader.
Backward Reading:
A technique used by efficient speed readers. Backward reading occurs when readers move (left to right) through a line of print and then move backwards (right to left) through the next line of print. For most, reading in both directions is twice as fast as reading in one direction. Thus, no time is wasted during the reading process.

Reading in both directions, forward and backward, is an advanced technique that allows efficient speed readers to read twice as fast. Backward reading occurs when readers move (left to right) through a line of print and then move backwards (right to left) through the next line of print. There is no time wasted. Interestingly, it is generally easier to read backwards at a faster reading rate.

Balanced literacy
An approach to reading instruction that strikes a compromise between Phonics approaches and Whole Language approaches — ideally, the most effective strategies are drawn from the two approaches and synthesized together.

An example of balance would be the use of both
(1) synthetic phonics. s says sss, a says ahhh, m says mmm. Therefore, use these to read s a m.

(2) analytic phonics. man says mmmaaannn; fan says fffaaannn. What letters make the difference in pronunciation? m = mmm; f = fff.

(3) embedded phonics. Jimmy misreads tooth as teeeethththt. The teacher FIRMS UP this part by pointing to the oo and saying, “These letters make the sound oooo. What sound?” Jimmy says “oooo.” Teacher points to each letter in tooth, and says “Sound it out.” ….As Jimmy gets to the oo, she says, “Don’t let it fool you.” Jimmy says “oooth.” Teacher says, “Say the whole thing.” Jimmy says “tooth.”

(4) analogy phonics. Teacher shows that reen is in many words, and always says rrreeeennnn. She shows a new word—preen; reminds kids that reen says rrreeeennn; and tells them to sound out the new word.

It appears that synthetic phonics has the widest application to reading words—that is applies to more words. The other methods would seem to be (1) supplements (some kids could use SEVERAL ways to get what letters say and to read words) and/or (2) special methods for certain words (e.g., with common spellings, as in green, preen).

Basal reader
— A kind of book that is used to teach reading. It is based on an approach in which words are used as a whole. The words are used over and over in each succeeding lesson. New words are added regularly.
Base Word:
A unit of meaning that can stand alone as a whole word (e.g., friend, pig). Also called a free morpheme.
Base words
Base words are words from which many other words are formed. For example, many words can be formed from the base word migrate: migration, migrant, immigration, immigrant, migrating, migratory.
tract tractor, traction, attraction, distraction. Note: tract MEANS hold. The sounds —traaact—HAVE meaning. The chunk is a morpheme.

Note: if you combine base words (migrate) and affixes (in, tion), you have words (migration, in-migration) that are best learned via word attack. Instead of sounding out these words letter by letter, you learn to sound out the parts and then say them fast, and then say all the parts fast. You ‘attack’ the words by attacking the parts.

Before Reading Comprehension Strategies:
Strategies employed to emphasize the importance of preparing students to read text (e.g., activate prior knowledge, set a purpose for reading).
Ideograph
A graphic symbol that represents an idea instead of a spoken word, a single morpheme, or a lexical item. In a phonetic system, the symbol represents the sounds that form its name. Sometimes children’s writing contains idiographs, but there is no known writing system that is composed entirely of idiographs. See logograph.

Tom Becky.

Oral language difficulties
A child with oral language difficulties may exhibit poor vocabulary, listening comprehension, or grammatical abilities for his or her age.
Bilingual education
An educational program in which two languages are used to provide content matter instruction. Bilingual education programs vary in their length of time, and in the amount each language is used.
Blend
A blend is a consonant sequence before or after a vowel within a syllable, such as cl, br, or st; it is the written language equivalent of consonant cluster.
A blend is NOT only written. To SAY br is to SAY a consonant cluster. The letters b l merely represent the sounds, which are CALLED a blend.
Orton-Gillingham (O-G)
Orton-Gillingham is a multisensory approach to remediating dyslexia created by Dr. Samuel Orton, a neuropsychiatrist and pathologist, and Anna Gillingham, an educator and psychologist.
Phoneme addition
In this activity, children make a new word by adding a phoneme to an existing word. (Teacher: What word do you have if you add /s/ to the beginning of park? Children: spark.)
Blending
Combining parts of a spoken word into a whole representation of the word. For example, /p/ /oo/ /l/ can be blended together to form the word POOL.
A phonological/phonemic awareness skill, and one element in decoding—saying a word fast.
Blending:
The task of combining sounds rapidly, to accurately represent the word.
Bloom’s Taxonomy
A system for categorizing levels of abstraction of questions that commonly
occur in educational settings. Includes the following competencies: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
Co-articulation:
When saying words our mouth is always ready for the next sound to be made. While saying one sound, the lips, tongue, etc., are starting to form the sound to follow. This can distort individual sounds during speech because the sounds are not produced in isolated units (e.g., ham- the /m/ blends with the /a/ to distort the vowel). This process is called coarticulation.

Because of coarticulation, some children have difficulty hearing the individual sounds in words and the concept of phonemes needs to be explicitly brought to their attention through instruction. Especially segmenting.

Business Information
Specialized text relating to business. Professional business people are particularly suitable for learning to improve reading skills and raising reading rates in order to deal with the pressures of their reading demands.
Phoneme identity
In this activity, children learn to recognize the same sounds in different words. (Teacher: What sound is the same in fix, fall, and fun? Children: The first sound, /f/, is the same.)
Chunked Text
Continuous text that has been separated into meaningful phrases often with the use of single and double slash marks (/ and //). The intent of using chunked text or chunking text is to give children an opportunity to practice reading phrases fluently. There is no absolute in chunking text. Teachers should use judgment when teaching students how to chunk. Generally, slash marks are made between subject and predicate, and before and after prepositional phrases.
Chunking:
A decoding strategy for breaking words into manageable parts (e.g., /yes /ter/ day). Chunking also refers to the process of dividing a sentence into smaller phrases where pauses might occur naturally (e.g., When the sun appeared after the storm, / the newly fallen snow /shimmered like diamonds).
Clitic
A language element with wordlike status or form that resembles a word. A clitic usually cannot be used on its own as a word in a construction. Clitics are usually phonologically bound to a preceding word or a following word.
For example, s is a clitic in “the king’s horse.” The s is like a morpheme in that it has meaning; the horse belongs to the king. But the s could not be used by ITSELF to signify ownership; it would be bound to a noun.
Cloze
This is a method of assessment wherein a word is eliminated from a passage, and the child’s task is to use the context of the passage to fill in the blank with an appropriate word. Different cloze tasks focus on different skills; a cloze assessment can be used to test reading comprehension, language comprehension, vocabulary, syntax, and semantics. When the child is given options (multiple choice) from which to select the appropriate word for each blank, the assessment is typically described as a “modified cloze task.”
Prefix:
A morpheme that precedes a root and that contributes to or modifies the meaning of a word as “re” in reprint.
Coaching:
A professional development process of supporting teachers in implementing new classroom practices by providing new content and information, modeling related teaching strategies, and offering on-going feedback as teachers master new practices.
Synthetic Phonics
With synthetic phonics children are taught to read and spell at the same time. They are taught to convert letters into sounds and then blend the sounds to form words. For example c-a-t = cat, or sh-oo-k = shook. It also teaches children to segment (pull apart) those sounds in order to spell. For example dot = d-o-t, or cheek = ch-ee-k.
Children are taught the sounds of the English language and other common ‘rules’. They are taught to understand the alphabet code so that when they come across an unknown word they do not guess from context, picture, initial letters or word shape. They are explicitly taught to use their knowledge to independently and confidently work out new words.
With synthetic phonics children are not exposed to words that they do not have the knowledge to decode. This ensures that they are constantly successful.
Coherent Instructional Design
A logical, sequential, plan for delivering instruction.
Common Reading Problems
: Habits of inefficient readers. Most poor reading habits are derived from early training, usually involving wasted eye motions and other distractions (which also affect comprehension).
Composition
The process of “arranging ideas to form a clear and unified impression and to create an effective message” is composition (Harris and Hodges. The Literacy Dictionary, 38). In the classrooms shown, teachers help young writers develop and write down their ideas to convey a message to an audience. Purposes for writing include describing, sharing feelings and thoughts, expressing opinions, and creating a story or narrativ
Comprehending the Text:
Fully understanding the author’s message in reading material. Efficient readers learn through understanding the text, the “meaning” behind the words, mainly by becoming sensitive to the words in their context. Efficient comprehension involves an ability to select and understand what is needed by the reader; retaining and recalling the selected information later; connecting and applying the new information to prior knowledge. The level of comprehension, therefore, depends largely on the background and experience of the reader, and the reader’s ability to recognize, select and understand the information in the text.
Comprehension
Finding and constructing meaning in a text is the reason for reading. If readers can read the words but do not understand what they are reading, they are not really reading. Comprehension comes from engaging with ideas and constructing a sense of the whole. Students who are good at monitoring their comprehension know when they understand what they read and when they do not. Research shows that instruction, even in the early grades, can help students become better at monitoring their comprehension and developing strategies to build understanding. Explicit modeling and instruction can help students be aware of what they do understand, identify what they do not understand, and use appropriate “fix-up” strategies to resolve problems in comprehension.
Teachers build students’ comprehension by predicting, asking questions, helping students access background knowledge, and making connections during read-alouds, shared reading, or in guided-reading groups. (Adapted from Armbruster, Lehr, and Osborn. Put Reading First, 48-49.)
Comprehension Monitoring
An awareness of one’s understanding of text being read. Comprehension monitoring is part of metacognition “thinking about thinking” know what is clear and what is confusing as the reader and having the capabilities to make repairs to problems with comprehension.
Not just awareness. Specific routines or strategies (sequences of steps) for assessing and increasing comprehension = answering questions.

“I have no idea what this guy will do….Let’s go back and see if we learned anything about his responses to similar events. Then we can predict what he’ll do now.”

Comprehension Practice Reading:
: Raising comprehension levels through reading practice. In the beginning of training to improve reading skills, comprehension sometimes is reduced during practice at high reading speeds. However, this is normal, and readers should continue trying to read faster. Comprehension levels will soon rise.
Comprehension Questions:
Address the meaning of text, ranging from literal (information is IN the text, literally. “The cat said…..”) to inferential (“What happened before….” “What was the sequence of events?” The reader must find and synthesize information.) to analytical (Given regularities (X happens and then Y happens.), predict what will happen if X occurs again, or explain why Y just happened. In other words, analyze (segment) test according to cetain general rules or propositions.

Note, answering analytical questions (prediction: “What will happen if the rooster crows?”), requires answering inferential questions (“Summarizing events, I infer that the dog generally howls after the rooster crows.”), which requires answers to literal (factual) questions (“The rooster crowed and then the dog started howling.”).

Therefore, it makes no sense to ask analytical questions (to explain and predict) unless kids can scan text to find (infer) regularities (inferential questions). And it makes no sense to ask inferential questions (about regularities), unless kids can find facts in the text that answer questions (literal questions).

At the same time, it is a waste of instruction and of kids’ intelligence to teach literal comprehension only, and not teach kids to USE skill at FINDING text that contains factual (literal) information to answer inferential questions about how facts are connected into patterns (inferential questions), and then to use skill at finding (inferring) patterns, to answer analytical questions about motives, feelings, causes, and effects.

Comprehension strategies
Comprehension strategies routines = sequence of steps are techniques to teach reading comprehension, including summarization, prediction, and inferring word meanings from context.
Note: summarization, for example, is a word that signifies a whole routine, of steps. To summarize would be to (1) find important points; (2) list them; (3) say them all in a sequence
Power Drills
A process of developing abilities for better comprehension and recall. With power drills, readers can reach higher efficiency levels of comprehension and recall. As one example, readers can choose a text selection, read for one minute, close the book, and then (for another minute or so) try to recall what was read. This is a process that can be repeated several times into the selected book.
Comprehension strategy instruction
Comprehensive strategy instruction is the explicit teaching of techniques routines that are particularly effective for comprehending text. The steps of explicit instruction include direct explanation, teacher modeling (“think aloud”), guided practice, and application. Some strategies include direct explanation (the teacher explains to students why the strategy helps comprehension and when to apply the strategy), modeling (the teacher models, or demonstrates, how to apply the strategy, usually by “thinking aloud” while reading the text that the students are using), guided practice (the teacher guides and assists students as they learn how and when to apply the strategy) and application (the teacher helps students practice the strategy until they can apply it independently).
Reading disability
Reading disability (RD) is another term for dyslexia. It is also sometimes referred to as reading disorder or reading difference.
Comprehension strategy instruction
Comprehensive strategy instruction is the explicit teaching of techniques that are particularly effective for comprehension strategy instruction. The steps of explicit instruction include direct explanation, teacher modeling (“think aloud”), guided practice, and application. Some strategies include direct explanation (the teacher explains to students why the strategy helps comprehension and when to apply the strategy), modeling (the teacher models, or demonstrates, how to apply the strategy, usually by “thinking aloud” while reading the text that the students are using), guided practice (the teacher guides and assists students as they learn how and when to apply the strategy) and application (the teacher helps students practice the strategy until they can apply it independently).
Text comprehension
A range of text difficulty corresponding to grade spans within the Standards; specifically, the spans from grades 2–3, grades 4–5, grades 6–8, grades 9–10, and grades 11–CCR (college and career readiness).
Comprehension in general means making sense of text, which means finding facts, summarizing facts into a description, identifying main ideas—such as the moral of a story, explaining why events happened or did not happen, making predictions.

Each sort of “sense” requires a different routine or strategy. To explain something means to have a rule about how things work, and to show how events in the story FIT the rule. To say the main idea means to make an inference about ‘what we learn from this’ or to find statements the author makes that express what he or she seems to think. “Freedom isn’t free.”

Comprehension:
Understanding what one is reading, the ultimate goal of all reading activity.
Answering questions about facts (what happened), sequences, causes, making predictions, inferring morals and lessons.
Rubric
A rubric is a criterion-based scoring guide that uses a descriptive scale to assess student performance. Rubrics can be teacher-made or purchased; they are used as a tool to assess student performance on specific assignments or projects. Rubrics often list specific descriptors for an assignment with an assigned value or a list of characteristics for each descriptor. Rubrics can provide students with a clear understanding of what is expected and allow teachers to systematically review student work with explicit criteria.
Connected Text
Words that are linked (as opposed to words in a list) as in sentences, phrases, and paragraphs.
Independent(ly)
A student performance done without scaffolding from a teacher, other adult, or peer; in the Standards, often paired with proficient(ly) to suggest a successful student performance done without scaffolding; in the Reading standards, the act of reading a text without scaffolding, as in an assessment; see also proficient(ly), scaffolding.
Example:
Scaffolded. “You’ll sound out this word. First, you’ll say rrrr. What are you going to say first?…. Next you’ll say aaaaa. What are you going to say next?…. Next you’ll say nnnn…What are you going to say next?… Okay, when I touch under the letters, you say the sounds…..”

Unscaffolded. “You’re going to read these words. Get ready… Go!”

Speech language pathologist
A speech language pathologist is an expert who can help children and adolescents who have language disorders to understand and give directions, ask and answer questions, convey ideas, and improve the language skills that lead to better academic performance. An SLP can also counsel individuals and families to understand and deal with speech and language disorders.
Standard English
In the Standards, the most widely accepted and understood form of expression in English in the United States; used in the Standards to refer to formal English writing and speaking; the particular focus of Language standards 1 and 2 (CCSS, pp. 26, 28, 52, 54).
Content word
— A word which has lexical meaning such as a noun or a verb (as opposed to a function word).
State education agency (SEA)
A state education agency is the agency primarily responsible for the state supervision of public elementary and secondary schools.
Context Clue
: Using words or sentences around an unfamiliar word to help clarify its meaning.
Continuous Sounds: A sound that can be held for several seconds without distortion (e.g., /m/, /s/).
Context clues
Context clues are sources of information outside of words that readers may use to predict the identities and meanings of unknown words. Context clues may be drawn from the immediate sentence containing the word, from text already read, from pictures accompanying the text, or from definitions, restatements, examples, or descriptions in the text.
Story structure
In story structure, a reader sees the way the content and events of a story are organized into a plot. Students learn to identify the categories of content (setting, characters, initiating events, internal reactions, goals, attempts, and outcomes) and how this content is organized into a plot. Often students recognize the way the story is organized by developing a story map. This strategy improves students’ comprehension and memory of story content and meaning.
Cooperative learning
Cooperative learning involves students working together as partners or in small groups on clearly defined tasks. It has been used successfully to teach comprehension strategies in content-area subjects.
Phonogram:
A succession of letters that represent the same phonological unit in different words, such as “igh” in flight, might, tight, sigh, and high.
Summarizing
Summarizing is a process in which a reader synthesizes the important ideas in a text. Teaching students to summarize helps them generate main ideas, connect central ideas, eliminate redundant and unnecessary information, and remember what they read.
Coordinated instructional sequences
: take into consideration how information is selected, sequenced, organized, and practiced. TWO KINDS1. Coordinated instructional sequences occur within each component of reading where a logical progression of skills would be evident: easier skills are introduced before more difficult skills, so that skills build progressively.
A skill trace of one skill reveals whether or how the sequence is logically progressive; e.g., blend compound words (foot ball) before short words, such as if and she. Or, first teach literal comprehension; then usE that skill to teach inferential comprehension; then usE that skill to teach analytical comprehension.

2. The other way coordinated instructional sequences are evident is in the clear and meaningful relationship or linking of instruction across the five components of reading: phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension.
In other words, integrating skill elements into routines. See example below.

If students orally segment and blend words with the letter-sound /f/ during phonemic awareness instruction, then we would expect to see it followed by practice in connecting the sound /f/ with the letter f. This would be followed by fluency practice in reading words, sentences, and/or passages with the letter-sound /f/. Spelling practice would include /f/ and other previously learned letter-sounds.

Criterion-referenced assessment
This is a type of assessment in which a child’s score is compared against a predetermined criterion score to determine if the child is performing acceptably or unacceptably. Rather than comparing the child’s performance against the performance of her peers (as would be the case with a norm-referenced assessment), the criterion or “acceptable score” is set by the author of the assessment. Each child’s score, then, is either above or below the criterion score.
Note, a norm-reference assessment might put a child near the top of her group, but the performance could be OBJECTIVELY low. For example, she reads 30 correct words per minute in grade 2! A criterion-referenced assessment (the criterion is 100 correct words per minute) would say that she is low in relation to the criterion. Which kind of assessment is best diagnostically? Which one predicts future reading skill? Criterion-referenced, because the criterion is based on data on what happens when students read at different rates.
Decoding
Using knowledge of the conventions of spelling-sound relationships and knowledge about pronunciation of irregular words to derive a pronunciation of written words.
It is a good idea to teach students first to sound out an irregular word, such as said = saaiid; and then to teach them how, in contrast, to SAY it—sed. That way, the importance of sounding out unfamiliar words (rather than memorizing them) is preserved.
Cumulative
Instruction that builds upon previously learned concepts.
And routines, such as decoding. Decode single words, word lists, sentences, paragraphs.
D.E.A.R: Drop Everything and Read.
. A time set aside during the school day in which everyone (teachers and students) drop everything and read.
Decodable Text
Text in which a high proportion of words (80%-90%) comprise sound-symbol relationships that have already been taught. It is used for the purpose of providing practice with specific decoding skills and is a bridge between learning phonics and the application of phonics in independent reading.
Decodable texts
Texts which do not contain irregular words. Also, these texts are usually designed to reinforce certain “rules” that have previously been taught in phonics lessons.
Decodable also usually includes the extent to which the student has been taught the letter-sounds in the words in the text. 100% decodable would mean that the student has been taught all the letter-sounds in the text.
Decoding
Decoding is the ability (Not quite. Decoding is a verb. It’s not an ability; it is a routine that persons perform.) to translate a word from print to speech, usually by employing knowledge of sound-symbol correspondences. It is also the act of deciphering a new word by sounding it out.
Word parts
Word parts include affixes (prefixes and suffixes), base words, and word roots.
Identifying and reading these parts is part of word attack.
Derivational Affix:
: A prefix or suffix added to a root or base to form another word (e.g., -un in unhappy , -ness in likeness).
Diagnostic:
Tests that can be used to measure a variety of reading, language, or cognitive skills. Although they can be given as soon as a screening test indicates a child is behind in reading growth, they will usually be given only if a child fails to make adequate progress after being given extra help in learning to read. They are designed to provide a more precise and detailed picture of the full range of a child’s knowledge and skill so that instruction can be more precisely planned.
Dialogic Reading:
During story reading, the teacher/parent asks questions, adds information, and prompts student to increase sophistication of responses by expanding on his/her utterances.
Think of dialog.
“So, why did the dog howl, Jimmy?”
“Search me!”
“Did anything happen before the dog howled?”
“Yup.”
“What happened?”…
Direct vocabulary learning
Direct vocabulary learning is when students learn vocabulary through explicit instruction in both the meanings of individual words and word-learning strategies. Direct vocabulary instruction aids reading comprehension.
Such instruction would involve: (1) synonyms = “Huge means very big; (2) examples = “This is huge. This is huge. This is not huge.”; and (3) definitions plus examples = “Oscillate means to move back and forth. Look, the fan is moving back and forth. It is oscillating.”
Differentiated Instruction:
: Matching instruction to meet the different needs of learners in a given classroom.
This could include:
1. Giving supplementary instruction on a skill.
2. Giving intensive instruction on one or more skills.
3. Using additional questions and reminders with several students in core (tier 1) instruction.
“You’re going to sound out this word. What’s the first sound you’re going to say?”
4. Making sure to review material more often during core (Tier 1) lessons.
Difficult Words
Some words are difficult because they contain phonic elements that have not yet been taught. Others are difficult because they contain letter-sound correspondences that are unique to that word (e.g., yacht).
affix:
A word element that is placed at the beginning (prefix), in the middle (infix), or at the end (suffix) of the root or word stem.
Digraph
A group of two successive letters (graph = write) whose phonetic value is a single sound. For example, EA in BREAD, CH in CHAT, or NG in SING
Note: digraphs can be vowels or consonants.
Digraphs:
A group of two consecutive letters whose phonetic value is a single sound (e.g., /ea/ in bread; /ch/ in chat; /ng/ in sing).
Note: digraphs can be vowels and consonants. Note again, ou is NOT a digraph. Both sounds are made. So, ou would be a diphthong. See below.
Diphthong
A gliding monosyllabic speech sound that starts at or near the articulatory position for one vowel and moves to or toward the position of another. For example, oy in TOY or ou in OUT.
So, diphthongs are vowel sounds.
Diphthong:
A vowel produced by the tongue shifting position during articulation; a vowel that feels as if it has two parts, especially the vowels spelled ow, oy, ou, and oi.

Which are digraphs? Which are diphthongs? Which are consonant blends? Which are neither?
ch st oi bl on oy nd ck ng

Direct Instruction:
The teacher defines and teaches a concept, guides students through its application, and arranges for extended guided practice until mastery is achieved.
Aligned Materials
Student materials (texts, activities, manipulatives, homework, etc.) that reinforce classroom instruction of specific skills in reading.
Direct Vocabulary Instruction
Planned instruction to pre-teach new, important, and difficult words to ensure the quantity and quality of exposures to words that students will encounter in their reading.
Direct vocabulary learning
Direct vocabulary learning is when students learn vocabulary through explicit instruction in both the meanings of individual words and word-learning strategies. Direct vocabulary instruction aids reading comprehension.
Distractions:
: Tendencies affecting efficient reading. Most distractions occur when readers look away from the text, often because the text may not be sufficiently interesting for the reader. This also affects the reader’s ability to concentrate and stay focused on the text. One helpful factor in staying focused is to use hand motions while reading, forcing the reading activity to continue in a smooth manner, regardless of distractions.

Important details can be overlooked by distractions while reading. Try to focus the mind on seeking out desired information from the text. A well-focused mind is able to comprehend information at high speeds.

Domain-specific words and phrases*
Vocabulary specific to a particular field of study (domain), such as the human body (CCSS, p. 33); in the Standards, domain-specific words and phrases are analogous to Tier Three words (Language, p. 33).
Duet reading
An activity where a skilled reader sits next to a learner and the two read a text simultaneously.
Or, sometimes they take turns.
Dyslexia
Dyslexia is a language-based disability that affects both oral and written language. It may also be referred to as reading disability, reading difference, or reading disorder.
Emergent Literacy
The skills, knowledge, and attitudes that are developmental precursors to conventional forms of reading and writing.
Editing
A part of writing and preparing presentations concerned chiefly with improving the clarity, organization, concision, and correctness of expression relative to task, purpose, and audience; compared to revising, a smaller-scale activity often associated with surface aspects of a text; see also revising, rewriting.
Efferent Response
An efferent response is the reader’s focus on what information will be learned and remembered. It emphasizes comprehension of text information and is supported by explicit instruction in comprehension strategies. It is frequently tied to curricular goals and response activities are frequently teacher-initiated. (Adapted from Rosenblatt. The Reader, the Text, and the Poem.)
Elkonin Boxes
A framework used during phonemic awareness instruction. Elkonin Boxes are sometimes referred to as Sound Boxes. When working with words, the teacher can draw one box per sound for a target word. Students push a marker into one box as they segment each sound in the word.
Embedded Phonics
This type of phonics approach is not used systematically but simply in those ‘teachable moments’ that arise. It is used in conjunction with whole language teaching. For more information about what ‘whole language’ means you could visit the Wikipedia site through this link.

Embedded phonics is commonly used when it has been noticed that a particular child (or a group of children) are having a problem with a certain word/sound in their book.

The teacher may stop the reading to teach the child/ren that particular sound.

Embedded phonics
In this approach, children learn vocabulary [They must mean letter-sound correspondence] through explicit instruction on the letter-sound relationships during the reading of connected text, usually when the teacher notices that a child is struggling to read a particular word. Letter-sound relationships are taught as part of sight word reading. If the sequence of letter-sounds is not prescribed and sequenced, but is determined by whatever words are encountered in text, then the program is not systematic or explicit.
Strategic Learners:
Active learners. While reading these learners make predictions, organize information, and interact with the text. They think about what they are readingin terms of what they already know. They monitor their comprehension by employing strategies that facilitate their understanding.
Embedded phonics
In this approach, children learn vocabulary through explicit instruction on the letter-sound relationships during the reading of connected text, usually when the teacher notices that a child is struggling to read a particular word. Letter-sound relationships are taught as part of sight word reading. If the sequence of letter-sounds is not prescribed and sequenced, but is determined by whatever words are encountered in text, then the program is not systematic or explicit.
Phoneme Manipulation:
Adding, deleting, and substituting sounds in words (e.g., add /b/ to oat to make boat; delete /p/ in pat to make at; substitute /o/ for /a/ in pat to make pot).
Emergent Literacy
Emergent literacy refers to the young child’s developing knowledge of how print works before formal instruction begins. Once referred to as “reading readiness, emergent literacy supports the understanding that young children begin to develop knowledge about and use of literacy well before formal schooling begins. Children’s emergent literacy behaviors are developed as a result of early experiences with print in the home, in preschool programs, and in kindergarten. Children may enter kindergarten with a wide range of experiences with print. The basic components of emergent literacy are oral language development, concepts about print, alphabet knowledge, and phonemic awareness.
Cognates:
Words that are related to each other by virtue of being derived from a common origin (e.g., ‘decisive’ and ‘decision’).
Empirical Research
: Refers to scientifically based research that applies rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain valid knowledge. This includes research that: employs systematic, empirical methods that draw on observation or experiment; has been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal or approved by a panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous, objective and scientific review; involves rigorous data analyses that are adequate to test the stated hypotheses and justify the general conclusions drawn; relies on measurements or observational methods that provide valid data across evaluators and observers and across multiple measurements and observations; and can be generalized.
English Language Learners
An English language learner (ELL) is a student who speaks one or more languages other than English, and who is just developing proficiency in English. In the Teaching Reading workshop and library, both dual language learning and careful scaffolding of literacy experiences in English enhance ELL students’ learning of oral and written English.
English Language Learners:
Defined by the U.S. Department of Education as national-origin-minority students who are limited-English-proficient. Often abbreviated as ELLs.
English language learner (ELL)
English language learners are students whose first language is not English and who are in the process of learning English.

ESL

ESL is the common acronym for English as a Second Language, an educational approach in which English language learners are instructed in the use of the English language.

Comprehensive Intervention Reading Program (CIRP):
These programs are intended for students who are reading one or more years below grade level, and who are struggling with a broad range of reading skills.Comprehensive Intervention Programs provide instruction that is more intensive, explicit, systematic, and more motivating than instruction students have previously received. These programs also provide more frequent assessments of student progress and more systematic review in order to insure proper pacing of instruction and mastery of all instructional components.
Comprehensive Intervention Programs include instructional content based on the five essential components of reading instruction integrated into a coherent instructional design.

A coherent design includes explicit instructional strategies, coordinated instructional sequences, ample practice opportunities and aligned student materials.

Error Correction:
: Immediate corrective feedback during reading instruction.
Often uses the format: model (“The sound is mmmm.”); Test (“What sound?”); Verification (“Yes, mmm.”); Start over (“Put your finger on the ball and sound out the word.”); Retest (later).
Etymology:
The origin of a word and the historical development of its meaning (e.g., the origin of our word etymology comes from late Middle English: from Old French ethimologie, via Latin from Greek etumologia, from etumologos ‘student of etymology,’ from etumon, neuter singular of etumos ‘true’).
pattern books
Also referred to as predictable books. Books which use repetitive language and/or scenes, sequences, episodes. Predictable books allow early readers to predict what the sentences are going to say, thereby increasing enjoyment and helping to build vocabulary.
Evidence
Facts, figures, details, quotations, or other sources of data and information that provide support for claims or an analysis and that can be evaluated by others; should appear in a form and be derived from a source widely accepted as appropriate to a particular discipline, as in details or quotations from a text in the study of literature and experimental results in the study of science.
Syllable shape
An abstract combination of consonants and vowels (V, CV, VC, CCV, or CVC).
Consonant Blend:
Two or more consecutive consonants which retain their individual sounds (e.g., /bl/ in block; /str/ in string).
Expository Text
Reports factual information (also referred to as informational text) and the relationships among ideas. Expository text tends to be more difficult for students than narrative text because of the density of long, difficult, and unknown words or word parts.
Core Instruction
is instruction provided to all students in the class, and it is usually guided by a comprehensive core reading program. Part of the core instruction is usually provided to the class as a whole, and part is provided during the small group, differentiated instruction period. Although instruction is differentiated by student need during the small group period, materials and lesson procedures from the core program can frequently be used to provide reteaching, or additional teaching to students according to their needs
Expository text
Text written to explain and convey information about a specific topic. Contrast with narrative text.
Expressive Language:
Language that is spoken.
Eye Pacers:
Various methods of eye pacing. Patterns of eye movements are especially noted in skimming, when readers zig-zag down a page of text. Another pattern (led by a finger or pencil) is running down the middle of the page (using peripheral vision to “see” the words on either side of the center.

In the beginning of efforts to read faster, it is sometimes beneficial to use the hand or fingers as an eye pacer, forcing the eyes to scan the text at any speed desirable. However, this same technique could be habit-forming, and eventually limit an individual’s potential reading speed. Good eye-hand coordination is one of the main factors in reading faster.

Eye-Span Trainer:
A small hand-held machine (version of the tachistoscope) that trains the eyes to move in a varied span, taking in from two-to-eight words at one time. Material used by the Eye-Span Trainer is shown for controlled periods of time, generally one second, but capable of being as brief as one-hundredth of a second.
Familiarity with Text Vocabulary:
: A non-physical skill vital for efficient readers, who need large vocabularies to respond quickly to words in varied reading material.
Fidelity of Implementation:
The degree to which instruction follows the intent and design of the program.
Figurative Meanings:
: Language that departs from its literal meaning (e.g., The snow sparkled like diamonds; That child is a handful.).
Five Components of Reading
Phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.
Note: Well-designed programs connect these skills: (1) with a logical progression WITHIN each skill (e.g., sounding out simple words and then longer words and then irregular words); and (2) with a logical progression across the skills (e.g., students are taught to say sounds, to say words fast and slowly (blend and segment), to say the sounds that go with the letters, and then to decode words using these skill elements.
Invented Spelling
An attempt to spell a word based on a student’s knowledge of the spelling system and how it works (e.g., kt for cat).
Flashmeter:
An improved version of the tachistoscope, combining the Flashmeter with a lantern. The lantern provides light to project reading material on a screen, while the Flashmeter (with a spring principle), limits exposure of the material to a fraction of a second, as determined by the operator. The Flashmeter (manufactured by the Keystone View Company of Meadville, Pennsylvania) was used in the 1940s in elementary and high schools, and in reading clinics of colleges and universities, offering training in quick perception – valuable in raising levels of reading rates.
Flexibility in Reading Speeds
Varying reading speeds, according to the ease of difficulty of the reading material. Highly flexible reading is being able to skim, skip or read fast without losing the understanding of the text. Some factors for flexible reading include subject matter, word choices, sentence structures and vocabulary. Efficient speed readers might read novels at 800 words per minute, financial news at 1,000 words per minute, and newspaper articles at 1,500 words per minutes – all according to their own desires and purposes. Generally, reading purposes include: relaxation, self-enrichment, evaluation of ideas, and information only.

All reading speeds should be determined by the nature of the selected text, generally faster for “light” reading and perhaps slower for “heavy” reading. Varying the reading speed may depend on the reader’s purpose, difficulty of the material, available time for reading the material, and familiarity of the subject matter. It is essential, in speed reading, to know when to vary the reading rate to ensure full comprehension of the material. Varied reading speeds also help to keep mentally alert, concentrate more when necessary, and increase speed overall.

Flexible Grouping
Flexible grouping covers a range of instructional options for instruction including whole class, small group, and independent reading. Effective instruction includes a balance of these options throughout the day to address the needs of all students.
Flexible Grouping:
Grouping students according to shared instructional needs and abilities and regrouping as their instructional needs change. Group size and allocated instructional time may vary among groups.
The information may come from entry tests (Does a student have the background knowledge needed even to enter reading instruction, or does the student need prior work on language?), diagnostic assessment (What are the students’ skills and difficulties with each skill?), and placement tests (assuming the student passes an entry test, for which spot in the curriculum sequence (given the progression within and across skills) is the student prepared? First lesson? Thirtieth lesson?)
Fluency
Fluency is the ability to read text accurately and quickly. During silent reading, fluent readers recognize words automatically and group them so they can understand what they read. Fluent readers do not concentrate on decoding words. Instead they focus their attention on what the text means. In short, fluent readers recognize and comprehend words at the same time and their reading is effortless and expressive. Shared reading with the teacher and classmates, and repeated readings of text as in Readers’ Theater help beginning readers develop fluency. (Adapted from Armbruster, Lehr, and Osborn. Put Reading First, 22 and 24).
Fluency
Fluency is the ability (Not an ability. It is action. It is reading.) to read a text accurately, quickly, and with proper expression and comprehension. Because fluent readers do not have to concentrate on decoding words, they can focus their attention on what the text means.
Note the 3 features of fluency. The ‘quickly’ (speed) feature is a function of automaticity; the reader does not have to sound out words any more. They are decoded instantly—they eyes scan the word’s letters very fast. Automaticity in riding a bicycle does not mean that you memorized the steps. It means that you have performed the sequence so many times that now you do it without thinking.

Note: Math and reading experts speak of fluency as speed. No. It’s PROPER speed (plus accuracy and smoothness). A pianist who plays a piece at a slow speed, accurately, and smoothly, is fluent.

Focused question
A query narrowly tailored to task, purpose, and audience, as in a research query that is sufficiently precise to allow a student to achieve adequate specificity and depth within the time and format constraints.
Fluency
Ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression. Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehensionOr, you might say that fluency facilitates comprehension. If you read slowly, you forget what you read.
Fluency Probe
An assessment for measuring fluency, usually a timed oral reading passage at the student’s instructional reading level.
Formal Assessment:
Follows a prescribed format for administration and scoring. Scores obtained from formal tests are standardized, meaning that interpretation is based on norms from a comparative sample of children.
Fluent reading
Fast, smooth, effortless and automatic reading of text (can be silent reading or not) with attention focused on the meaning of the text.
Frustrational Reading Level:
The level at which a reader reads at less than a 90% accuracy (i.e., no more than one error per 10 words read). Frustration level text is difficult text for the reader.
Frayer Model
An adaptation of the concept map. The framework of the Frayer Model includes: the concept word, the definition, characteristics of the concept word, examples of the concept word, and non-examples of the concept word. It is important to include both examples and non-examples, so students are able to identify what the concept word is and what the concept word is not.
Phonemic ideal
An orthography which represents each phoneme with a unique grapheme or letter. See shallow orthography. Ancient Greek. Every example of the same letter makes the same sound.

I (iota) always says eeee. Not eee, or ih, or eye
Omega always says aawww.
Sigma always says sss. Not ssss or zzz.

General academic words and phrases
Vocabulary common to written texts but not commonly a part of speech; in the Standards, general academic words and phrases are analogous to Tier Two words and phrases (Language, p. 33).
Function word
A word which does not have lexical meaning, which primarily serves to express a grammatical relationship (e.g. AND, OF, OR, THE).
Regular Words:
Any word in which each letter represents its respective, most common sound (e.g., sat, fantastic).
Grade equivalent scores
In a norm-referenced assessment, individual student’s scores are reported relative to those of the norming population. This can be done in a variety of ways, but one way is to report the average grade of students who received the same score as the individual child. Thus, an individual child’s score is described as being the same as students that are in higher, the same, or lower grades than that student (e.g. a student in 2nd grade my earn the same score that an average forth grade student does, suggesting that this student is quite advanced). See also age equivalent scores.
Automaticity
Automaticity is a general term that refers to any skilled and complex behavior that can be performed rather easily with little attention, effort, or conscious awareness. These skills become automatic after extended periods of training. With practice and good instruction, students become automatic at word recognition, that is, retrieving words from memory, and are able to focus attention on constructing meaning from the text, rather than decoding.
Automaticity does NOT mean that words have been memorized. What would you memorize if you memorized a word? The sequence of letters. It would NOT be the case that the word ‘motorboat’ LOOKS like it SAYS motorboat! It IS the case that the sequence of LETTER-SOUNDS SAY motorboat. Automaticity in this case means that you have read the word so many times that decoding it (saying the sounds slowly and then fast) NOW happens in an instant, without THINKING about it—without sounding it out in your head.

Automaticity is a feature of fluency. It’s what makes SPEED possible. If you had to sound out words, you would read slowly.

Grapheme
A grapheme is a letter or letter combination (Not a sound.) that spells (represents in writing) a single phoneme sound. In English, a grapheme may be one, two, three, or four letters, such as e, ei, igh, or eigh.
Grapheme
A unit (a letter or letters) of a writing system that represents one phoneme; a single symbol that has one phonemic correspondent within any particular word.
c = /c/ = cat
Grapheme:
A letter or letter combination that spells a phoneme; can be one, two, three, or four letters in English (e.g., e, ei, igh, eigh).
Graphophonemic:
The relationship between letters and phonemes.
Graphic Organizers:
A visual framework or structure for capturing the main points of what is being read, which may include concepts, ideas, events, vocabulary, or generalizations. Graphic organizers allow ideas in text and thinking processes to become external by showing the interrelatedness of ideas, thus facilitating understanding for the reader. The structure of a graphic organizer is determined by the structure of the kind of text being read.
For instance, if text begins with a big idea (for example, an overview of the solar system) and then has sections that explain each part of the model, a graphic organizer would SHOW the solar system and then have sections that briefly describe each part.
Guided Reading
In guided reading, the teacher guides small groups of students in reading short, carefully chosen texts in order to build independence, fluency, comprehension skills, and problem-solving strategies. The teacher often begins by introducing the text and modeling a particular strategy. Then students read to themselves in quiet voices as the teacher listens in, noting strategies and obstacles, and cuing individual students as needed. Students then discuss content, and share problem-solving strategies. Guided-reading materials usually become increasingly challenging and are often read more than once. The teacher regularly observes and assesses students’ changing needs, and adjusts groupings accordingly. Guided reading allows a teacher to provide different levels of support, depending on the needs of the students
Base words
Base words are words from which many other words are formed. For example, many words can be formed from the base word migrate: migration, migrant, immigration, immigrant, migrating, migratory.
Hand Motions
Using the hand to control or direct eye pacing while reading text. For hand motions, readers use their writing hand to move down a page of text, forcing their eyes to follow the motion. Reading speeds vary according to the individual.

Reading speeds can be improved with hand motions, especially in the beginning of learning to read faster. Using the hand and fingers as a pacer will force the eyes to move down a page of text in a smooth rhythm. Interestingly, hand motions are helpful in improving both speed and comprehension, mainly because they help avert such reading distractions as regressions. Many readers using hand motions find that it is easier (and more logical) to use the left hand for the motion, keeping the right hand free to turn pages. Basically, hand motions are effective as a pacer until the eyes can continue the same motion efficiently with the same precision on their own, allowing the reader to read even faster.

Guided Oral Reading
Instructional support including immediate corrective feedback as students read orally.
Guided Practice
Students practice newly learned skills with the teacher providing prompts and feedback.
Strategic Instruction
Based on the levels of knowledge, students need to use reading strategies flexibly. Strategic instruction teaches students to understand: 1) what the strategy is, 2) specific procedures in using the strategy, and 3) when and why the strategy is useful in reading. These three components of information are important when introducing a new strategy to students so that they understand when and why to use it.
High Frequency Irregular Words:
Words in print containing letters that stray from the most common sound pronunciation because they do not follow common phonic patterns (e.g., were, was, laugh, been).
Therefore, these words can’t be decoded by sounding them out. The teacher might use a special format to teach students that we always FIRST sound out a word, but that THIS word we SAY differently from the way we sound it out.

said.

“Sound it out.”
“ssssaaaiiid.”
“Yes, that’s how we sound it out, but here’s how we SAY it. sseed. Sound it out.”
“sssaaaiiid.”
“Now, SAY it.”
“sed.”
“Yes, sed.”

High Frequency Words:
A small group of words (300-500) that account for a large percentage of the words in print and can be regular or irregular words (i.e., Dolch or Fry). Often, they are referred to as “sight words” since automatic recognition of these words is required for fluent reading.
Highlighting Selected Text
Marking selected information in the reading material. Some individuals underline and highlight certain pices of information as they read, which (if not properly evaluated) can produce too much underlining and highlighting.
Central auditory processing disorder/deficit (CAPD)
Central auditory processing disorder occurs when the ear and the brain do not coordinate fully. A CAPD is a physical hearing impairment, but one which does not show up as a hearing loss on routine screenings or an audiogram. Instead, it affects the hearing system beyond the ear, whose job it is to separate a meaningful message from non-essential background sound and deliver that information with good clarity to the intellectual centers of the brain (the central nervous system).
Homograph:
Words that are spelled the same (graph = write) but have different origins and meanings. They may or may not be pronounced the same (e.g., can as in a metal container/can as in able to).
Learn the differences. See link below.
Homonym
A word which is spelled and pronounced identically to another word, but which has a different meaning. For example, a swimming POOL versus a POOL table.
Point of view
Chiefly in literary texts, the narrative point of view (as in first- or third-person narration); more broadly, the position or perspective conveyed or represented by an author, narrator, speaker, or character.
Journal Writing
Children write daily in journals to document or explain their ideas and experiences, compose stories, describe events, and respond to reading. Children write in journals across the curriculum. Journal entries do not have to incorporate the writing process, but children may decide to expand on a journal entry during writing time.
Horizontal (Peripheral) Vision
Ability to perceive words on either side of a specific word in a line of print, as well as words above and below the line. With practice, many words beyond the focal point can be taken in during a single fixation. Peripheral vision and vertical vision reinforce the proven idea that, in speed reading, eye movements to the end of each line are unnecessary for efficient perception and comprehension of the text.
Important Words:
Unknown words that are critical to passage understanding and which students are likely to encounter in the future.
Homophone
A word which is spelled differently from another word, but which is pronounced identically. For example, HOARSE versus HORSE; or TWO versus, TO, versus, TOO.

Homonyms: break: Take a break. Vs. Break a dish. blue: blue dish vs. blue mood text: written material vs. verb = to text

Homophones meat vs. meet rime (white ice from frozen fog) vs. rhyme (as in “My name is Sam and I’m made of ham, but never Spam because Sam I am.”).

Concepts About Print
Coined by New Zealand educator Marie Clay, concepts about print (CAP) refers to what emergent readers need to understand about how printed language works and how it represents language. Successful beginning readers develop concepts about print at an early age, building on emergent literacy that starts before formal schooling.
Print carries a message. Even when children “play read” text using pictures and memory, they demonstrate an understanding of this concept, even if they cannot read the words, or read them backwards or front to back.
Books are organized, with a cover, title, and author, and reading in English flows in a particular and consistent direction, left to right and top to bottom. When young students successfully point to or otherwise track the print as someone reads aloud, they demonstrate their understanding of orientation and directionality.
Printed language consists of letters, words, and sentences. Emergent readers gradually learn to distinguish between these forms, learn the concepts of “beginning” and “end,” and understand punctuation that marks text (e.g., period, comma, and question mark).
Recognition of matching or upper- and lower-case letters, as well as some common spelling sequences, are slightly more complex concepts about print mastered by more experienced beginning readers.
Concepts about print can be taught using shared reading of Big Books, enlarged charts and poems, or other kinds of engaging texts. It can also be taught through interactive writing, language experience dictations, or exploring print in the classroom environment.
Many teachers use Clay’s Concepts About Print assessment tool in late kindergarten or beginning first grade to assess students’ concepts about print.
Kidwatching
Coined by Yetta Goodman (1985), kidwatching is an observational assessment of children’s performance and responses to instruction throughout the school day. Anecdotal records or more structured teacher checklists document kidwatching. This focused observation provides teachers with authentic measures of children’s performance as they engage in literacy and language.
ISD
ISD is a common acronym for Independent School District.
Funds of Knowledge
Coined by professor and researcher Luis Moll funds of knowledge refer to those historically developed and accumulated strategies (e.g., skills, abilities, ideas, and practices) or bodies of knowledge that are essential to a household’s functioning and well-being. They are the inherent cultural resources found in communities, and are grounded in the networking that communities do in order to make the best use of those resources (Conner, 2002). In their studies of bilingual literacy with Latino families in Tucson, Arizona, Moll and colleagues demonstrated the importance of communities of learners within large cultural and familial networks. They suggest that the integration of these local funds of knowledge in education forges strong links between parents, educators, and children, and the validation of this knowledge allows families to bring more to their children’s education.
Immediate Intensive Intervention
Instruction that may include more time, more opportunities for student practice, more teacher feedback, smaller group size, and different materials. It is implemented as soon as assessment indicates that students are not making adequate progress in reading.
Idiom
A phrase, construction, or expression that is understood in a given language. This expression has a meaning that differs from typical syntactic patterns or that differs from the literal meaning of its parts taken together. Some examples of idiomatic expressions would include, “to kick the bucket” means “to die,” or “to throw in the towel” means “to give up” or “to stop”
Grasp at straws. Jump the shark. Flap your gums. Take a hike. Stuff a sock in it. Pull an all-nighter. Dump him. Hurl. Step off. Want a piece of me? Get down. Level off! Chill! Dumb as a sack of hammers. That’s lame. Out to lunch. Fed up. He’s toast.
Idiom:
A phrase or expression that differs from the literal meaning of the words; a regional or individual expression with a unique meaning (e.g., it’s raining cats and dogs).
blending:
Combining parts of words to form a word. For example, combining pl and ate to form plate.
Understanding Reading Material
Comprehending ideas in the text. In reading, ideas are more important than individual words. Efficient readers are able to comprehend efficiently by understanding the “whole,” the main idea, the message of the author. Good comprehension includes such important factors as concentration, critical evaluation of the reading material, the reader’s purpose, ability to retain and recall information from the material, and appropriate reading speeds for the selected text.
Independent Reading
In independent reading, students read books on their own, exploring different kinds of texts and applying new learning. Students should be able to read these books easily, without assistance. Students often choose their reading materials, but independent reading can be organized by leveled book baskets or recommendations from the teacher. Teachers confer individually with students during independent reading or model their own silent reading. Independent reading is sometimes called DEAR (Drop Everything and Read) or SSR (Sustained Silent Reading).
Independent Writing
In independent writing, students write about literature or other topics on their own. In the video programs, students write and illustrate creative stories or journal entries on topics of their own choosing. Often followed by a time to share written work with a partner or with the whole class, independent writing allows students to be recognized as authors and to receive feedback.
consonant
Consonants are the letters of the alphabet except for the vowels a, e, i, o, u and sometimes y and w.
Consonants are FIRST of all sounds; they may be represented with letters.
Independent Writing
In independent writing, students write about literature or other topics on their own. In the video programs, students write and illustrate creative stories or journal entries on topics of their own choosing. Often followed by a time to share written work with a partner or with the whole class, independent writing allows students to be recognized as authors and to receive feedback.
Independent-Instructional Reading Level Range:
The reading range that spans instructional and independent reading levels or level of text that a student can read with 90% to 95% or above accuracy.
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
An individualized educational program describes the special education and related services specifically designed to meet the unique educational needs of a student with a disability.
Letter Combinations:
Also referred to as digraphs, a group of consecutive letters that represents a particular sound(s) in the majority of words in which it appears (e.g., /ai/ in maid; /ch/ in chair; /ar/ in car; /kn/ in know; /ng/ in ring).
Indirect vocabulary learning
Indirect vocabulary learning refers to students learning the meaning of words indirectly when they hear or see the words used in many different contexts – for example, through conversations with adults, through being read to, and through reading extensively on their own.
This means that a person has to INFER –figure out—what a word means by comparing and contrasting examples of its USE. “She said it was a huge party. Another time someone said there was a huge fire. I also heard someone say that they had a huge disappointment. They made hand gestures and facial expressions that seemed to mean big or bad. So, I figure that HUGE means BIG!”
Letter-Sound Correspondence:
The matching of an oral sound to its corresponding letter or group of letters.
Anticipation in Reading
Determining the author’s approach in reading materials. Anticipation allows readers an opportunity to become acquainted with the topic, which aids in both concentration and comprehension. Previewing is a major factor in anticipation, but the process can involve selecting, skipping, skimming and scanning.
Inflectional Suffix:
In English, a suffix that expresses plurality or possession when added to a noun, tense when added to a verb, and comparison when added to an adjective and some adverbs. A major difference between inflectional and derivational morphemes is that inflections added to verbs, nouns, or adjectives do not change the grammatical role or part of speech of the base words (-s, -es ,-ing, ¬ed).
Phonological Awareness
Developing literacy requires an awareness that the spoken language can be taken apart in many different ways: sentences broken into words, words divided into syllables (sis/ter), and syllables divided into smaller, individual sounds (phonemes) such as /c/ /a/ /t/. Words can also be separated into onsets and rimes /c/ /at/. Phonological awareness includes knowledge of rhyming, alliteration (hearing similarity of sounds, as in “Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers”), and intonation.
Informal Assessment:
Does not follow prescribed rules for administration and scoring and has not undergone technical scrutiny for reliability and validity. Teacher-made tests, end-of-unit tests, and running records are all examples of informal assessment.
Instructional Routines (or formats):
include the following sequence of steps….
Gain attention. “Boys and girls. Show me ready.”

Frame instruction (skill worked on; objective): “Now you’ll learn how to sound out this word.”

Modeling. “My turn to sound out this word. When I touch under a letter I’ll say the sound. mmmmaaannn.”

Guided practice or Lead: “Now when I touch under a letter, WE’LL say the sound. Get ready. mmmaaannn.”

Student practice, application, and feedback, or Test/check. “Your turn to sound out this word. When I touch under a letter YOU say the sound. Get ready. mmmaaannn.

“Yes, mmaaannn. You are so smart!” [Verification]

Generalization: “Here’s a new word. [mas] You can sound it out. When I touch under a letter, you say the sound. Get ready.”

Modeling:
Teacher overtly demonstrates a strategy, skill, or concept that students will be learning.
Initial Instruction:
First line of defense to prevent reading failure for all students. Instruction is provided in the whole group (class) and small group (differentiated) setting. A core reading program is the instructional tool used for initial instruction in Florida’s Reading First initiative.
Interfixations:
Moving from one fixation to another, the period between two fixations. Readers are not aware of any loss of visual sharpness during interfixation movements because their minds are dealing with after-images from the previous fixation, or pause in eye movements.
Evaluation
Evaluation requires teachers to use the evidence collected during assessments to determine levels of student achievement and progress. Evaluation usually compares student performance with some predetermined standards to measure performance and plan subsequent instruction. While assessment is ongoing, evaluation takes place during specific times in the year. Evaluation might include aggregating data from multiple assessments or administering other performance measures.
Interest in Reading Material
Intellectual curiosity of efficient readers, who often pursue reading to satisfy that curiosity. Reading interest, an important non-physical skill, also is helpful in maintaining good concentration.

Absorption of specialized information derived from reading material improves according to development of a reader’s interests. Because of subject familiarity from past reading, the reader can concentrate on “new” ideas rather than spend too much time on ideas that are already familiar. An interest in reading material is usually an indication of the priorities and values of the reader, which naturally expand through more reading.

Home Literacy
Family or home literacy encompasses the ways parents, children, and extended family members use literacy at home and in their community. Family literacy may be initiated purposefully by a parent or may occur spontaneously as parents and children go about the business of their daily lives. Family literacy activities may also reflect the ethnic, racial, or cultural heritage of the families involved. (Adapted from Morrow, Paratore, and Tracey. Family Literacy: New Perspectives, New Opportunities.)
Outcome Assessment
Given at the end of the year for two purposes. First, they can help the principal and teachers in a school evaluate the overall effectiveness of their reading program for all students. Second, they are required in Reading First schools to help districts evaluate their progress toward meeting the goal of “every child reading on grade level” by third grade. Schools must show regular progress toward this goal to continue receiving Reading First funds.
Journal Writing
Children write daily in journals to document or explain their ideas and experiences, compose stories, describe events, and respond to reading. Children write in journals across the curriculum. Journal entries do not have to incorporate the writing process, but children may decide to expand on a journal entry during writing time.
Intervention Program
Provides content for instruction that is intended for flexible use as part of differentiated instruction and/or more intensive instruction to meet student learning needs in one or more of the specific areas of reading (phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension). These programs are used to provide targeted, intensive intervention for small groups of struggling readers.
Kidwatching
Coined by Yetta Goodman (1985), kidwatching is an observational assessment of children’s performance and responses to instruction throughout the school day. Anecdotal records or more structured teacher checklists document kidwatching. This focused observation provides teachers with authentic measures of children’s performance as they engage in literacy and language.
Phases of Word Learning:
Pre-alphabetic-Sight word learning at the earliest period. Children do not form letter-sound connections to read words; if they are able to read words at all, they do so by remembering selected visual features.

Partial alphabetic-Children learn the names or sounds of alphabet letters and use these to remember how to read words. However, they form connections between only some of the letters and sounds in words, often only the first and final letter-sounds.

Full alphabetic-Children can form complete connections between letters in written words and phonemes in pronunciations.

Consolidated alphabetic-Readers operate with multi-letter units that may be
morphemes, syllables, or subsyllabic units such as onsets and rimes. Common spelling patterns become consolidated into letter chunks, and these chunks make it easier to read words.

Language learning disability (LLD)
A language learning disability is a disorder that may affect the comprehension and use of spoken or written language as well as nonverbal language, such as eye contact and tone of speech, in both adults and children.
Intensity
Focused instruction where students are academically engaged with the content and the teacher and receive more opportunities to practice with immediate teacher feedback.
Space Reading:
Focusing just above a line of print in reading material. By lifting the focus of the eyes above the line, and allowing them to relax slightly, readers can “spread” their vision to take in entire groups of words at one time.
K-W-L:
A technique used most frequently with expository text to promote comprehension. It can be used as a type of graphic organizer in the form of a chart, and it consists of a 3-step process: What I Know (accessing prior knowledge), What I Want to Know (setting a purpose for reading), and What I Learned (recalling what has been read).
Phonemic Awareness:
The ability to notice, think about, or manipulate the individual phonemes (sounds) in words. It is the ability to understand that sounds in spoken language work together to make words. This term is used to refer to the highest level of phonological awareness: awareness of individual phonemes in words.
Learning Capacity
Abilities to achieve improvement in reading skills, including speed reading, greater comprehension, greater concentration, and better recall of information. With practice, most individuals can expect quick improvement in their reading skills. Mostly, this relies on desire, willingness, persistence and practice involving reading techniques.
Learning Centers/Work Stations
Learning centers and work stations are designated areas within the classroom where students explore activities and practice skills and strategies, in small groups or alone, while the teacher is working with other students. The teacher models each activity first and then invites children to explore the center. Through center routines, children learn to work independently and cooperatively while developing specific skills.
Learning Centers/Work Stations
Learning centers and work stations are designated areas within the classroom where students explore activities and practice skills and strategies, in small groups or alone, while the teacher is working with other students. The teacher models each activity first and then invites children to explore the center. Through center routines, children learn to work independently and cooperatively while developing specific skills.
Learning Communities:
A group in which educators commit to ongoing learning experiences with a deliberate intent to transform teaching and learning at their school or within their district.
Graphic and semantic organizers
Graphic and semantic organizers summarize and illustrate concepts and interrelationships among concepts in a text, using diagrams or other pictorial devices. Graphic organizers are often known as maps, webs, graphs, charts, frames, or clusters. Semantic organizers are graphic organizers that look somewhat like a spider web where lines connect a central concept to a variety of related ideas and events.
Prior Knowledge
Refers to schema, the knowledge and experience that readers bring to the text.
Graphic and semantic organizers
Graphic and semantic organizers summarize and illustrate concepts and interrelationships among concepts in a text, using diagrams or other pictorial devices. Graphic organizers are often known as maps, webs, graphs, charts, frames, or clusters. Semantic organizers are graphic organizers that look somewhat like a spider web where lines connect a central concept to a variety of related ideas and events.
Word Family
Group of words that share a rime (a vowel plus the consonants that follow; e.g., -ame, -ick,-out).
Learning disability (LD)
A learning disability is a disorder that affects people’s ability to either interpret what they see and hear or to link information from different parts of the brain. It may also be referred to as a learning disorder or a learning difference.
Lexical
Refers to the words or the vocabulary of a language as distinguished from its grammar and construction.
Basically, dictionary listings of common meanings.
Prosody:
: Reading with expression, proper intonation, and phrasing. This helps readers to sound as if they are speaking the part they are reading. It is also this element of fluency that sets it apart from automaticity.
Thought Units:
Groupings of words according to content, rather than simply a number of words. The idea with thought units is to perceive “thoughts” in the text, connecting these thought units to each other, regardless of the number of words involved in the word groups. Reading in thought units requires considerable flexibility for readers, due to the varied eye movements needed to perceive, interpret and understand the varied lengths of the thoughts. In general, the technique of consciously reading in thought units requires devoted concentration to a grasp of the ideas and thinking of the author.

Widening the eye span allows readers to take in groups of words as well as thought units, which focus on understanding the ideas and thinking of an author. This technique involves flexibility in eye movements (for various lengths of thought units) and requires good concentration to grasp the author’s ideas. The idea is to read one thought after another, regardless of how many words may be in a particular thought unit. Reading by thought units is generally faster, since there is little wasted time considering minor details in the selected text.

Linked:
A clear connection among the objectives of what is taught within and across reading components (e.g., students learn some common letter sounds during phonics instruction, then read words that use those same letter sounds to practice fluency and develop vocabulary).
Pedagogy:
How instruction is carried out or the method and practice of teaching.
Age equivalent scores
In a norm-referenced assessment, individual student’s scores are reported relative to those of the norming population. This can be done in a variety of ways, but one way is to report the average age of people who received the same score as the individual child. Thus, an individual child’s score is described as being the same as students that are younger, the same age, or older than that student (e.g. a 9 year old student my receive the same score that an average 13 year old student does, suggesting that this student is quite advanced). See also grade equivalent scores.
Literal Comprehension
Understanding of the basic facts that the student has read.
reader’s workshop:
In a reader’s workshop the teacher begins by presenting a mini-lesson on a reading skill or concept. Students are then given uninterrupted time to read their various texts. Afterward students respond to what they have read in a reader response journal or reading log. Many reading workshops also include time for sharing. Many teachers first became familiar with reading workshops through Nancy Atwell’s classic book In the Middle published in the late 1980s . The latest edition of the book is titled In the Middle : New Understanding About Writing, Reading, and Learning (Boynton-Cook/Heinemann). Another extremely popular book which discusses the reader’s workshop is Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in a Reader’s Workshop by Ellin Oliver Keene and Susan Zimmerman (Heinemann).
Repeated Reading
Rereading of text until the reader is able to read at a predetermined rate to produce fluency.
Logograph
A writing system wherein each spoken word in the language is represented by a unique symbol. Chinese is an example of a logographic writing system.
Symbols for whole words, not symbols for sounds = alphabet.

?? means Martin male in Chinese.

Local education agency (LEA)
A local education agency is a public board of education or other public authority within a state that maintains administrative control of public elementary or secondary schools in a city, county, township, school district or other political subdivision of a state.
Independent Reading
In independent reading, students read books on their own, exploring different kinds of texts and applying new learning. Students should be able to read these books easily, without assistance. Students often choose their reading materials, but independent reading can be organized by leveled book baskets or recommendations from the teacher. Teachers confer individually with students during independent reading or model their own silent reading. Independent reading is sometimes called DEAR (Drop Everything and Read) or SSR (Sustained Silent Reading).
Rhyming:
Words that have the same ending sound.
Look-say
An approach to reading instruction that emphasized memorization of whole words. Graded word lists were used to teach children to memorize words as wholes, and every year, children added to their repertoire of “familiar” words.
Scaffolding
Refers to the support that is given to students in order for them to arrive at the correct answer. This support may occur as immediate, specific feedback that a teacher offers during student practice. For instance, the assistance the teacher offers may include giving encouragement or cues, breaking the problem down into smaller steps, using a graphic organizer, or providing an example.

Scaffolding may be embedded in the features of the instructional design such as starting with simpler skills and building progressively to more difficult skills. Providing the student temporary instructional support assists them in achieving what they could not otherwise have done alone.

Interactive Writing
In interactive writing, the teacher helps groups of students compose and write text together, usually on large chart paper. With guidance from the teacher, individual students take turns writing, as classmates offer ideas and suggestions. Students practice writing strategies and skills modeled by the teacher, including letter formation, phonemic awareness and phonics, and concepts about print. Interactive writing is sometimes called “sharing the pen.”
Margin Notes
Marking in the margins. In study reading, it is sometimes helpful to make brief notes or check marks in the margins to indicate important passages.
Read-Aloud
In read-aloud, the teacher reads to the whole class, building on students’ existing skills while introducing different types of literature and new concepts. Read-aloud models fluent and expressive reading, develops comprehension and critical thinking strategies — including the ability to make connections, visualize stories, and formulate questions — and builds listening skills. A read-aloud can be conducted without interruption, or the teacher can pause to ask questions and make observations.
Mediation
In relation to reading, Luis Moll and Norma Gonzalez (1994) formulated an instructional model in which teachers and students read and negotiated the meaning of written texts in light of the students’ imagined worlds and funds of knowledge. The goal of the model was essentially for teachers and students to develop “mediated and literate relationships” as they explored knowledge funds through literacy. The composite term, “mediate and literate relationships” emphasizes several key features of how literacy development is understood and conducted. Mediated refers to the historical, cultural, and social context in which knowledge is constructed. Literate refers to mastering the tools of using and interpreting words. Relationship acknowledges the dialogical nature of learning. In an instructional model that calls for a mediated and literate relationship, the student and the teacher collaborate to uncover cultural knowledge funds. Dialogue and negotiation of meaning is key to the process. The student and teacher work together to find conventional ways to express cultural insights and idiosyncratic ways of using words. The result is a creative product whether illustrated, oral, or written that b ridges cultural and conventional learning. (Taken from Boyd-Batstone. Reading With a Hero: A Mediated and Literate Experience.)
Self-Monitoring
Refers to metacognition. When students use self-monitoring strategies, they actively think about how they are learning or understanding the material, activities, or reading in which they are engaged.
Memory
Ability of readers to retain, store and recall information. Efficient readers with good memory tend to possess both interest and motivation in their reading activities. Memory and comprehension, although related, are two different skills, which means that some readers may develop good comprehension skills at a different rate than memory skills.

One of the primary purposes for reading is to derive information, often to be retained and recalled at later times. Recollection upon demand is a critical skill for every reader. It is acknowledged that memory is perfect, but readers sometimes discover difficult in recalling important definitions and concepts from previous reading. One helpful hint, for some readers, is to make index cards with brief notes about specific information in the text.

Metacognition
Metacognition is the awareness individuals have of their own mental processes and the subsequent ability to monitor, regulate, and direct themselves to a desired end. Students demonstrate metacognition if they can articulate what strategies they used to read and understand a text. Metacognition helps readers monitor and control their comprehension on an ongoing basis and adjust their reading strategies to maximize comprehension. (Adapted from Harris and Hodges. The Literacy Dictionary, 128.) (See Self-Monitor.)
Phoneme blending
In this activity, children learn to listen to a sequence of separately spoken phonemes, and then combine the phonemes to form a word. (Teacher: What word is /b/ /i/ /g/? Children: /b/ /i/ /g/ is big.)
Metacognition
Metacognition is the awareness individuals have of their own mental processes and the subsequent ability to monitor, regulate, and direct themselves to a desired end. Students demonstrate metacognition if they can articulate what strategies they used to read and understand a text. Metacognition helps readers monitor and control their comprehension on an ongoing basis and adjust their reading strategies to maximize comprehension. (Adapted from Harris and Hodges. The Literacy Dictionary, 128.) (See Self-Monitor.)
Phoneme isolation
In this activity, children learn to recognize and identify individual sounds in a word. (Teacher: What is the first sound in van? Children: The first sound in van is /v/.)
Metacognition:
An awareness of one’s own thinking processes and how they work. The process of consciously thinking about one’s learning or reading while actually being engaged in learning or reading. Metacognitive strategies can be taught to students; good readers use metacognitive strategies to think about and have control over their reading.
Sound to Symbol
Phonics instruction that matches phoneme to grapheme.
Mini-Lesson
The mini-lesson is part of Writers’ Workshop and provides a short (5- to 10- minute), structured lesson on a topic related to writing. Topics are selected by the teacher and based on student need or curricular areas. These topics address aspects of the writing process or procedures for independent Writing Workshop time.
Phoneme deletion
In this activity, children learn to recognize the word that remains when a phoneme is removed from another word. (Teacher: What is smile without the /s/? Children: Smile without the /s/ is mile.)
Miscue
Coined by Ken Goodman in the mid 1960s, a miscue is any departure from the text when reading orally. Use of miscue instead of “error” suggests that mistakes are not random, but occur when the reader tries to use different strategies to make sense of text, and emphasizes that not all errors are equal — some errors represent more highly developed reading skills than others. Miscues can be analyzed to suggest what strategies the reader is using or lacking, and what kinds of additional instruction might be helpful. (See Miscue Analysis.)
Phoneme categorization
In this activity, children recognize the word in a set of three or four words that has the “odd” sound. (Teacher: Which word doesn’t belong? bun, bus, rug. Children: Rug does not belong. It doesn’t begin with a /b/.)
Stop Sounds:
: A stop sound can only be said for an instant, otherwise its sound will be distorted (i.e., / b/, /c/ /d/, /g/, /h/, /j/, /k/, /p/, /q/, /t/, /x/). Words beginning with stop sounds are more difficult for students to sound out than words beginning with a continuous sound.

Continuous sounds—vowels and consonants—whose pronunciation can be extended.
rrrrrrrrrrrrrr, aaaaa, eeeeeeeeeee, ssssssssssss.

Note that some sounds are voiced and others are unvoiced.

a, b, m, r, g, th (as in this), z v are all voiced. Notice that some are continuous and some (b) are stop sounds).

p, t, f, th (as in thick), s (as in sick), k are unvoiced. These, too, may be continuous (th, s) or stop sounds (p).

And notice that the difference between some letter-sounds-phonemes is merely whether they are voiced or unvoiced. p vs. b f vs. v s vs z g vs. k

Continuous, voiced
m, n, a, v, z, l, r, th (this)

Continuous, unvoiced
f, th (thick), s (sick),
Discrete, voiced
b, g, d,
Discrete, unvoiced
p, k, t

Miscue
Coined by Ken Goodman in the mid 1960s, a miscue is any departure from the text when reading orally. Use of miscue instead of “error” suggests that mistakes are not random, but occur when the reader tries to use different strategies to make sense of text, and emphasizes that not all errors are equal — some errors represent more highly developed reading skills than others. Miscues can be analyzed to suggest what strategies the reader is using or lacking, and what kinds of additional instruction might be helpful. (See Miscue Analysis.)
Story Elements
Characters, problem, solutions, themes, settings, and plot.
Miscue Analysis
Miscue analysis is a way of closely observing, recording, and analyzing oral reading behaviors to assess how the reader is using specific cuing strategies, like the use of syntax, semantic information, and graphophonics. The teacher uses a specific code to record actual reading. Miscue analysis is usually done with an unfamiliar, long text, followed by a taped retelling. Scoring and analysis is more complex than with a running record, and is usually done at a later time. While running records are most often used with beginning readers, miscue analysis can be used for more advanced readers.
Miscue Analysis
Miscue analysis is a way of closely observing, recording, and analyzing oral reading behaviors to assess how the reader is using specific cuing strategies, like the use of syntax, semantic information, and graphophonics. The teacher uses a specific code to record actual reading. Miscue analysis is usually done with an unfamiliar, long text, followed by a taped retelling. Scoring and analysis is more complex than with a running record, and is usually done at a later time. While running records are most often used with beginning readers, miscue analysis can be used for more advanced readers.
Monitoring comprehension
Readers who monitor their comprehension know when they understand what they read and when they do not. Students are able to use appropriate “fix-up” strategies to resolve problems in comprehension.
Yes, but HOW do they know when they understand? What IS the monitoring behavior? It could be:
1. Comparing what you thought would happen, or what characteristics you thought a character had, or what you thought a sequence was, with new information, or by reviewing.

2. Checking what you think a word means, as used by an author, with other aspects of the context. For example, you may have thought that Melville’s own view of Captain Ahab was that Ahab was heartless, but you look for evidence that he may have been portrayed as kind, too

More sustained research project
An investigation intended to address a relatively expansive query using several sources over an extended period of time, as in a few weeks of instructional time.
Onset-rime phonics instruction
In this approach, children learn to break monosyllabic words into their onsets (consonants preceding the vowel) and rimes (vowel and following consonants). They read each part separately and then blend the parts to say the whole word.
Morpheme
A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of language. A morpheme can be one syllable (book) or more than one syllable (seventeen). It can be a whole word or a part of a word such as a prefix or suffix. For example, the word ungrateful contains three morphemes: un, grate, and ful.

Contrast with phoneme. Phonemes do not have meaning. But their presence or absence affects meaning. Quilty/guilty. The sounds qw and g are phonemes. Remember: we are talking about SOUNDS, not letters. The sounds are morphemes. These morphemes can be REPRESENTED by letters.

The table defines different kinds of morphemes (sound sequences with meaning).

Free (stand alone) lexical (with meaning) morphemes = content words.
dog, eat, fly, red, slow

Bound (must be combined with other morphemes) lexical (with meaning) morphemes = “derivational morphemes” = derived from

acy combined with liter or priv
ment combined with pay or establish
ish combined with child or yellow
ize combined with organ or real
ion combined with distract or perfect

Free (stand alone) grammatical (have grammatical functions) morphemes.

the, a, an, to, of, by, for, and, but his, her.
Bound (must be combined with other morphemes) grammatical (have grammatical functions) morphemes = “inflectional morphemes.”

For plural /s/ /z/ /iz/ ticks, pins, glasses
For possessive. /z/ hers
For comparison er est higher highest
Past participle ed walked
Present participle ing walking

Adapted from Grammatical Morphemes VS Lexical Morphemes

http://faizal.staff.stainsalatiga.ac.id/wp-content/uploads/sites/63/2013/04/grammatical-and-lexical-morpheme.pdf

Structural Analysis:
A procedure for teaching students to read words formed with prefixes, suffixes, or other meaningful word parts.

Student Friendly Explanation: An explanation of the word’s meaning rather than a definition.
1) Characterizes the word and how it is typically used.
2) Explains the meaning in everyday language.

Morpheme:
The smallest meaningful unit of language.
Repeated and monitored oral reading
In this instructional activity, students read and reread a text a certain number of times or until a certain level of fluency is reached. This technique has been shown to improve reading fluency and overall reading achievement. Four re-readings are usually sufficient for most students. Students may also practice reading orally through the use of audiotapes, tutors, peer guidance, or other means.

Start making a list of different methods for building fluency.
1. Repeated and monitored oral reading.
2. Teacher models how to read faster.
3. Build speed with smaller parts of reading: saying sounds, reading letter-sounds, reading words, reading word lists, reading sentences —faster.
4. Sprints: as fast as you can, while accurate, for 30 seconds or so.
5. Setting fluency objectives (correct words per minute) and repeated reading every day to reach the goal.
6. Duet reading: take turns.
7. Teacher firms weak parts, such as letter-sounds or syllables, so that kids now can go fast and not struggle or make errors.

Morphemic Analysis:
: An analysis of words formed by adding prefixes, suffixes or other meaningful word units to a base word.
Morphemic relationship
The morphemic relationship is the relationship between one morpheme and another. In the word books, book is a free morpheme (it has meaning by itself) and -s is a bound morpheme (it has meaning only when attached to a free morpheme).

The sounds in “bas” = bays, make a free morpheme that MEANS bottom, foundation. The sounds ik (written as ic) means of or pertaining to, as in pan/ic (pan morpheme = fear; ic morpheme = pertaining to fear).

But ik (written as ic) has meaning ONLY when it is attached to a morpheme such as bas, pan, frant, mus. In other words, ic BY ITSELF OR in icmah doesn’t mean anything, because mah doesn’t mean anything.
So, ic is a bound morpheme. See table above.

Morphology
An examination of the morphemic structure of words (that is, how word parts carry meaning. cell (system of components within a larger system) /ular (of or resembling) = 2 morphemes); an appreciation of the fact that words with common roots share common meanings, and that affixes change words in predictable and consistent ways.
Morphophonology
Morphophonology is using a word’s letter patterns to help determine, in part, the meaning and pronunciation of a word. For example, the morpheme vis in words such as vision and visible is from the Latin root word that means to see; and the ay in stay is pronounced the same in the words gray and play.

“I know that tract = hold or grab. So, traction would be the state or process of grabbing or holding; and it would be pronounced t r ah k sh un because that is how tract is pronounced in many other words I’ve heard.”

Most Common Letter Sounds:
The sound that is usually pronounced for the letter when it appears in a short word, such as /a/ apple…
Systematic Phonics Instruction:
Systematic phonics programs teach children an extensive, pre-specified set of letter-sound correspondences or phonograms.
Multiple intelligences
The theory of multiple intelligences suggests that the traditional notion of intelligence, based on I.Q. testing, is far too limited. Instead, it proposes eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults. These intelligences are: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist.
Special Interests
Individual or personal purposes in reading. Special interests or purposes to be considered by readers should include: knowledge of the subject; determining why the book is being read; making a quick overview; previewing the book; looking at the book content more closely; and reviewing the book upon completion of the reading. Mainly, efficient reading depends on knowing one’s reading needs, knowing why certain books are important, and determining if the book needs to be read in more detail.
Multisensory structured language education
Multisensory structured language education uses visual, auditory, and kinesthetic-tactile cues simultaneously to enhance memory and learning. Links are consistently made between the visual (what we see), auditory (what we hear), and kinesthetic-tactile (what we feel) pathways in learning to read and spell.

For example, students hear, see, write, trace on paper, trace in the air, link blocks of letter-sounds—all ways of experiencing the same information. r “says” rrrr.

Systematic Review
A planned review of previously learned materials.
Targeted Supplemental/Intervention Reading Programs (TSRP/TIRP):
These programs and materials provide instruction in one or more areas of reading skill. They are intended for flexible use as part of differentiated instruction or in more intensive interventions to meet student learning needs in specific areas (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, or comprehension). When they are used with almost all students in the class because the CCRP does not provide enough instruction and practice in a given area for the majority of students in the class, they are usually referred to as supplemental materials. When they are used to provide targeted, intensive interventions for smaller groups of struggling readers, they are often referred to as intervention materials. Whether referred to as supplemental or intervention materials, these programs provide targeted instruction designed to fill in gaps in student knowledge or skill. These materials can be used to provide either additional instruction or additional practice, or both.
See Tiers.
Myths about Speed Reading
Mistaken beliefs about reading faster, sometimes serving as convenient reasons against improving reading skills. Some readers feel guilty if they skim and skip through the text, without reading every single word. Others believe it is necessary to finish the text, no matter how unnecessary or worthwhile to their purposes. Some feel that reading needs to be slow to be enjoyable. Other myths: everything needs to be remembered; skimming is not reading; technical material cannot be read quickly; reading is boring; reading requires long periods of time; re-reading is necessary when failing to concentrate or comprehend the material; reading slowly is “safe,” preventing the possibility of missing something significant in the text. One of the biggest myths believed by some readers is that reading faster may cause a loss in comprehension. Studies have shown that comprehension, concentration, recall and retention all benefit from faster speed rates.
Multisyllabic Words:
These are words with more than one syllable. A systematic introduction of prefixes, suffixes, and multisyllabic words should occur throughout a reading program. The average number of syllables in the words students read should increase steadily throughout the grades.
Narrative Text:
A story about fictional or real events.
prior knowledge
Knowledge which the reader has prior to engaging in the lesson or reading. Sometimes referred to as schema. It is important to activate prior knowledge before the lesson or reading. This allows students to connect what they are learning/reading with what they already know. Additionally, a discussion of prior knowledge alerts the teacher to gaps in the students’ knowledge and/or misconceptions the students have.
Train-the-Trainer Model
A capacity-building plan to develop master trainers who then deliver the program information to users.
Metalinguistic
Language and terminology used to describe language and the component parts of language.
A set of concepts in a language to describe and analyze language.
Receptive Language
Language that is heard.
Narrative text
Text which conveys a story or which relates events or dialog. Contrast with expository text.
Native Language
Native language is the first language learned and spoken by individuals based on their culture, country, and/or family. Native language is often used interchangeably with “first language” or “home language.” Children may be fluent speakers in their native language, but not necessarily literate in it. Literacy in one’s native language often correlates with ease of second-language literacy development.
Nonverbal learning disability
Nonverbal learning disability is a neurological disorder which originates in the right hemisphere of the brain. Reception of nonverbal or performance-based information governed by this hemisphere is impaired in varying degrees, causing problems with visual-spatial, intuitive, organizational, evaluative, and holistic processing functions.
Vocabulary:
Refers to all of the words of our language. One must know words to communicate effectively.

Vocabulary is important to reading comprehension because readers cannot understand what they are reading without knowing what most of the words mean. Vocabulary development refers to stored information about the meanings and pronunciation of words necessary for communication. Four types of vocabulary include listening, speaking, reading and writing.

Nuclear syllable
A syllable that carries maximum prominence, usually due to being stressed. For example, in the word ADDICT either AD is the nuclear syllable (if it is a noun) or DICT is the nuclear syllable (if it is a verb).
Useful Letter Sounds:
Letters that appear frequently in words. Beginning readers can decode more words when they know several useful letters. Knowing the sounds of /m/, /a/, /t/, and /i/ is more advantageous than the sounds /x/, /q/ /y/, and /z/. Other useful letter sounds are /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/, /b/, /c/, /d/, /f/, /g/, /h/, /k/, /l/, /n/, /p/, and /r/.
Vocabulary:
Refers to all of the words of our language. One must know words to communicate effectively.

Vocabulary is important to reading comprehension because readers cannot understand what they are reading without knowing what most of the words mean. Vocabulary development refers to stored information about the meanings and pronunciation of words necessary for communication. Four types of vocabulary include listening, speaking, reading and writing.

Nonword
— A string of letters which cannot be pronounced and which has no meaning. For example, MCVRI or HEGZT. Contrast with pseudoword.
Vowel Digraph or Vowel Pair:
Two vowels together that represent one phoneme, or sound (e.g., ea, ai, oa)
Norm-referenced assessment
This is a type of assessment that allows an individual child’s score to be compared against the scores of other children who have previously taken the same assessment. With a norm-referenced assessment, the child’s raw score can be converted into a comparative score such as a percentile rank or a stanine. Contrast with criterion-referenced assessment.
Normal Reading Speeds
Average reading rates for “normal” readers. Most untrained readers read at 250 words per minutes, about a sixth-grade reading rate, with about 70 percent comprehension (understanding) of the reading material. Some studies suggest that many people read at 20 to 25 percent of their potential ability.
Note-Taking:
Making notes while reading. Note-taking is sometime beneficial for comprehension and retention. However, the notes relating to the text should not be taken as presented, but rather developed in the reader’s own words and understanding of the material.
Objectives:
Measurable statements detailing the desired accomplishments of a program.
Oddities:
Vowels that are pronounced differently from the expected pronunciation (e.g., the “o” in old is pronounced /o/ instead of the expected /o/.
Onset
— The part of the syllable that precedes the vowel of a syllable. In the case of multi-syllabic words, each syllable has an onset. For example; the onset of the word PILL is /p/. Contrast with rime. il
Onset and Rime:
: In a syllable, the onset is the initial consonant or consonants, and the rime is the vowel and any consonants that follow it (e.g., the word sat, the onset is “s” and the rime is “at”. In the word flip, the onset is “fl” and the rime is “ip”).
Onset and rime
Onsets and rimes are parts of monosyllabic words in spoken language. These units are smaller than syllables but may be larger than phonemes. An onset is the initial consonant sound of a syllable (the onset of bag is b-; of swim is sw-). The rime is the part of a syllable that contains the vowel and all that follows it (the rime of bag is -ag; of swim is -im).

Teaching and practicing onset rime is one example of work on phonological/phonemic awareness. It involves BOTH segmenting and blending. “Listen. rrrr…..am. Say that (segment onset and rime.…. Now say it fast. RAM! (blend onset and rime)” See below.

Testing Reading Levels
Measuring the reading rates by calculated methods. One easy method of determining the reading rate (words per minute) is to read for one minute, count the lines read during the one-minute period, and multiply the number of lines by ten (the average number of words per line). For instance, reading thirty lines in one minute translates into a reading speed of 300 words per minute.
Orthography
A writing system for representing language.
Alphabetic principle
Understanding that spoken words are decomposed into phonemes, and that the letters in written words represent (are a written CODE for) the phonemes (sounds) in spoken words when spoken words are represented in text.
What is the role of the alphabetic principle in reading?

It “tells you” that ____________ make _____________.

It “tells you” that you need to know the _______________ that go with letters in order to decode words—to translate letters (the code) into the sounds.

It “tells you” that to read a word means to string together into a sequence, the sounds that go with letters.

Metacognition
Metacognition is the process of “thinking about thinking.” For example, good readers use metacognition before reading when they clarify their purpose for reading and preview the text.
Yes, but what do you think when you think about thinking? Not ANY sort of thinking about thinking counts as metacognition. Saying to yourself, “My thinking is like a blue basketball,” is not metacognition. It’s merely nuts. Metacognition would include:
1. Thinking about the logical sequence in an argument you are going to make.
“I’ll start with the conclusion; then I’ll support the conclusion with evidence; and then I’ll finish by restating the conclusion. Yeah, that makes sense.”

2. Thinking about whether you used the correct word.
“Do I want to say ‘unalienable right’ or ‘natural right’?”

3. Thinking about whether your statements are logically valid.
“I knew a kid who learned to read well without instruction on phonemic awareness. Therefore, instruction on phonemic awareness is not necessary. That’s a big overgeneralization!”

Morphology
Morphology is the study of how the aspects of language structure are related to the ways words are formed from prefixes, roots, and suffixes (e.g., mis-spell-ing), and how words are related to each other.
In other words, morphology focuses on how morphemes are arranged into strings of sounds with meaning.
Orthographic knowledge
Orthographic knowledge is understanding that the sounds in a language are represented by written or printed symbols. This “understanding” is revealed or USED when students say the correct sounds that go with letters, and when they ask, “What do these letters say?”
Naming speed
Naming speed is the rate at which a child can recite “overlearned” stimuli such as letters and single-digit numbers.

Note, this is a foundational element of fluent passage reading or math problem solving. You CAN’T read a story faster by practicing reading the whole story faster—because you can’t SAY sounds and therefore can’t say words and therefore can’t say sentences fast. So, you start working on fluency with the bottom element—LETTER-SOUND—just as you work on running speed by working on moving your legs faster.

Overdifferentiation —
The practice of representing a single phoneme, syllable, or morpheme with two or more symbols in a writing system. For example, the sound /k/ can be represented by C, CH or K. Also called underrepresentation; contrast with underdifferentiation.
Peer Dyads
Peer dyads are a grouping option when two children work together to support each other as they read and respond to text. Teachers pair students based on their literacy strengths and needs, the nature of the task, and how they work with others. Children may work with a partner to read or reread a text, write in response to reading, make predictions, discuss a story after reading, or research a topic. Students working in peer dyads may have similar strengths and needs; or one student may be stronger than the other to provide peer support.
Informational Text:
Non-fiction books, also referred to as expository text, that contain facts and information.
Particle
A short part of speech used to express a syntactic or semantic relationship. A particle can also be a prefix or derivational suffix.

Particles are typically words which encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood, tense or case), clitics or fillers or (oral) discourse markers such as well, um, etc.

“In grammar, a particle is a function word which must be associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning, i.e. which does not have its own lexical definition. On this definition, particles are a separate part of speech and are distinct from other classes of function words, such as articles, prepositions, conjunctions and adverbs.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_particle

“Many particles are closely linked to verbs to form multi-word verbs, such as go away. Other particles include to used with an infinitive and not (a negative particle).” http://grammar.about.com/od/pq/g/particleterm.htm

Word calling — Decoding words without comprehending their meaning
Occurs for one of two reasons — either the words are outside the listening (spoken) vocabulary of the child, or the decoding process is so slow, laborious, and capacity-demanding that the child is unable to pay attention to word meaning.
Lexicon
Often called the “mental dictionary,” the lexicon is a representation of all knowledge a person has about individual words.
Social English
Often referred to as “playground English” or “survival English”, this is the basic language ability required for face-to-face communication, often accompanied by gestures and relying on context to aid understanding. Social English is much more easily and quickly acquired than academic English, but is not sufficient to meet the cognitive and linguistic demands of an academic classroom. Also referred to as Basic Interpersonal
Communication Skills (BICS).
Extrinsic phonics
Phonics taught as a supplemental learning aid rather than as an integral part of the program of reading instruction, often in separate workbooks during special time periods.
Phonological Awareness:
One’s sensitivity to, or explicit awareness of, the phonological structure of words in one’s language. This is an “umbrella” term that is used to refer to a student’s sensitivity to any aspect of phonological structure in language. It encompasses awareness of individual words in sentences, syllables, and onset-rime segments, as well as awareness of individual phonemes.
Onset-rime segmentation
Onset-rime segmentation is separating a word into the onset, the consonant(s) at the start of a syllable, and the rime, the remainder of the syllable. For example, in swift, sw is the onset and ift is the rime. Remember the blend part—saying onset and then rime fast.
Perception Span
Interpreting and understanding reading material. A faster perception rate leads to faster reading and a wider perception span, due mainly to a reduction in the time required for readers to absorb words in the text. One leading factor in widening the perception span is for readers to increase their vocabularies, thereby recognizing words and phrases much quicker.

Expanding the perception span is a “natural” skill that can be achieved, improved and retained according to a reader’s individual desires, purposes and efforts. Through progressive exercises in perception, readers are encouraged to read faster and understand more by moving through the text without slowing down to consider details. As the reading speeds up and the perception span widens, the mind tends to “bridge” the gaps and aid in comprehension. Perception span speed reading techniques, to be effective, also rely heavily on previewing the material, watching for main ideas, reviewing when necessary, and connecting facts and relationships of ideas.

Phone
Any single speech sound considered as a physical event without regard to its place in the language structure. A smaller unit of speech than the phoneme. Some phonemes are a group that consists of several slightly different sounds—allophones—that have the same effect on meaning—hence one phoneme.
Opportunistic Instruction
Opportunistic instruction can arise while students are engaged in literacy activities. It is not planned but, rather, supports individual students’ needs as observed by the teacher, while children are reading and writing. Effective teachers create a balance of explicit and opportunistic instruction during the course of a day. Opportunistic instruction often follows explicit instruction to provide individual support and scaffolding of student learning.
Phoneme Isolation:
Recognizing individual sounds in a word (e.g., /p/ is the first sound in pan).
Reading Machines:
Pacing devices to help readers proceed at even speeds, especially efficient in preventing regressions (re-reading text unnecessarily). Reading Pace Accelerators were examples of popular reading machines. Another reading machine was a cabinet with a built-in screen (like a small television set). Film would be placed in the cabinet and the text projected line by line onto the screen with varied speeds, as controlled by the reader. Another alternative, developed by Harvard University, including reading films projected onto a large screen, allowing participation by several readers at the same time. The films varied in their presentation of reading speeds, generally from two fixations per line (for fast readers) to five fixations per line (for slow readers). Reading machines have been popular in schools and speed-reading courses because they are enjoyable for participants and because they stimulate some individuals to achieve significant initial gains in reading efficiency. More recently, videocassettes and computer software programs have proven to be user-friendly and more convenient in helping to boost reading speeds.

Some skills can be aided by reading machines, and they can be easily transferred from screen to print. Periodic practice with reading machines can be helpful, a significant factor in the process of learning to read faster.

Phoneme
Phonemes are the smallest units of sound that change the meanings of spoken words. For example, if you change the first phoneme in bat from /b/ to /p/, the word bat changes to pat. English has about 41-44 phonemes. A few words, such as a or oh, have only one phoneme. Most words have more than one phoneme. The word if has two phonemes /i/ and /f/.

Note. Phonemes do NOT HAVE meaning. t (in /k/a/t/) does not mean anything. But if you change /k/a/t/ to /k/a/n/, the change of the SOUND changes the meaning of the word. So the sounds t and k are phonemes. However, MORPHEMES do have meaning. pro (the sounds) in produce mean towards, for, or bring forth. er (the sounds) in farther, faster, farmer, and manager mean the state of or the person who.

The following are examples of phonemic/phonological awareness instruction. See phonemic awareness.

Language comprehension
— This term should refer to understanding language in any of its forms, but in the vernacular, it has come to be synonymous with listening comprehension. When people use the term “language comprehension,” they are typically not referring to sign language, written language, semaphore or smoke signals. Typically, the term is reserved for describing spoken language.
Phonemic Awareness
Phonemic awareness is one small part of phonological awareness. Spoken words are made up of individual sounds (phonemes) that can be heard and manipulated. For example, the word for has three phonemes, help has four; cane has three phonemes, as does same or make. Phonemic awareness activities include listening for, counting, and identifying distinct sounds (not letter names); hearing, matching, adding, chopping off, or rearranging sounds; and separating or blending sounds to make words. Phonemic awareness can be taught explicitly or indirectly through games, manipulative activities, chanting, and reading and singing songs and poems.
Phonemic awareness
Phonemic awareness is the ability to notice, think about, and work with the individual sounds in spoken words. An example of how beginning readers show us they have phonemic awareness is combining or blending the separate sounds of a word to say the word (“/c/ /a/ /t/ – cat.”)
Phonemic awareness is at least three elements IN the routine of decoding words and in spelling.

1. Saying words slowly is part of (is used in) READING words slowly, letter-by-letter (that is, sounding them out).
2. Saying words fast is part of (is used in) READING words fast. rrruuuunnnn…RUN!

3. Discerning (hearing) the separate sounds or syllables in words is part of the process of matching those sounds or syllables with the letters that you see—that is, (a) writing the sounds that go with the letters (spelling), or (b) saying the sounds that go with the letters (decoding).

Phonics
Phonics is a form of instruction to cultivate the understanding and use of the alphabetic principle, that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes (the sounds in spoken language) and graphemes, the letters that represent those sounds in written language and that this information can be used to read or decode words.

How does phonics instruction “cultivate” the understanding and use of the alphabetic principles?….By teaching the sounds that go with letters and letter combinations (since the alphabetic principle IS THAT there is a relationship!), and then teaching students to USE those letter-sound combinations to decode words; that is, to translate the letters (code) into sounds.

The Different Types of Phonics http://www.astepatatime.co.nz/what_is_synthetic_phonics.htm

There are a number of different phonics approaches, the main ones are discussed below.

Phoneme segmentation
In this activity, children break a word into its separate sounds, saying each sound as they tap out or count it. (Teacher: How many sounds are in grab? Children: /g/ /r/ /a/ /b/. Four sounds.)
Phoneme substitution
In this activity, children substitute one phoneme for another to make a new word. (Teacher: The word is bug. Change /g/ to /n/. What’s the new word? Children: bun.)
Intrinsic phonics
Phonics taught implicitly in the context of authentic reading activities.
“Boys and girls, this is a new letter. q. It makes the sound qw. Say that sound…. Now let’s read this word (quick) with our new letter…” Compare with embedded phonics—letter-sounds taught when kids are struggling. Same method, slightly different conditions. Intrinsic = Now it’s needed by all kids. Embedded = Now it’s needed by Jimmy.
Phoneme:
The smallest unit of sound within our language system. A phoneme combines with other phonemes to make words.
Matthew Effect
Borrowed from a line in the Bible’s Book of Matthew — the rich get richer and the poor get poorer. In reading, this describes the difference between good readers and poor readers — while good readers gain new skills very rapidly, and quickly move from “learning to read” to “reading to learn,” poor readers become increasingly frustrated with the act of reading, and try to avoid reading when possible. The gap is relatively narrow when the children are young, but rapidly widens as children grow older.
Flasher:
Piece of cardboard (or similar) with an oblong “window.” Readers “flash” the card over the text, exposing a group of words through the window. Its main benefit for readers is widening their span of attention.
Metaphor
A figure of speech in which a word or phrase is used in place of a more literal description. For example, rather than saying somebody is happy, one might say that person is “on cloud nine” or “walking on air.”
Phonetic writing
A system that uses a unique symbol to represent each phone (sound) of the language or dialect, such as the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).
Phonograms
A succession of letters (gram/graph = write) that represent the same phonological unit (that is, speech unit = chunk of sounds) in different words, such as IGHT in FLIGHT, MIGHT and TIGHT.
Print awareness/basic print concepts
Print awareness is basic knowledge about print and how it is typically organized on a page. For example, print conveys meaning, print is read left to right, and words are separated by spaces.
Phonic Analysis:
Attention to various phonetic elements of words.
environmental print
Print that is all around us: street signs, labels on cans or jars, handwritten notes, etc.
Concept Definition Mapping:
Provides a visual framework for organizing conceptual information in the process of defining a word or concept. The framework contains the category, properties, and examples of the word or concept.
Phonics through spelling
In this approach, children learn to segment words into phonemes and to make words by writing letters for phonemes.
Orthography
A complete writing system for a language or languages. Orthographies include the representation of word boundaries, stops and pauses in speech, and tonal inflections. See deep orthography.
Leisure Reading
Reading for pleasure. Most skillful readers enjoy reading quickly for information, but they also enjoy reading for pleasure, whether it be general magazines, novels, science fiction, mysteries, or short stories.
Phonological awareness
Phonological awareness covers a range of understandings related to the sounds of words and word parts, including identifying and manipulating larger parts of spoken language such as words, syllables, and onsets and rimes. It also includes phonemic awareness as well as other aspects of spoken language such as rhyming and syllabication.
Phonological awareness
The understanding that speech is composed of sub-parts — sentences are comprised of words, words are comprised of syllables, syllables are comprised of onsets and rimes, and can be further broken down to phonemes (phonological awareness at this level is usually described as phoneme awareness).
Previewing
Determining the essence and importance of the selected text before reading. Previewing helps readers decide their methods of reading (slow or fast) for the text. It includes skimming and skipping, and looking for main concepts, ideas and keywords.

Readers should determine quickly if there is a good reason or purpose for reading a book. This can be done easily (and quickly) through previewing, which includes skimming through the table of contents, foreword, introduction and index. Previewing also includes reading biographical information about the author, reviewer comments and endorsements by recognize authorities.

Motivation in Reading:
Reasons for pursuing self-improvement for improved reading skills. The desire for improvement is vital in all forms of communications skills, especially in reading. Self-improvement is an individual effort, effectively applied in developing the skills and attitudes that lead to faster and more efficient reading. The key factor is the individual’s desire, which is a strong incentive in itself.

Readers are more efficient when they are motivated, which encourages greater interest, concentration and comprehension. Generally, readers who read with purpose are more efficient. Motivation in reading involves the desire to improve, knowing how to improve, and regular practice. Readers should also try to keep reading faster, motivating themselves to improve their reading skills.

Phonics —
An approach to reading instruction that emphasizes letter-sound relationships and generalized principles that describe spelling-sound relationships in a language (e.g. vowels in CVCs are short). See also extrinsic phonics, intrinsic phonics, and synthetic phonics.
Reciprocal teaching
Reciprocal teaching is a multiple-strategy instructional approach for teaching comprehension skills to students. Teachers teach students four strategies: asking questions about the text they are reading; summarizing parts of the text; clarifying words and sentences they don’t understand; and predicting what might occur next in the text.
Proficient(ly)
A student performance that meets the criterion established in the Standards as measured by a teacher or assessment; in the Standards, often paired with independent(ly) to suggest a successful student performance done without scaffolding; in the Reading standards, the act of reading a text with comprehension; see also independent(ly), scaffolding.
Note that the definition of proficient depends on age and text. In kindergarten, proficient reading might be defined as reading 30 grade-level words correctly per minute. In second grade, this might be 120 words read correctly per minute.

Likewise, the questions that would reveal proficiency is reading poetry would be different from the questions that reveal proficiency with biology.

Summarizing
Reducing large selections of text to their bare essentials: the gist, the key ideas, the main points that are worth noting and remembering.
Print or digital (texts, sources)
Sometimes added for emphasis to stress that a given standard is particularly likely to be applied to electronic as well as traditional texts; the Standards are generally assumed to apply to both.
Progress Monitoring:
Tests that keep the teacher informed about the child’s progress in learning to read during the school year. These assessment results provide a quick sample of critical reading skills that will inform the teacher if the child is making adequate progress toward grade level reading ability at the end of the year.
Pronunciation Guide:
: A key or guide consisting of graphic symbols that represent particular speech sounds.
Graph phonemic
Refers to the sound relationship between the orthography (symbols) and phonology (sounds) of a language.
Letter-sound correspondence
Progressions:
Looking forward in the text before reading it. Some readers sometimes look ahead in the text while reading (which isn’t the same as previewing). Looking ahead at pictures, photographs or words usually disrupts the flow of the reading, costing valuable time for the reader.
Pseudohomophone
A pseudoword, which when pronounced, sounds like a real, familiar word. For example, the pseudohomophone BRANE sounds like the real word BRAIN.
Push-Up Drills
: A process of increasing reading speed. In a push-up drill, readers choose their text, read for one minute and put a paper clip where they stop reading. In subsequent readings, the idea is to read the selected text as fast as possible (without concern for comprehension).
Summarizing
Reforming text ideas into a summary. Some readers recall ideas more efficiently by summarizing a selected text in their own words. Summaries should be brief, maybe only one or two sentences. In books or long articles, brief summaries could be developed at the end of each page or chapter.

In reading difficult subject matter, such as technical materials, it is helpful to make brief summaries of selected text. This also helps to improve comprehension and memory.

Retention of Reading Material:
Remembering important ideas from the selected text. Efficient readers determine the “meaning” of the material, which they retain in their own “inner language” and recall easily when necessary or desired. Retention is a reading skill which can be improved greatly with practice.
Rate:
The speed at which a person reads.
Syntax
The conventions and rules for assembling words into meaningful sentences; syntax varies across languages. Correct syntax. The cats is sitting. Incorrect syntax. Sitting is the cat.
In some languages, you HAVE to arrange words in a certain way to convey a specific meaning, such as question.
In other language (Greek), you can arrange words pretty much as you like, and the audience will still get it.

In the beginning was the word. [Book of John.]
The word was in the beginning.
In the beginning, the word was.
The word, in the beginning was.

Push-Down Drills
A process of increasing reading rates and raising comprehension. In a push-down drill, readers choose their text, read for one minute and put a paper clip where they stop reading. In the next phase, readers try to read the same selected material in fifty seconds, then forty seconds, and faster in subsequent readings.
Synthetic phonics
A part-to-whole phonics approach to reading instruction in which the student learns the sounds represented by letters and letter combinations, blends these sounds to pronounce words, and finally identifies which phonic generalizations apply (a.k.a. inductive phonics). Contrast with inductive and analytic phonics.
Questioning the Reading Material:
: A significant factor in determining the ideas of an author. Efficient readers often skim the text, looking for main ideas, and then forming questions to help concentrate their thinking regarding those ideas. With questioning, readers develop ideas related to the material, helping them focus on the most important information in the text.
Responsive Instruction
Responsive instruction describes small-group or individual instruction that promotes students’ comprehension and response to text. Teachers work with students before, during, and after reading to discuss student connections and responses to the text. During the discussion, teachers provide prompts and support to help students effectively construct meaning from their reading.
Untaught residue
Material which has not previously been taught but is used in a primer lesson anyway to make the lesson more effective.
Return Eye Sweeps:
Return Eye Sweeps – The smooth flow of a reader’s eyes from one line of text to the next line of text. The smoother the flow of return eye sweeps, the more quickly the reader is able to read.

Movements of the eyes going from the end of one line of text to the beginning of the next line are return eye sweeps. To be efficient, return eye sweeps should be very rapid, rhythmic and smooth. Newspaper or magazine articles in columns are good for practicing to achieve fast and smooth return eye sweeps.

Verbal Efficiency Theory
The Verbal Efficiency Theory is attributed to Perfetti & Lesgold (1979). It states that mere word recognition accuracy is not, in itself, sufficient to enable fluent reading comprehension. Instead, word-coding skills must be increased to a high level of efficiency and automaticity in order for the reader to be able to devote attention to meaning and comprehension.
Segmenting:
Separating the individual phonemes, or sounds, of a word into discrete units.
Readability Level:
Refers to independent, instructional, and frustrational levels of text reading.
Rhyme
Sharing identical or at least similar medial and final phonemes in the final syllable. Because English has a writing system with a deep orthography, words can rhyme without sharing similar orthography (e.g. SUITE and MEET).
Reading Fluency Prorating Formula:
: When students are asked to read connected text for more than one minute or less than one minute, their performance must be prorated to give a fluency rate per minute. The prorating formula for this is the following: words read correctly x 60 ? by the number of seconds = Reading Fluency Score.
Word parts
The letters, syllables, diacritics, and parts of syllables such as consonant clusters and vowel clusters.
Latent
Something which is present but invisible, or inactive but capable of becoming active or visible, so a child may have latent knowledge of a concept, meaning the child understands the concept, but has not had an opportunity to demonstrate that understanding.
Reading Process
The process of reading, as experienced by all readers. Although reading itself is actually intellectual, it also involves such physical elements as eye movements (fixations and interfixation movements). Reading, in general, is a process requiring recognition (symbols and letters in the text); assimilation (receiving and transmitting images to the brain); comprehension (making sense of the information); understanding (connecting the received information with prior knowledge); retention (storage of the information); recall (ability to get needed information from storage); and communication (using the information in actions or thinking). As described by many reading experts, the reading process is often the agreement or disagreement of the author’s ideas by the readers (as opposed to passive acceptance of reading material). Thus, the reading process is actually a process of discrimination in which readers select certain information from the text while discarding other (un-needed) information.
anecdotal records:
An informal, written record (usually positive in tone), based on the observations of the teacher, of a student’s progress and/or activities which occur throughout the day.
Reading Centers:
Special places organized in the classroom for students to work in small groups or pairs, either cooperatively or individually. Students work in centers while the teacher is conducting small group reading instruction. Each center contains meaningful, purposeful activities that are an extension and reinforcement of what has already been taught by the teacher in reading groups or in a large group. Reading centers offer students the opportunity to stay academically engaged as they apply the skills they have been learning. They are an excellent way for teachers to determine whether or not students know what they have been taught. It is important to develop a system and organize your classroom in such a way that you can provide feedback to students in a timely manner. Waiting until the end of the week to look at what students have worked on all week is not a productive use of instructional time, as students may have been practicing errors all week.
balanced literacy:
Generally, an approach to reading that incorporates both whole language and phonics instruction.
Rebus
A mode of expressing words and phrases by using pictures of objects whose names resemble those words.
Oral Language
Spoken language. There are five components of oral language: phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.
literacy centers
Stations or areas where literacy activities are set up for use. Centers may also be portable wherein the student takes the “center” to his or her desk. Examples of literacy centers: Reading the Room (a small area where students may obtain a flyswatter, pointer, large glasses, etc. that they can use to “read” the room as them walk around). Writing Centers which have available various types of paper, writing utensils, stamps, etc. For younger children the Writing Center may contain materials which they can use to form letters or words such play dough, fingerpaint, a flat piece of velvet, etc.
Reciprocal teaching
Reciprocal teaching is a multiple-strategy instructional approach for teaching comprehension skills to students. Teachers teach students four strategies: asking questions about the text they are reading; summarizing parts of the text; clarifying words and sentences they don’t understand; and predicting what might occur next in the text.
choral reading:
: Sometimes referred to as unison reading. The whole class reads the same text aloud. Usually the teacher sets the pace. Choral reading helps with the ability to read sight words and builds fluency.
During Reading Comprehension Strategies
Strategies that help students engage the meanings of a text (e.g., asking questions at critical junctures; modeling the thought process used to make inferences; constructing mental imagery).
Revising
A part of writing and preparing presentations concerned chiefly with a reconsideration and reworking of the content of a text relative to task, purpose, and audience; compared to editing, a larger-scale activity often associated with the overall content and structure of a text; see also editing, rewriting.
Repeated and monitored oral reading
In this instructional activity, students read and reread a text a certain number of times or until a certain level of fluency is reached. This technique has been shown to improve reading fluency and overall reading achievement. Four re-readings are usually sufficient for most students. Students may also practice reading orally through the use of audiotapes, tutors, peer guidance, or other means.
Retelling:
Recalling the content of what was read or heard.
Ample Opportunities for Student Practice
Students are asked to apply what they have been taught in order to accomplish specific reading tasks. Practice should follow in a logical relationship with what has just been taught. Once skills are internalized, students are provided with more opportunities to independently implement previously learned information.
Rewriting
A part of writing and preparing presentations that involves largely or wholly replacing a previous, unsatisfactory effort with a new effort, better aligned to task, purpose, and audience, on the same or a similar topic or theme; compared to revising, a larger-scale activity more akin to replacement than refinement; see also editing, revising.
Examples of Reading Centers
Students practice phonics skills at the phonics center, sort word cards at the vocabulary center, and at the reading center, they read books, listen to taped books, record the reading of a book, and read in pairs. The reading center would contain a variety of books at various reading levels to meet the needs of all students. Other centers may consist of writing and spelling activities, pocket charts, white boards, magnetic letters to practice word building, sentence strips and word cards to create stories, sequencing activities with pictures, story boards, or sentence strips to retell a story that has been read. Some centers may be permanent; others will change according to the skills, books, and activities being currently addressed. It is recommended that teachers not bring in material from other content areas unless the activity from science or math, for example, specifically focuses on a skill that is being addressed in reading instruction. Reading centers require careful planning.
echo reading:
When a skilled reader reads a portion of text (sometimes just a sentence) while the less-skilled reader “tracks.” The less-skilled reader then imitates or “echoes” the skilled reader.
Useful for building confidence and fluency.
Partner/Peer Reading
Students reading aloud with a partner, taking turns to provide word identification help and feedback.
independent reading
Students self select books to read. A student’s “independent reading level” is the level at which the student can read with 96-100% accuracy.
Scaffolded Instruction
During instruction, teachers assist and guide students so that they can read, learn, and respond to text in ways they may not be able to do without support. Teachers continue to provide this support until students are able to effectively read or write independently. Scaffolding student learning is especially important when students are reading a challenging text or writing a difficult piece. Examples of scaffolded instruction are: helping students to sound out the letters in unfamiliar words; providing a graphic organizer and discussing the major parts of a text before reading; supplying a beginning sentence or idea as a start for writing; and reading aloud with students as they are reading.
Rime
The part of a syllable (not a word) which consists of its vowel and any consonant sounds that come after it. Contrast with onset. map sap dap (m, s, d) =onset ap = rime
Syllabication
Syllabication is the act of breaking words into syllables.
fluent reader
A fluent reader: reads quickly, smoothly, and with expression; has a large store of sight words; automatically decodes unknown words, self-corrects.
Lip Movements:
Symptons of word-by-word reading. Lip moving is probably the most extreme form of subvocalization (inner speech). Since lip movers are so involved with the mechanics of pronunciation, they tend to read very slowly and comprehend very poorly.

Make an effort to be consciously aware of lip movements while reading, which are among the leading habits which prevent fast reading. Being aware, and trying to keep from making lip movements, will gradually help overcome the habit and allow individuals to read faster.

Running Record
A Running Record (RR) is a method for closely observing and assessing a student’s oral reading of a complete story or book, or 150-300 words excerpted from a longer text. Running Records can be taken spontaneously without advance preparation, using whatever text the student happens to be reading; or they can be taken using a photocopy of a prepared text. Running Records differ from miscue analysis because they are simpler to use on a day-to-day basis in the classroom.
Running Records can be used to assess familiar text for accuracy and fluency. They may also be used with new texts to see how the student applies reading strategies. Running records may be taken weekly or monthly to document growth over time, or periodically (two or three times a year) as part of an assessment profile to place students in reading groups or to document progress along specific benchmarks.
To take a running record, the teacher sits close enough to see the text as the student reads aloud and uses a special code to mark the precise reading response. Without comment, the teacher marks a check for each word read accurately and notes any substitutions, omissions, additions, and self-corrections. This process usually takes about 10 minutes, but it may take less time with an emergent reader.
At the end of the reading, the teacher quickly totals the number of miscues and self-corrections, then calculates the rate of reading accuracy and self-correction. The calculation helps the teacher determine whether reading material is at an appropriate level and what subsequent texts might be chosen. The teacher can also analyze the types of miscues made on the RR to understand what reading strategies the
ly as parents and children go about the business of their daily lives. Family literacy activities may also reflect the ethnic, racial, or cultural heritage of the families involved. (Adapted from Morrow, Paratore, and Tracey. Family Literacy: New Perspectives, New Opportunities.)
Phrase Reading
Taking in wider groups of words, or phrases, in a fixation. One of the basic skills in speed reading is learning to read meaningful phrases within sentences. Phrase reading is especially helpful in reducing the number of fixations (eye-movement stops and starts) in reading material, thus allowing more rapid reading of the text. There are times when phrases in confusing passages may need re-reading, though this is a tendency to be reserved for occasional use only. In addition, phrase reading is more efficient when the reader becomes more conscious of “units of meaning” in the sentences.
homonym:
A word that has the same spelling or pronunciation as another but different meanings and/or origins. See homograph and homophone.
Scaffolding
Temporary guidance or assistance provided to a student by a teacher, another adult, or a more capable peer, enabling the student to perform a task he or she otherwise would not be able to do alone, with the goal of fostering the student’s capacity to perform the task on his or her own later on.

Scaffolding includes explicit instruction (teacher tells what she’s doing as she models a skill), special orthography (e.g., a macron or line over letters to signify ‘say the name’), highlighting and other cues (such as arrows under words pointing to the right telling the direction to read).

Screening:
: An informal inventory that provides the teacher a beginning indication of the student’s preparation for grade level reading instruction. It is a “first alert” that a child may need extra help to make adequate progress in reading
during the year.
Schema:
: Refers to prior knowledge, the knowledge and experience that readers bring to the text.
Schwa:
The vowel sound sometimes heard in an unstressed syllable and is most often sounded as /uh/ or as the short /u/ sound as in cup.
Scientifically Based Reading Research (SBRR):
Refers to empirical research that applies rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain valid knowledge. This includes research that: employs systematic, empirical methods that draw on observation or experiment; has been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal or approved by a panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous, objective and scientific review; involves rigorous data analyses that are adequate to test the stated hypotheses and justify the general conclusions drawn; relies
on measurements or observational methods that provide valid data across evaluators and observers and across multiple measurements and observations; and can be generalized.
expository writing
Text that explains an event, concept, or idea using facts and examples.
literacy:
The ability to read, write, communicate, and comprehend.
Scope and Sequence
A “roadmap” or “blueprint” for teachers that provides an overall picture of an instructional program and includes the range of teaching content and the order or sequence in which it is taught
Emergent reader texts
Texts consisting of short sentences comprised of learned sight words and CVC words; may also include rebuses to represent words that cannot yet be decoded or recognized; see also rebus.
Short research project
An investigation intended to address a narrowly tailored query in a brief period of time, as in a few class periods or a week of instructional time.
Segmentation
— Breaking down a spoken word into word parts by inserting a pause between each part. Words can be segmented at the word level (in the case of compound words), at the syllable level, at the onset-rime level, and at the phoneme level.
Another definition of segmenting is saying the sounds, in order, without stopping. run = rrruuunnn
Sight Words:
: These are words that are recognized immediately. Sometimes sight words are thought to be irregular, or high frequency words (e.g., the Dolch and Fry lists). However, any word that is recognized automatically is a sight word. These words may be phonetically regular or irregular.
In other words, sight words are NOT solely words that are memorized. They may be words that a person reads without sounding them out in a conspicuous way. It is instantaneous and automatic.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is the law that guarantees all children with disabilities access to a free and appropriate public education.
Self-monitoring
Self-monitoring is the mental act of knowing when one does and does not understand what one is reading.
No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is the most recent reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education act of 1965. The act contains President George W. Bush’s four basic education reform principles: stronger accountability for results, increased flexibility and local control, expanded options for parents, and an emphasis on teaching methods based on scientifically-based research.
Semantic Feature Analysis
Uses a grid to help explore how a set of things are related to one another. By analyzing the grid one can see connections, make predictions, and master important concepts.
Source
A text used largely for informational purposes, as in research.
print conventions:
The rules of print. For example: In the West one reads from left to right and moves from the top to the bottom of the page. Research shows that three of the most important and fundamental concepts students need to learn to become readers are: knowledge of the alphabet, phonemic awareness, and conventions of print.
Semantic Maps
Portray the schematic relations that compose a concept; a strategy for graphically representing concepts.
Scaffolded Reading Experience (SRE)
The Scaffolded Reading Experience is an instructional approach to assist students in effectively reading and comprehending text. The SRE consists of two components: planning and implementation. In planning, the teacher considers the needs of the students, the difficulty of the text, and the purposes for reading. Implementation incorporates teacher-planned lessons and activities before, during, and after reading. Teachers use both phases flexibly to adapt instruction to specific student needs and learning situations. The SRE framework is especially useful when teaching English Language Learners and/or struggling readers. (Adapted from Graves, and Fitzgerald. Scaffolding Reading Experiences for Multilingual Classrooms, 96-124.)
Shared Reading
In shared reading, the teacher leads the class in reading or chanting a text — a book, poem, or message on a chart — that is often enlarged for the whole class to see. Shared reading allows students to observe the reading process and to practice reading strategies or concepts in the safety of a group. The same enlarged text is read and reread several times over a few days. Initially the teacher takes the lead, and then gradually pulls back as students progressively master the text. In each reading, children are encouraged to focus on or discover new concepts about print.
word segmentation
The ability to break words into individual syllables.
reading in the content areas
Concerns the the ability to read, write, speak about (as well as listen to) subject matter across the curriculum. The pioneers on this topic are Richard Vacca and Jo Anne Vacca who wrote Content Area Reading: Literacy and Learning Across the Curriculum (Pearson/Allyn & Bacon).
Sight Vocabulary
Sight vocabulary consists of words that students can identify immediately without decoding. It is an important component of word study instruction since children with a strong sight vocabulary can read more fluently and comprehend text more effectively. Beginning sight vocabulary includes words from the child’s own experiences, including names of family and friends. High frequency words — words that children encounter in texts frequently — are the focus of sight vocabulary instruction. Children develop sight vocabulary through daily opportunities to read, repeated readings of texts, and activities using word walls
fluency
The ability to read at an appropriate rate smoothly. (Also the ability to read expressively if reading aloud.)
Fluency = accuracy, speed, and proper prosody (expression). Sometimes measured as words read correctly per minute. Wrcm.
Sight word
A word in a reading lesson containing parts that have not yet been taught, but that is highly predictable from the context of the story or which the child has memorized.

“Believe it or not, 50% of all reading texts are made up of the same 100 words! The most frequently used and repeated words in the English language are known as sight words. This list of words includes the, a, is, of, to, in, and, I, you, and that….Sight words are critical to reading not only because they are used so frequently, but also because many of them cannot easily be sounded out or illustrated”
http://www.k12reader.com/what-are-sight-words/

An example is Dolch words.

Regular Words. Have common phoneme-grapheme relationships and can be sounded out (decoded) cat, may, outside, yellow, interesting.

Irregular Words . Have uncommon phoneme-grapheme relationships and cannot be sounded out (decoded) was, come, give, of

Sight Words . Words that are recognized automatically the, and, this, when
http://onlineacademy.org/modules/a302/support/xpages/a302b0_20200.html

running records:
In reading, a teacher records the child’s reading behavior as he or she reads a book. The teacher may note errors, self-corrections, substitutions, and so forth. Also known as reading assessments. Teachers generally use a standard set of symbols for recording what the reader does while reading.
Decoding:
The ability to translate (and the actual routine for translating) a word from print to speech, usually by employing knowledge of sound symbol correspondences; also the act of deciphering a new word by sounding it out.
Generalization:
The ability to use a learned skill in novel situations.
For example, the student sees the similarity between earlier examples (e.g., of regular words) that she has sounded out, and new words. She then uses the decoding routine with these new words.
Word Study
The act of deliberately investigating words (e.g., vocabulary-building exercises, word-identification practice, and spelling).
Story Maps:
A strategy used to unlock the plot and important elements of a story. These elements can be represented visually through various graphic organizers showing the beginning, middle, and end of a story. Answering the questions of who, where, when, what, and how or why, and listing the main events is also part of story mapping. These elements are also referred to as story grammar.
Social promotion
— Promoting a child to the next grade in order to keep the child with his or her peers and social group.
sight word
Words that good readers instantly recognize without having to decode them. Sight words are usually “high-frequency” words. Fry’s 300 Instant Words may be found here. (PDF file).
Not memorized. Words become sight words—instantly decoded without OBVIOUS sounding out—because the words have been read fast many times. Fluency at the level of words.
Alphabetic principle
The alphabetic principle is the basic idea that written language is a code in which letters represent the sounds in spoken words. The IDEA is applied in (a) letter-sound correspondence; and then (b) decoding (sounding out and then saying fast).
Reading Abilities:
The basic communication skills of readers, varying widely according to early training and efforts towards improvement. Reading abilities are vital in the transmission of messages between individuals as a major aspect of the communication process.
Main Idea:
The central thought or message of a reading passage.
Alphabetic Principle
The concept that letters and letter combinations represent individual phonemes in written words.
Speaking Vocabulary
: The words used when speaking.
Struggling reader
any student of any age who has not mastered the skills required to fluently read and comprehend text which is written at a level that one could reasonably expect a student of that age to read.
Onomatopoeia
The formation of a word by imitating the natural sound associated with the object or action. For example, the “crack” of the bat, or the “twang” of the guitar strings.
Speed Reading Comprehension
review the selected text; read with a purpose; read at a comfortable level for understanding; and read for “new” information (to add to prior knowledge). In addition, efficient comprehending is reinforced when readers apply their “new” information in thinking, communicating with others or pursuing similar reading materials of a more difficult nature.

Speed Reading Exercises: Drills to improve levels of speed reading. Skillful speed readers, after learning new and more efficient reading habits, must continue to work on reading faster. The newly learned reading skills can be applied to all types of reading material. Regular practice is especially effective with new material, which can then be used for speeded-up second readings.

Speed:
The rate at which a student reads.
Story Grammar
The general structure of stories that includes story elements.
Spelling Patterns
Refers to digraphs, vowel pairs, word families, and vowel variant spellings.
Syllable family
The group of syllables formed by a consonant plus all of the vowels in a language.
alphabetic principle:
The idea that letters represent sound and that printed letters can be turned into speech (and vice versa).
Instructional Reading Level
The level at which a reader can read text with 90% accuracy (i.e., no more than one error per 10 words read). Instructional reading level engages the student in challenging, but manageable text.
Suprasegmental
A vocal effect that extends over more than one sound segment in an utterance, such as pitch, stress, or juncture pattern.
Proper pitch and stress (prosody) are part of what is meant by fluency, besides accuracy and speed.
Independent Reading Level
The level at which a reader can read text with 95% accuracy (i.e., no more than one error per 20 words read). Independent reading level is relatively easy text for the reader.
Syllable
A syllable is a word part that contains a vowel or, in spoken language, a vowel sound (e-vent, news-pa-per).
Structural Analysis
Determining essential information from the structure of the reading passage. Reading for information, for instance, involves seeking answers to the who, what, when, where and why of the passage.
Mainstream Group
The mainstream group in a society is the group or groups of people, who largely control and hold power in that society. This group may also be referred to as the “language majority” or “dominant culture.” People from different ethnic groups can participate in both the mainstream culture and in their ethnic or home culture at the same time. These people are regarded as “bicultural.” Teachers’ understanding of their students’ home culture is important for planning and implementing effective instruction, especially for literacy learning. (Adapted from Au. Literacy Instruction in Multicultural Settings, 5-12.)
Mainstream Group
The mainstream group in a society is the group or groups of people, who largely control and hold power in that society. This group may also be referred to as the “language majority” or “dominant culture.” People from different ethnic groups can participate in both the mainstream culture and in their ethnic or home culture at the same time. These people are regarded as “bicultural.” Teachers’ understanding of their students’ home culture is important for planning and implementing effective instruction, especially for literacy learning. (Adapted from Au. Literacy Instruction in Multicultural Settings, 5-12.)
Mini-Lesson
The mini-lesson is part of Writers’ Workshop and provides a short (5- to 10- minute), structured lesson on a topic related to writing. Topics are selected by the teacher and based on student need or curricular areas. These topics address aspects of the writing process or procedures for independent Writing Workshop time.
Suffix:
An affix attached to the end of a base, root, or stem that changes the meaning or grammatical function of the word, as “en” in oxen.
Familiarity with Subject Matter:
Personal background of individual readers, a non-physical skill very important for comparing and contrasting current reading with previous literary experiences.
Word Groups:
The number of words perceived during a fixation. Early reading habits often lead to the “normal” perception of up to four words, which slows down reading speed. To read faster, it is vital to absorb large numbers of words at each fixation, thereby reducing the number of fixations or pauses during the reading process. Readers who see large word groups gain more meaning from the words, and read faster because they also perceive the word groups in terms of ideas and thoughts (thought units) instead of slowing down to interpret the words individually.

Entire groups of words can be “seen” at a glance, even though the eyes are in constant motion. The more words that can be seen in one glance, or fixation, the faster the reading speed. Try to grasp words in phrases or thought units in order to better understand an author’s ideas. In this way, reading speeds will be faster and comprehension will be better.

Word Recognition: Identifying “new” words and easily recalling familiar words. Several methods can be used to learn about new words, including context, form, structural analysis and phonetic analysis.

Reading is a process involving recognition of symbols, such as numbers, letters and words. Readers who quickly recognize these symbols are able to read faster than those who spend time on words that are already familiar. With training and practice, efficient readers see the first few letters of a word and move on quickly because they have comprehended the entire word.

Elision
The omission of a part of a spoken word — to be more efficient, people sometimes say “IDANO” instead of “I do not know,” or a person may say “N” instead of “AND” (as in “bread ‘n’ butter”).
Finger Motions:
Using fingers to control or direct eye pacing while reading text. For finger motions, readers use their writing hand index finger to “underline” each line of print, forcing their eyes to follow this pattern down a page of text.
Supplemental services
Students from low-income families who are attending schools that have been identified as in need of improvement for two years will be eligible to receive outside tutoring or academic assistance. Parents can choose the appropriate services for their child from a list of approved providers. The school district will purchase the services.
Systematic Instruction
A carefully planned sequence for instruction, similar to a builder’s blueprint for a house. A blueprint is carefully thought out and designed before building materials are gathered and construction begins. The plan for instruction that is systematic is carefully thought out, strategic, and designed before activities and lessons are planned. Instruction is across the five components (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension). For systematic instruction, lessons build on previously taught information, from simple to complex.
Fixations:
The precise fractional moment when the eyes pause on a word or groups of words. It is when the eyes “fix” on an image and transmit that image to the brain, after which reading actually occurs.

As reading is actually done during fixations (pauses or stops of the eyes between eye spans), it is helpful in reading faster to reduce the number of fixations per line of print. Also, long stops or fixations tend to allow the mind to wander or daydream, thus causing readers to lose concentration. Successful rapid reading, therefore, involves learning how to achieve short fixations and fewer fixations.

Onsets and Rimes
The onset is all of the letters up to the vowel; the rime is the vowel and everything after it (until the next vowel).
Most words and many syllables can be separated into onsets (the initial consonant sound such as /c/ in cat) and rimes or phonograms (the vowel and letters which follow, such as /-at/). Whole words can be separated into onsets and rimes, such as /f/ /-or/, as can syllables, such as /tr/ /-ans/ /f/ /-orm/. Some words and syllables have only rimes, such as /on/ or /-ing/.
Systematic and explicit phonics instruction
The most effective way to teach phonics. A program is systematic if the plan of instruction includes a carefully selected set of letter-sound relationships that are organized into a logical sequence. For example, teach the most frequently used letter-sounds first (a, m, e, s, t, r, i), and separate instruction on letter-sounds that look or sound similar (b, d)

Explicit means the programs provide teachers with precise directions for the teaching of these relationships. ALSO, it means that the teacher TELLS what she is doing as she models how to read letter-sounds, decode words, or make sense of text.
“When I touch under these sounds, I’ll say the sound. I won’t stop between sounds.”

And “This letter d makes a quick sound. We say it quick and quiet. d, not duh. Listen. d!”

And, “What did the ant say?… Here’s how I find out. I read the story until I find the word ant. Then I say, ‘Does the ant say something?’….Watch me do this…. Yes, the ant said, ‘Hey, stop making all that noise.’ So, now I answer the question. ‘The ant said, Stop making all that noise.’”

Implicit Instruction:
The opposite of explicit instruction. Students discover skills and concepts instead of being explicitly taught. For example, the teacher writes a list of words on the board that begin with the letter “m” (mud, milk, meal, and mattress) and asks the students how the words are similar. The teacher elicits from the students that the letter “m” stands for the sound you hear at the beginning of the words. See Balanced literacy.
Pacing
The pace of a lesson should move briskly, but not so fast as to rush students beyond their ability to answer correctly. The purposes for a fast pace are to help students pay close attention to the material being presented, and provide students more practice time which increases the opportunity for greater student achievement, keeps students actively engaged, and reduces behavior management problems by keeping students on-task.
Tachistoscope:
An instrument that flashes a group of words onto a screen for a fraction of a second, encouraging rapid recognition and helping to widen a reader’s span of attention. It was developed successful during World War II for aircraft recognition by Army and Navy pilots. Basically, the tachistoscope helps readers approach their limits of peripheral span by increasing the eye span and decreasing the length of eye fixations. In addition, it forces readers to grasp material quickly, with little or no hesitation, and as a “whole” image (such as a word phrase). Historically, the tachistoscope was invented thousands of years ago in Greece, designed to help individuals read their scrolls more quickly.

Technical Information: Detailed reading materials. The level of responsibility for readers in much higher for technical information than for other types of reading materials. This is because there is more detailed information per page and the subsequent responsibility of having to do something with the material upon completing the reading process.

Syllable
A segment of a word that contains one vowel sound. The vowel may or may not be preceded and/or followed by a consonant.
Syllable Types: There are six syllable types:
1. Closed: cat, cobweb

2. Open: he, silo

3. Vowel-consonant-e (VCE): like, milestone

4. Consonant-l-e: candle, juggle (second syllable)

5. R-controlled: star, corner,

6. Vowel pairs: count, rainbow

Target Words
Are specifically addressed, analyzed, and/or studied in curriculum lessons, exercises, and independent activities.
main idea
The point the author is making about a topic. Topic and main idea are not the same.
Symbol to Sound
Matching grapheme to phoneme.
Synonym
Words that have similar meanings.
synthesize:
The process of combining two separate elements into one new element.
Synthetic phonics
In this instructional approach, children learn how to convert letters or letter combinations into a sequence of sounds, and then how to blend the sounds together to form recognizable words.
Note contrast with analytic phonics.
Text complexity band
The inherent difficulty of reading and comprehending a text combined with consideration of reader and task variables; in the Standards, a three-part assessment of text difficulty that pairs qualitative and quantitative measures with reader-task considerations (CCSS, pp. 31, 57; Reading, pp. 4–16).
Synthetic phonics
In this instructional approach, children learn how to convert letters or letter combinations into a sequence of sounds, and then how to blend the sounds together to form recognizable words.
Think-Alouds:
During shared read aloud, teachers reveal their thinking processes by verbalizing: connections, questions, inferences, and predictions.
Orthographic Units:
The representation of the sounds of a language by written or printed symbols.
Passive Reading
: Word assimilation without questioning the ideas or thinking of an author. Passive readers and thinkers simply move through reading material without any hint of applying the elements of active reading.
Morpheme
The smallest meaningful unit of speech. A morpheme is SPEECH; however, the sounds may be represented with letters in words. A morpheme can be a free form (as in PIN) or a bound form ( -S in PINS), that contains no smaller meaningful parts. The morpheme is a sub-component of vocabulary because vocabulary is a set of words with meaning; many words only have one morpheme, but some, such as compound words or words with affixes, have more than one; for example pro/duc/tion. pro = for, towards, enacting; duc = lead, draw, pull; tion (shn) = the act of or condition of. Three morphemes.
Text complexity
The inherent difficulty of reading and comprehending a text combined with consideration of reader and task variables; in the Standards, a three-part assessment of text difficulty that pairs qualitative and quantitative measures with reader-task considerations (CCSS, pp. 31, 57; Reading, pp. 4–16).
Semantics
The study of the development and changes of the meanings of speech forms. Semantics is also a study of the process by which meaning is derived from symbols, signs, text, and other meaning-bearing forms.
Phonics:
The study of the relationships between letters and the sounds they represent; also used to describe reading instruction that teaches sound-symbol correspondences.
Timed Reading
Student reads appropriate text with a predetermined number of words to be read within a specific amount of time.
Reading and Speed Reading Efficiency:
Skillful levels of reading habits relating to speed reading. Most readers can improve their reading efficiency through diligent practice, thereby reducing wasted time and effort in failing to change poor reading habits. Characteristics of efficent readers include: fewer fixations (pauses or stops whle reading), regular (rhythmical) eye movements, and fewer regressions (backward fixations). With training, readers can improve their reading efficiency by realizing that reading is concerned only with ideas (not just words); that main ideas are more important than minor ideas; and that it is important to fine the main idea as quickly as possible. Skillful and efficent speed readers have learned to “condense” the process of gathering and sorting information in reading material in order to understand (comprehend) and determine the relevant “meaning” (as it applies to their individual interests and purposes).

Reading improvement may be slow in the beginning, but tends to occur (almost unexpectedly) after a period of training to read faster. Most readers make good progress in reading improvement skills after achieving success through drills and exercises in skimming, anticipation, organizations, attitudes, memory, phased reading, and general practice. Fast readers are efficient readers, easily achieving their purposes in reading.

Text Structure:
The various patterns of ideas that are embedded in the organization of text (e.g., cause-effect, comparison-contrast, story grammar).
Phoneme
The vocal gestures from which words are constructed in a language; the smallest unit of speech that serves to distinguish one utterance from another (e.g. PAT and FAT are distinguished by the initial phoneme).
Trigraph —
A three-letter sequence representing a single consonant, vowel, or diphthong, such as EAU in BEAU.
Regressions:
Backward fixations during the reading process. Regressions can be conscious or unconcious. A conscious regression occurs during the re-reading of a difficult passage in the text. An unconscious regression occurs when the reader looks back at words unnecessarily. This often happens when a reader lacks confidence in comprehension. It is one of the most common of poor reading habits learned in early training.

Reading words again, or backward eye movements, are regressions, which slow down a reader’s speed. Regressions are unnecessary and inefficient, and interfere with the logical sequence of reading material. The tendency to regress is often the result of early training in learning how to read. Reading speeds can be increased significantly by eliminating or reducing regressions, which can result by simply being aware of the habit and trying to overcome it through conscious effort.

Listening Vocabulary:
The words needed to understand what is heard.
Reading Vocabulary:
The words needed to understand what is read.
Saccades
fixation to fixation): The movements between fixations, sometimes referred to as “saccadic movements” or “interfixation movements.” Saccades are often jerky and erratic, instead of smooth.
Writing Process
The writing process describes the steps writers take when they compose both formal and informal pieces. The steps include planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing. During the prewriting or planning stage, children select topics, collect related information, discuss ideas with other students or the teacher, take notes, and even draw. Children then begin to write one or more drafts, expanding and clarifying ideas with each draft. Often, children read their writing aloud to another student or the teacher to help in revising the draft. Students then edit their final draft for writing conventions, including spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and grammar. Editing can be done independently or with a partner. The final step, publishing, can be in the form of a bound book, an oral reading of the piece, or writing displayed on a bulletin board. Young children often “publish” their books during Author’s Chair.
Whole Language
An approach to reading instruction that de-emphasizes letter-sound relationships and emphasizes recognition of words as wholes.
Slow Readers
Inefficient reading levels experienced by unskilled readers (sometimes called “poor” readers). Slow readers are usually adversely affected by inefficient factors such as jerky eye motions, unnecessary regressions and faulty returns sweeps (moving from line to line in the text). In general, slow readers do not fully trust their abilities to comprehend, causing them to read each word in the text instead of trying to grasp the main ideas of the author. Put another way, slow readers often strive to detect every detail in the text instead of moving quickly through the material to determine and understand basic concepts.
Variant Correspondences
Various corresponding spelling patterns for a specific sound or a variety of spelling patterns for one sound (e.g., long a spelled a, a_e, ai_, _ay).
Whole Language Approach:
A holistic philosophy of reading instruction which gained momentum during the 1970s, ’80s, and early ’90s. Emphasizes the use of authentic text, reading for meaning, the integration of all language skills (reading, writing, speaking, and listening), and context.
Decodable Words:
These words contain phonic elements that were previously taught.
Vocabulary
Vocabulary refers to the words a reader knows. Listening (sometimes called receptive) vocabulary refers to the words a person knows when hearing them in oral speech. Speaking (sometimes called expressive) vocabulary refers to the words we use when we speak. Reading vocabulary refers to the words a person knows when seeing them in print. Writing vocabulary refers to the words we use in writing.
Study Reading
: Preparing for examinations in academic courses. Study reading, which involves considerable re-reading, usually means reading at a very slow speed. This is deliberate, to allow careful consideration of ideas, facts and details relating to the textProductive skimming of the selected book or books is vital in study reading, which generally requires seeking information needed for temporary retention (for instructors, clients or employers). Skim first for specific information related to the learning objective, perhaps making occasional margin notes. After skimming, read the book more carefully, always with the purpose in mind.
Word Learning Strategies
Strategies students use to learn words such as: decoding, analyzing meaningful parts of words, using analogy, using context clues, using a dictionary (student friendly definitions), glossary, or other resources.
Consonant Digraph:
Two consecutive consonants that represent one phoneme, or sound (e.g., /ch/, /sh/).
Word Parts:
Letters, onsets, rimes, syllables that, when combined, result in words. The ability to recognize various word parts in multisyllabic words is beneficial in decoding unfamiliar words.
Vertical Vision:
Ability (usually in skimming) of readers to extend their vision to a wider view of words and lines while moving through reading material. The reader makes full use of vertical vision by maintaining an “open” attention on the text, as opposed to concentrating on reading the material at a normal rate.
USD
USD is a common acronym for Unified School District.
Vocalization
Mouthing the words while reading. Vocalizers, sometimes called “motor readers,” accompany their reading by sounding out the words as they read. The tendency of vocalizers is to concentrate on specific words, believing it is necessary for memory. While vocalizing may help memory to some degree, it slows down reading speeds considerably (to oral reading levels).

One of the most common bad reading habits is vocalization, or saying the words while reading. This slows down reading levels to speaking levels. Vocalizing of any nature, such as lip movements or quietly forming the words with vocal cords, is unnecessary and should be eliminated or reduced in order to read faster and more efficiently.

Word Identification
This refers to the strategies or skills readers use to figure out words when reading and spelling. In this workshop, word identification includes phonic analysis, structural analysis, context clues, sight word recognition, use of configuration, and picture clues. Readers use the following strategies to identify words:
Recognizing or identifying whole words that follow irregular spelling patterns (sometimes called “sight words”), like have, their, or of; recognizing high-frequency words that appear in early texts, like and, for, and this.
Using configuration clues. Sometimes the distinct shapes of words can help readers figure them out. Elephant is a long word, and unusual in its shape; up is a little word. Because many words have the same shape, readers cannot rely solely on configuration.
Recognizing the formation of words (also called morphology or structural analysis). Beginning readers need to be taught to identify and understand the meaning of word parts — roots, prefixes, and suffixes. For example, begin with simple words such as play and play-ing, and then move to more complex words like agree and dis-agree-ment.
Using context clues. Good readers think about the meaning of what they are reading and use their understanding of the surrounding words, sentences, or even paragraphs to help them read an unfamiliar word
For English language learners, using cognates, words that are similar in two languages. Sometimes this strategy needs to be explicitly encouraged, as English language learners may not use cognates spontaneously.
Listening comprehension
Understanding speech. Listening comprehension, as with reading comprehension, can be described in “levels” — lower levels of listening comprehension would include understanding only the facts explicitly stated in a spoken passage that has very simple syntax and uncomplicated vocabulary. Advanced levels of listening comprehension would include implicit understanding and drawing inferences from spoken passages that feature more complicated syntax and more advanced vocabulary. See also Language Comprehension.
Word families
— A collection of words that share common orthographic rimes, such as HIKE, BIKE, LIKE, etc.
Assessment
Using data to determine abilities and knowledge about a particular topic. A distinction should be drawn between a test, which is just a tool used in assessment, and assessment. That is, assessment is the process; testing is one method OF assessment.
Word roots
Word roots are words from other languages that are the origin of many English words. About 60 percent of all English words have Latin or Greek origins.

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www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/glossary/glossaryOfReading.pdf

Word bank
— A storage place for learners to keep written words that they have learned so that they can refer to them as needed. They can go to the word bank as they are writing or editing to find out how to spell a word.
Bilingual
Someone who is bilingual knows two languages to different degrees and uses each language for different purposes. Someone who speaks more than two languages is referred to as “multilingual.” The use of the languages can range from casual conversation to academic use.
Deciphering
Using knowledge about graphophonemic relationships to sound-out regular words. Some argue this is accomplished through a process known as “reading by analogy.”
Subvocalization
Using vocal muscles without making sounds. Subvocalization, sometimes referred to as “auditory reassurance,” occurs when readers say the words to themselves while reading. No sound occurs, but the vocal cords of the reader are nevertheless experiencing the motions of orally sounding out the words. It is known that all readers subvocalize to some degree, but it is considered bad habit when it occurs more than occasionally.

Try to avoid any throat movement to form the words while reading. This sort of inner speech slows down the reading speed.

Word-by-Word Reading:
Reading one word at time, one word after another. The visible and audible signs of word-by-word reading include finger-pointing, head-moving, lip-moving and vocalizationOne of the common poor reading habits to be overcome is reading word by word, or one word at a time. With practice, readers can expand their visual span to see several words at one time, or even an entire line at one glance, thereby speeding up their reading rates.
In other words, build fluency.

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http://www.learner.org/workshops/readingk2/front/keyterms.html#Aesthetic_Response

academic language
the distinct type of English used in classrooms. Academic language functions that are characteristic of classrooms in general may include seeking information, informing, analyzing, comparing, classifying, predicting, hypothesizing, justifying, persuading, solving problems, synthesizing, and evaluating.
Writers’ Workshop
Writers’ Workshop
Writers’ Workshop (or Writing Workshop) is an instructional approach that develops students’ skills and motivation for writing. Children write on topics of their own choice every day or several times a week. Emphasizing the writing process, Writers’ Workshop includes teacher mini-lessons, time for individual writing, peer and teacher conferences, sharing sessions, and publication celebrations.
Writing Vocabulary:
Words that a student might use while writing.
Explicit Instruction
Explicit instruction is carefully planned instruction in a skill or strategy that shifts the responsibility for learning from teacher to student. Explicit instruction begins with teacher modeling, demonstration, or explanation of the skill or strategy. This is often accomplished through “think-alouds” in which the teacher demonstrates the thinking involved in using the strategy. After sufficient modeling and demonstration, students then use the strategy in the context of “guided practice,” with the assistance of the teacher or other students. When students have demonstrated effective use of the strategy, they apply it flexibly in individual reading and writing. Explicit instruction is especially useful when new strategies are introduced to students and in teaching struggling readers and writers.
Vocabulary
Vocabulary encompasses the words we must know to communicate effectively, including oral or reading vocabulary. Oral vocabulary includes words we use when speaking or words we recognize when listening. Reading vocabulary includes words we recognize or use in print. Students learn the meanings of most words indirectly through their experiences and conversations with each other and adults in school and their communities. They also develop vocabulary as they read on their own and listen to adults read aloud. In the video programs, teachers help students develop reading and oral vocabulary during read-alouds or shared and guided reading, and other carefully designed activities. (Adapted from Armbruster, Lehr, and Osborn. Put Reading First, 34-35.)
Zone of Proximal Development
The ZPD is a social-constructivist theory of learning attributed to the psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1978). Effective learning does not occur in a vacuum but in collaboration with more capable others. The conditions for learning range from tasks that can be completed independently to those that are too challenging under any circumstances. The ZPD refers to the point at which children can achieve more difficult tasks with the support of a more capable teacher or peer. This theory is the foundation of scaffolded instruction to advance student learning. Teachers apply this theory during guided reading instruction, whole-class instruction with grade-level texts, and meaningful practice using a peer dyad grouping format.
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http://lincs.ed.gov/research/Glossary.html
alliteration:
The repetition of the same or similar sounds (usually consonants) that are close to one another (e.g. the timid, tiny tadpole).
antonym:
A word which is the opposite of another word. Large is the antonym of small.
topic
What the text is about. The topic is not the same as the main idea.
Topic = origins of the universe. Main idea = anyone who claims to know is arrogant.
duet reading:
When a skilled reader and a weaker, less-skilled reader reads the same text aloud. The skilled reader may be a peer, older sibling, parent, or teacher. Duet reading builds confidence and fluency.
Partners can also take turns.
Interactive Writing
In interactive writing, the teacher helps groups of students compose and write text together, usually on large chart paper. With guidance from the teacher, individual students take turns writing, as classmates offer ideas and suggestions. Students practice writing strategies and skills modeled by the teacher, including letter formation, phonemic awareness and phonics, and concepts about print. Interactive writing is sometimes called “sharing the pen.”
A child’s attempt at spelling a word using what they know about the English spelling system is referred to as invented or temporary spelling. Invented spelling allows emergent writers to explore written language and experiment with writing at a very early stage. Early writing is a valuable developmental indicator of the conventional spelling patterns and the sound/symbol relationships the child has internalized. It can be used to help the teacher’s instruction. (Adapted from Harris, and Hodges. Literacy Dictionary, 128)
r controlled vowel
When a vowel is followed by the letter r and this causes the vowel sound to be altered. For example: her. cat/car ah vs. aw is controlled by rrr.
Immediate Corrective Feedback:
When an error occurs, the teacher immediately attends to it by scaffolding instruction (i.e., gradual release of responsibility).
Model (Teacher says the correct sound)—Lead (Teacher plus student say the correct sound) – Test (Student says the correct sound).
book talk:
When a teacher (or media specialist) gives a brief talk about a particular book to generate interest in the book.
modeled reading
Wherein the teacher reads aloud a book which is above the students’ reading level. Students may or may not have a copy of the text with which to follow along. The purpose of modeled reading is to demonstrate a skill or ability such as: fluency, fix-up strategy, think aloud.
chunking:
Reading by grouping portions of text into short, meaningful phrases.
Mediation
In relation to reading, Luis Moll and Norma Gonzalez (1994) formulated an instructional model in which teachers and students read and negotiated the meaning of written texts in light of the students’ imagined worlds and funds of knowledge. The goal of the model was essentially for teachers and students to develop “mediated and literate relationships” as they explored knowledge funds through literacy. The composite term, “mediate and literate relationships” emphasizes several key features of how literacy development is understood and conducted. Mediated refers to the historical, cultural, and social context in which knowledge is constructed. Literate refers to mastering the tools of using and interpreting words. Relationship acknowledges the dialogical nature of learning. In an instructional model that calls for a mediated and literate relationship, the student and the teacher collaborate to uncover cultural knowledge funds. Dialogue and negotiation of meaning is key to the process. The student and teacher work together to find conventional ways to express cultural insights and idiosyncratic ways of using words. The result is a creative product whether illustrated, oral, or written that b ridges cultural and conventional learning. (Taken from Boyd-Batstone. Reading With a Hero: A Mediated and Literate Experience.)
cloze:
A procedure whereby a word or words has/have been removed from a sentence and the student must fill in the blank using context clues (clues in the sentence).
Or the student has read many sentences like the one with the gap, and fills the gap with a word read in those sentences. The cat ran very ________. “Fast! I’ve seen that before.”
consonant digraph:
: two or more consonants grouped together in which the consonants produce one sound. For example: sh and ch.

Which are consonant blends and which are consonant digraphs?
bl st ch ck sr ng cr sh

Word attack
Word attack is an aspect of reading instruction that includes intentional strategies for learning to decode, sight read, and recognize written words.
“Break a long word—enterprise—into parts enter/prise; sound out the parts; say each part fast; then say the whole word fast.”

And “These letters ar are in a lot of words—car, barn, farm, star. These letters say /a/r/. So, whenever you see a word like car, star, farm, and barn, remember, say /a/r/.”

So, word attack is used for words that consist of parts—affixes (prefixes and suffixes) and common letter combinations (ar, act, ump).

consonant cluster:
A group of consonants that appear together in a syllable without a vowel between them.
sch

Is there a consonant cluster in entertainment? In splendid?

Continuum of Word Types
Words can be classified by type according to their relative difficulty to decode. Typically this continuum is listed from easy to difficult, beginning with VC and CVC words that begin with continuous sounds and progressing to CCCVC and CCCVCC words.
easy reader
A short book with appropriately short text. The illustrations amplify the text.
Cognates
Words in different languages related to the same root, e.g. education (English) and educacion (Spanish)..
context clues
Bits of information from the text that, when combined with the reader’s own knowledge, allow the reader to “read between the lines,” figure out the meaning of the text, or determine the meaning of unknown words in the text.
Indirect Vocabulary Instruction
Words learned through independent reading and conversation.
“The bridge crossed the moat.”
“The moat surrounded the castle.”
“They swam across the moat.”
“Moat must be kind of a ditch that goes around a castle.”
Oral Language
A fundamental element of literacy is the development of oral language. Teachers encourage students’ language development through informal and guided conversation, by asking questions and providing opportunities for students to explain their learning or thinking. Teachers model and discuss vocabulary and formal English grammar while reading, writing, or sharing experiences, without correcting or evaluating students’ speech patterns.
Floss Rule
Words of one syllable, ending in “f”, “l”, or “s” – after one vowel, usually end in “ff”, “ll”, or “ss” (sounds /f/, /l/, /s/).
emergent reader:
An emergent reader: has print awareness, reads in a left-to-right and top-to-bottom progression, uses some beginning and ending letter sounds, may tell the story from memory, may invent text, interprets/uses picture clues to help tell the story, is beginning to use high-frequency words.
genre
: A type or category of literature marked by conventions of style, format, and/or content. Genres include: mystery, fantasy, epic poetry, etc.
Phonics
Sometimes referred to as sound/symbol connections, or graphophonics, phonics is the understanding of how letters or spelling patterns (graphemes) represent sounds of speech (phonemes). It involves awareness of the sounds of individual letters or letter combinations. Phonics requires the understanding that sounds can be blended to make a word, and a mastery of some rules about certain sound patterns. Phonics can be taught in many ways. All learners do not require the same amount or sequence of phonics instruction. Phonics should be balanced with instruction on language and meaning. A student may be able to sound out a word, but not understand its meaning. In order to read with accuracy and understanding, words to be read must be part of a student’s oral language.
Portfolio Assessment
Portfolio assessment is the collection and interpretation of evidence of student learning including both the processes and the products of learning (Johnston, 1992). Evidence for the portfolio is gathered over time to provide a more complete picture of a child’s literacy development. Contents of a portfolio could include sample running records, pages from writing journals, written responses to reading, story retelling forms, spelling tests, reading record logs, and student self-assessments. A new portfolio can be constructed each year, or a summary, or “showcase” portfolio can follow students from year to year. Teachers and students may collaborate to select pieces for the portfolio. They are especially useful in parent-teacher conferences to show a child’s progress over time.
Irregular Words:
Words that contain letters that stray from the most common sound pronunciation; words that do not follow common phonic patterns (e.g., were, was, laugh, been)
grapheme:
: The smallest unit of a writing system. A grapheme may be one letter such as t or combination of letters such as sh. A grapheme represents one phoneme. And a phoneme is SOUND whose presence or absence affects the meaning of a word. Phonemes are sounds, not letters. They are represented by (coded into) letters. The alphabet is CODE.

guided reading: A context wherein the teacher interacts with small groups of students as they read books that present a challenge. The teacher introduces reading strategies, tailoring the instruction to the needs of the students. When the students read, the teacher provides praise and encouragement as well as support when needed. Proponents of guided reading, Irene C. Fountas and Gay Su Pinell, have stated, “The ultimate goal of guided reading is to help children learn how to use independent reading strategies successfully.”

graph = write phone = sound

Homophone: (Phone = sound)
Words that may or may not be spelled alike but are pronounced the same. These words are of different origins and have different meanings (e.g., ate and eight; scale as in the covering of a fish; and scale as in a device used to weigh things)
homograph:
Two words that have the same spelling graph = writing but different meanings and/or origins and may differ in pronunciation. Example: “the bow of a ship” and “a hair bow”
Useful Words
Words that might be unknown to the student, but critical to passage understanding and words that students are likely to encounter in the future.
Homonym:
Words that sound the same but are spelled differently (e.g., cents/sense, knight/night).
language experience approach
Also referred to as LEA. An approach to literacy instruction in which students orally dictate texts to a teacher (or scribe). The text is then read aloud by the teacher as the students read along silently. Students are then encouraged to read and re-read the text, thus building fluency. The experiences that serve as stimuli/sources for the dictated text can vary from literature discussions to field trips. Generally, the approach involves: a shared experience, discussion, oral dictation, reading, and re-reading. After the shared experience, the scribe helps the student write about the experience. The approach works not only with beginning readers, but non-native speakers of English, and adult learners as well. LEA is not a new approach; It has been studied and used for decades.
learning log:
document wherein students write entries (usually short and ungraded) which reflect upon a lesson, activity, event, discussion, presentation, or experiment.
leveled text:
Books are “leveled” (i.e. placed in a certain category) based on the criteria of the person or entity leveling the books. Irene C. Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell, the developers of Guided Reading, advocate these stages: Emergent Readers (Levels A-E); Early Readers (Levels F-J); Early Fluent Readers (Levels K-P); and Fluent Readers (Levels Q-W). Individual titles of books are then given a “level” based upon certain criteria. The Lexile Framework is another such tool. Lexile measures reader ability and text difficulty by the same standard. The leveling of texts allows teachers to match books with an individual student’s reading ability.
literature circles
Student-led book discussion groups. Students choose their own reading material and meet in small, temporary groups with other students who are reading the same book. The teacher acts a facilitator. Literature Circles by Harvey Daniels (Stenhouse Publishers) is considered by many to be the definitive guide on the subject.
Explicit: Explicit instruction
involves direct explanation. The teacher’s language is concise, specific, and related to the objective. Another characteristic of explicit instruction is a visible instructional approach which includes a high level of teacher/student interaction. Explicit instruction means that the actions of the teacher are clear, unambiguous, direct, and visible. This makes it clear what the students are to do and learn. Nothing is left to guess work.
Supplemental Instruction
is instruction that goes beyond that provided by the comprehensive core program because the core program does not provide enough instruction or practice in a key area to meet the needs of the students in a particular classroom or school. For example, teachers in a school may observe that their comprehensive core program does not provide enough instruction in vocabulary, or in phonics, to adequately meet the needs of the majority of their students. They could then select a supplemental program in these areas to strengthen the initial instruction and practice provided to all students. See Tiers.
predictable books:
Also referred to as pattern books. Books which use repetitive language and/or scenes, sequences, episodes. Predictable books allow early readers to predict what the sentences are going to say, thereby increasing enjoyment and helping to build vocabulary.
Intervention Instruction
is provided only to students who are lagging behind their classmates in the development of critical reading skills. This instruction will usually be guided by a specific intervention program that focuses on one or more of the key areas of reading development. This type of instruction is needed by only a relatively small minority of students in a class. In some cases, students in 2nd and 3rd grade may have lagged so far behind grade level development of reading skills that very little content from the grade level comprehensive core program is suitable for them. In these cases, students may need to receive instruction guided by a comprehensive intervention program that is specifically designed to meet their specific needs while at the same time accelerating their growth toward grade level reading ability.
prefix
An affix that is added to the front of a word and changes its meaning. For example: un being placed in front of the word developed.
Comprehensive/Core Reading Program (CRP):
is the initial instructional tool teachers use to teach children to learn to read including instruction in the five components of reading identified by the National Reading Panel (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension), spelling, and writing to ensure they reach reading levels that meet or exceed grade-level standards. A CRP should address the instructional needs of the majority of students in a respective school or district.
Rapid Reading Potential
l: Ability to read faster and more efficiently. With practice in speed reading, most individuals can double, triple or quadruple their reading rates without any adverse effect on their comprehension. In fact, studies show that comprehension and concentration usually improves with faster reading.
Self-Monitor
Students self-monitor when they pay attention to their own work to make sure that it is clear and makes sense. During reading, students attend to meaning and use fix-up strategies such as re-reading or reading ahead to clarify meaning. During writing, students check and reflect on the clarity of the message and on the features of text (words, grammar, and conventions) they need to communicate effectively with an audience. In this workshop, students self-monitor during interactive writing when they discuss and analyze their writing, and during independent writing when they check for meaning and grammar. Students also self-monitor during shared and guided reading when they think aloud to share their understanding of a text with the teacher or with other students. Self-monitoring is an aspect of metacognition. (Adapted from Harris, and Hodges. The Literacy Dictionary, 229)
reading response logs:
: A notebook or binder wherein students can respond to their reading. Reading response logs may take many forms. Teachers may wish to assign a prompt (or selection of prompts) which the students will then write about. Or, they can be used to document: reflections of the student, feelings about the reading, details of the text which interested the students, etc.
decode
to analyze graphic symbols to determine their intended meaning.
Or, to respond to graphic symbols—letters—by SAYING them. The alphabet and spelling patterns that represent SPOKEN words are turned into SOUNDS—that is, are DECODED. Writing words (strings of sounds) using the alphabet would be CODING.

digraph. “Two successive letters that represent a single sound (or phoneme).

Common vowel digraphs in English include ai (as in rain), ay (day), ea (teach), ea (bread), ea (break), ee (free), ei (eight), ey (key), ie (piece), oa (road), oo (book), oo (room), ow (slow), and ue (true). http://grammar.about.com/od/d/g/digraphterm.htm

Common consonant digraphs include th, sh, ch.

Consonant digraphs are in the larger category of consonant clusters, which include (1) blends (2 or more consonants that keep their separate sounds—bl, st, cr, xtr, str; (2) digraphs (th, sh, ch); and (3) trigraphs (str, spr).

Go here. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/consonantblends/

consonant blend:
two or three consonants grouped together; each sound is retained (heard). For example: st and scr.
Other consonant blends are………….

Is the sound that goes with sh a consonant blend? [Are the sounds of both letters spoken?]

reading wars
: A “war” waged primarily in the 1980s and 1990s over the best way to teach reading. On one side the proponents of phonics; on the other the proponents of whole language. Today, the general consensus among researchers and reading specialists is a balanced approach. A list of online resources concerning the debate may be found here.
schwa:
uh.” For example, the vowel sound heard at the beginning of the word alone. The schwa is represented by the symbol /a/ and any of the vowel letters (lettuce).

Some people add a schwa to the end of words: “I said, ‘No-wah. I won’t go-wah to the showah’”

Polyphone
word which is spelled the same as another word, but which sounds different when pronounced. For example, you can WIND a watch, and the WIND blows hard. Compare with homophone.
shared reading
An activity in which the teacher reads a story while the students look at the text being read and follow along. During this time the teacher may introduce print conventions, teach vocabulary, introduce a reading skill, encourage predictions, and more. The shared reading model was developed by Don Holdaway in 1979.
Word Wall
A word wall is made up of carefully selected and displayed lists or groups of words used by students to build familiarity with common sight words. It serves as a visual scaffold, provides students with familiar word patterns to assist them in decoding unfamiliar words, and is useful when students write. Word walls do the following:
build word recognition;
facilitate word analysis;
serve as a reference for commonly misspelled words; and
build vocabulary for a new text or content area.
Students and teachers use word walls to see and monitor what has been taught and learned. They are used for planned instruction and as a resource for unplanned instructional opportunities, or “teachable moments,” that arise unexpectedly during the day. (Adapted from Brabham, and Villaume. “Building Walls of Words.” Reading Teacher 54.)
silent, sustained reading:
A period of time wherein students read silently from a book or other text of their choice.
Pseudoword
— A pronounceable string of letters which has no meaning; also called invented words, nonsense words, or made-up words. For example, MIVIT, HEASE, and MIVE are all pronounceable, but don’t mean anything.
synonym:
A word that has the same meaning as another word. For example: big and large are synonyms.
syntax:
the word order pattern in sentences, phrases, etc.
Words are arranged certain ways to perform different communicative functions, such as to state facts (declarative sentences), ask questions, make invitations, make exclamations, draw conclusions. Think of words used and their order.
I am having a party?
Can you come to my party?
Will you come to my party?
Please come to my party.
You had better come to my party!
Phoneme awareness
— A subset of phonological awareness; the knowledge that spoken words consist of a sequence of individual sounds, and the understanding that phonemes are rearranged and substituted to create new words. There are a finite set of phonemes which are arranged and rearranged to create an infinite set of spoken words
vowel digraph:
a group of two vowels in which only one sound is heard. For example: height.
“A vowel digraph is a spelling pattern where two or more vowels are used together to make one vowel sound. For example ei as in sleigh, ea as in thread, and aw as in raw. http://answers.ask.com/science/mathematics/what_is_a_vowel_digraph

There also are consonant digraphs. Sounds and spellings: st, br, cr. Note that consonant digraphs make the sounds of BOTH consonants.

vowel diphthong:
the blending of two vowel sounds. For example: boil. Also referred to as a vowel blend.
vowel: a letter and a sound.
The vowels in the alphabet are represented by the letters a, e, i, o, u and sometimes y and w.
word analysis:
The identification and/or decoding or a word the reader does not immediately recognize.

“Entertainment. What the!!! Okay, let’s see. eee…eeen..eeeennnn…en…teee…..no tay…taynnnn… enter…tain…entertain….mmm..me….ment…ment. enter….tain…ment…tainment…entertainment. Got it! I’m so smart!”

Notice that word analysis is helped by prior instruction on
1. phonemic awareness: hearing the separate sounds and syllables, and saying he separate sounds and syllables.
2. letter-sound correspondence at the level of single letters and consonant blends (nt), affixes (ment), and letter combinations (er, en).
3. sounding out words until firm, and then saying them fast.

Systematic and explicit phonics instruction
The most effective way to teach phonics. A program is systematic if the plan of instruction includes a carefully selected set of letter-sound relationships that are organized into a logical sequence. Explicit means the programs provide teachers with precise directions for the teaching of these relationships.
word wall:
An area of the classroom (such as a bulletin board) on which a collection of words are displayed. (Personal word walls can be made using file folders.)
accountability
the linking of student test outcomes directly to the actions of schools and teachers
acronym
a word formed from the first letter of words in a phrase.
activating prior knowledge
calling on facts, experiences, and associations already familiar to students so they can more easily grasp new material.
alignment or aligned materials textbooks
activities, and other student materials that are based on a specific set of standards and skills in a curriculum with the assumption that official tests will be based on that instruction.
alliteration
the repetition of the first sounds in two or more adjacent words or syllables.
analogy
an activity for vocabulary development in which a pair of comparisons are linked to show how they are
articulation
the way sounds are made in the placement and position of the tongue, the shape of the mouth and lips, and the way air flows through the mouth as sounds are made.
assessment, diagnostic assessment
that includes tools designed to, before instruction, determine and diagnose each student’s strengths, weaknesses, knowledge, and skills. Understanding the current performance of each student allows the teacher to differentiate curriculum and instruction to meet each student’s unique needs.
assessment, formal assessment
that uses standardized tests or other proven controlled methods in order to acquire data. The tests adhere to a precise framework for conducting and scoring. Data is usually presented as percentiles, standard scores, or stanines.
assessment, formative assessment
hat provides the teacher with information about student thinking. Formative assessments, or checking for understanding, are given during the course of the lesson and guide the teacher in making instructional decisions or adjustments as necessary, such as reteaching, trying different instructional approaches, or offering additional opportunities for practice.
assessment, informal assessment
that evaluates and recognizes student abilities through observation, teacher-made tests, running records, portfolios, or any means other than standardized tests.
assessment, summative assessment
that is comprehensive in nature. As such, summative assessments provide accountability and are used to check the level of learning at the end of a lesson or unit of study. Summative assessments are also used for grading and/or progress reports.
assimilated/absorbed prefixes
prefixes whose form is altered. When a prefix is connected to a root or base word, the last letter and sound of the prefix can change to make the word easier to pronounce. For example, in the word correspond, the letter n in the prefix con- (meaning with) becomes an r when joined with the base word respond.
auditory discrimination
being able to differentiate phonemes and words, especially when comparing two similar words with only one sound changed.
benchmark
a specific standard by which a performance can be measured and evaluated.
classroom management
the way in which a teacher organizes the classroom so that students may be working productively throughout the day. Classroom management involves the teacher setting up procedures and routines—for example, students know to rotate to another center when they hear a signal—and explaining them to students. This initial training encourages students to be responsible for their own actions and learning and allows them to work purposefully and independently at times, such as when the teacher meets with small groups.
compound word
a word composed of two or more other words; usually, both words receive equal stress; e.g., cupcake.
concepts of print
the idea that print must be ordered and arranged systematically to communicate meaning effectively.
conditional knowledge
knowledge about “when and where” to do something. For example, in reading comprehension, conditional knowledge refers to where and when to use a particular strategy like finding the main idea, visualizing, or predicting. Conditional knowledge provides information about at what time
connected text
words in print that are part of a larger structural and meaningful whole, such as in a sentence or a paragraph, as differentiated from a list.
consonant
1. a voiced sound made by partly or fully blocking the air as it passes through the vocal tract.
2. the letter or letters that stand for a consonant sound (e.g., in the English alphabet, b, c, d, f, g, and so on).
consonant blend
two or more consonants that when written together in a word do not lose their inherent sounds but rather blend or meld their sounds together in the spoken word (e.g., spl in splash and gr in graph).
consonant digraph
two consonants that when written together stand for one consonant sound (e.g., sh in splash and ph in graph).
consonant-vowel-consonant(CVC)
the pattern of consonants and vowels that form the short vowel, closed syllable pattern?for example, cat, mop, and sit.
constructed response
an answer given by a student, usually in the form of a written short essay, in response to an open-
criterion-referenced tests
the testing and assessment of performance, based on pre-determined criteria about what students should know and be able to do. Scores are not compared to those of other test-takers.
critical thinking
interpreting, analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing information to form a good understanding, judgment, or solution.
declarative knowledge
knowledge about “what.” For example, declarative knowledge about the Civil War includes knowledge about what the war was and who fought in it. In decoding, declarative knowledge is knowledge about what decoding is, the components involved, and what is necessary in order to decode a word.
developmental spelling
levels a system in which students progress through phases or stages showing greater sophistication of word knowledge with each stage. In English, students progress through five stages of word knowledge: emergent, letter name/alphabetic, within word pattern, syllables and affixes, and derivational relations.
DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills)
a series of assessments from K–8 developed by Dr. Roland Good and Dr. Ruth Kaminski at the University of Oregon. DIBELS assessments are used primarily for making screening/benchmark decisions about student performance in reading at three points during a school year (fall, winter, and spring). DIBELS assessments are a form of curriculum-based assessments and involve timing a student’s performance on a task that has been shown to be predictive of future success in reading. Results from some DIBELS assessments can also be used to make diagnostic decisions about an individual student’s skills in phonemic awareness and phonics/decoding. There are also DIBELS assessments available for Pre-K and for Spanish-speaking students.
directionality
an emergent reading skill in which a child learns to track English print from left to right and top to bottom. Part of this skill is the ability to track print from the end of one line to the beginning of the next line with a return sweep. Directionality applies in the same way to emergent writing skills.
disaggregated data
data that is analyzed to see whether patterns or trends are apparent. As an example, test scores might be analyzed and the data disaggregated to see whether gender or socioeconomic status has any effect on students’ performance.
DRTA (Directed Reading and Thinking Activity)
a comprehension instructional approach in which teachers encourage students to make predictions about upcoming text, read, think, verify predictions, make new predictions, read, think, verify, and so on through a text. The DRTA was developed by Russell Stauffer in 1969 and is commonly accepted as a useful instructional strategy for comprehension.
early intervention
strategy in which a child considered to have special needs based on screening or referrals is provided services any time between birth through age five to promote his or her development. Research has shown that a child’s rate of learning and development is highest in the preschool years, making this strategy particularly important.
encode
to convert spoken sound or phonemes into the graphemes (written letters/symbols) for which they stand.
evidence-based practice
the idea that instructional policies should have their basis in empirical research (such as research findings that show what works) and that student performance data should be used to guide individual instructional decisions.
figurative language
words and phrases that go beyond their literal everyday meanings to enhance writing. Metaphor, simile, and personification are examples of figurative language, also known as figures of speech.
genres
way of organizing literary works by kind, often determined by content, style, tone, and form. Common genres are novel, realistic fiction, fairy tale, science fiction, narrative, nonfiction, and myth.
graphic organizers
blank diagrams, such as webs, charts, and frames that, when filled in with information and ideas, help a student visualize and illustrate a concept of text and/or understand a comprehension skill.
guided reading
method of reading instruction involving a small group of same-leveled students in which the teacher facilitates the reading of the same on-level story, aloud or silently. This includes prior knowledge activities and building related vocabulary before reading, constructive feedback during reading, and using graphic organizers or other tools for comprehension and response after reading.
high-frequency words
the words that appear most often in spoken language and in text, such as always, beautiful, could, nothing, and said.They may or may not follow common sound/symbol relationships and
inflected morphology
the study of how suffixes change the verb tense and number of a word. For example, the suffix –ed is aninflected suffix that denotes past tense.
inflectional ending
a suffix that changes nouns to the plural or possessive form, verbs to a different tense, or adjectives and adverbs to the comparative or superlative form.
informational text
nonfiction books that contain information based on facts; also known as expository text
integrated curriculum
a way of teaching and learning in which the curriculum supports the close connection of separately taught subjects in terms of concepts, skills, and values.
interactive reading
a process in which students interact with a text before, during, and after reading as they actively construct meaning from the text. One example of this process might be that a reader makes a comment during the reading of a story: This is Liam’s first day at this school so he’s probably feeling a little nervous. I wonder if someone will try to help him feel welcome.
interactive writing
a process in which the teacher and students “share the pen”as members of the classroom community of writers. Students contribute, for example, the initial letter of a word, a word, or an idea to the group’s shared product.
intervention
a strategy in which those students who fall behind are given additional instruction or placed in a different course of instruction.
intonation
the way syllables and phrases are pronounced with a specific accent, emphasis, change in pitch, loudness, rhythm, and phrasing.
language proficiency
stages of mastery of English for English Language Learners as follows: Beginning, Early Intermediate, Intermediate, Early Advanced, and Advanced. There is much overlap between the stages, and these five stages are often distilled into three stages for instructional purposes:
Beginning Stage
students are brand new to English and spend from one to three months as beginners. Teaching strategies include using gestures, facilitating vocabulary development, using visuals and realia, writing words for students to see, and allowing students to respond through actions and gestures with minimal speech production.
Intermediate Stage
students are still considered beginners at first, and can spend several weeks or months at this level. Teaching strategies include asking “yes/no” and “either/or” questions, modeling correct responses, maintaining a supportive environment, and asking short “wh-” questions. As the student advances, teaching strategies become more complex and related to content and key concepts. Questions become more open-ended. Performance-based assessment and comprehension checks may be used.
Advanced Stage
students range from “high-beginners” to students with native-like fluency. Teaching strategies include expanding literacy through content, interactive lessons, introducing thinking and study skills, and a continued alertness to differences and similarities in language and culture.
language registers
word choice, tone of voice, and pitch as determined by social circumstances including audience, subject matter, and purpose of communication, as well as mode of communication (spoken or written). Registers can have non-spoken characteristics such as body language and the proximity of one
learning styles
the controversial claim that some people learn better through particular sensory modalities, often popularized as distinctions between visual vs. auditory learners, but perhaps most
leveled books
texts matched to a student’s ability to decode words and comprehend text meaning. Leveled books are comprised of sight words or high-frequency words, highly predictable text, words appropriate to a student’s decoding skills, and illustrations that accurately portray story meaning. As the student becomes more advanced in his or her reading skills, the texts gradually increase in difficulty.
literal comprehension
the understanding of what is explicitly stated in a text.
long term memory (LTM
) high-volume information stored in the brain that remains accessible over a great period of time. This information is generally retrievable in parts or blocks, such as the distilled recounting of an experience years after it happened.
modeling
an instructional technique in which the teacher explicitly demonstrates a strategy or skill in such a way that students can emulate the teacher’s behavior and thought processes for solving problems and answering questions.
National Reading Panel
the federally appointed group of scientists and educators that conducted a scientific review of instructional studies in reading. The National Reading Panel worked from 1998–2000 when it issued its report on studies of eight topics in reading (phonemic awareness, phonics, encouraging students to read, oral reading fluency, reading comprehension strategies, vocabulary, teacher education, and technology). The findings of this panel became the basis of Reading First.
norm-referenced tests
the testing and assessment of performance compared to that of the norming group’s performance on a standardized test, or to any locally developed norms.
oral reading accuracy
he skill of reading aloud connected text with correct pronunciation and word recognition.
oral reading fluency
norms statistically derived indicators of typical performance; they are created by assessing a large number of students using the same administration and scoring procedures and having the students each read passages at their current grade level. These readings are typically conducted without allowing the students to practice. The norms are then created by calculating the percentile ranks of each of the scores. Reading norms are typically presented in tables that show the 90th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 10th percentiles for fall, winter, and spring by grade level. For an example, see Hasbrouck, J., and G. A. Tindal. “Oral Reading Fluency Norms: A Valuable Assessment Tool for Reading Teachers.” The Reading Teacher 59, No. 7 (2006): 636–644.
orthographic knowledge
what readers know about how words are spelled based on their sound, pattern, and meaning.
orthography
1. conventional spelling in agreement with the standardized usage of a given language.
2. a way of writing related to a given language.
outcome assessment
a test given at the end of the year to help the principal and teachers in a school evaluate the overall effectiveness of their reading program for all students. They are required in Reading First schools to help districts evaluate their progress toward meeting the goal of “every child reading on grade level” by third grade. Schools must show regular progress toward this goal to continue receiving Reading First funds.
pacing
the rate at which a teacher progresses through a curriculum as well as an individual lesson. Pacing may be modified to account for students’ varying learning capabilities.
partner/peer reading
students working in pairs and taking turns to read aloud. As one student reads, the other helps identify any unfamiliar words and gives feedback. Also called buddy reading.
peer-assisted learning
practice activities in which two or more students work together and provide feedback to each other.
performance assessment
a type of testing that requires the student to perform a task, using higher-order thinking skills. Examples of performance assessment tasks may include open-ended responses to questions or problem-solving activities that are to be done over an extended period of time. Portfolios, in which some of the student’s best work samples are collected over a period of time, are a type of performance assessment.
pre-alphabetic phase:
alphabetic knowledge is not used to read words; rather, students guess words from context and memory; for example, names for popular movies.
partial-alphabetic phase
students begin to detect letters in words and can match some of the letters in words to sounds in their pronunciations.
full-alphabetic phase
students possess working knowledge of phonemic awareness and can match up phonemes to graphemes and decode unfamiliar words.
consolidated alphabetic phase
students are learning chunks of letters that recur in different words and how they are pronounced. These letter chunks include affixes, root words, onsets, rimes, and syllables.
automatic phase
the phase of proficient word reading in which children have highly developed automaticity and speed in identifying unfamiliar as well as familiar words.
phrase-cued text
ext that has been chunked into appropriate pauses and phrase units to assist students’ understanding of meaning and appropriate expression, or prosody. Phrase-cued text contains cueing pauses represented by slashes. A single slash represents a shorter pause, while a double slash represents a longer pause. (For example: I really like / having salad / with dinner.// I like to put / tomatoes, / carrots, /
print awareness
the understanding of the conventional structure and arrangement of written language, including the awareness that English is read from left to right and from top to bottom, and that words are separated by spaces.
procedural knowledge
knowledge and understanding used in performing an activity and the knowledge of the steps involved.
prosody
lively, expressive reading characterized by appropriate intonation, articulation, and phrasing; an element of fluent reading.
readability
level a measure of the ease with which a text can be read and understood. Many factors can affect readability, such as type size, format, content, vocabulary, and sentence complexity, as well as student motivation and prior knowledge. Readability scores, based on sentence length and amount of unfamiliar vocabulary, are often correlated with grade level. Readability level may also refer specifically to texts that can be read independently by the student (independent), that can be read with teacher guidance (instructional), or that cannot be easily read (frustrational).
Reading First
a federal initiative authorized through the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002. Its goal is to have all children nationwide read on grade level in English by the end of the third grade. In order to accomplish this, funds are available to train teachers to use scientifically based reading research programs that focus on five components of reading: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Funds also support the early screening and identification of at-risk students to help promote their success in reading.
research, correlational nonexperimental
research in which the strength of relationships among two or more variables or measures is estimated. The outcomes of correlational studies can be positive or negative. (Positive correlations indicate that as one variable increases in value, the other variable does, too. For example, children who read more usually get better test scores in reading. Negative correlations indicate that as one value increases the other decreases. For example, higher levels of poverty are usually associated with lower academic test performance.) Correlations cannot prove causation, as two variables might rise and fall together even if one does not cause the other.
research, descriptive
research that provides descriptions of the characteristics or patterns of a phenomenon. These descriptions must be rigorously conducted and can be qualitative narratives or quantitative summaries of the characteristics or patterns. Research that provides summaries of state test data would usually be considered to be descriptive studies; so would ethnographic accounts of classroom instruction.
research, empirical
research grounded in scientific methods and rigorous and objective observation or experiments in order to measure and analyze data. Both the initial research design and the data subsequently obtained are submitted to an exacting scientific review process.
research, experimental
generally, all research in which the researcher intervenes to alter conditions in order to determine the effectiveness of that intervention; more specifically, research in which subjects are randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions in order to determine the impact of the intervention or change. Experimental studies are used to determine causation, such as whether a particular instructional approach causes improvement in reading achievement. (Randomization, control groups, and other experimental techniques are used to ensure that it is the instructional approach that led to the changes in reading achievement.)
research, qualitative
1. a kind of social science research that takes place in everyday settings to explore human behaviors and the reasons different people behave the way they do. This takes into account the subjects’ own understanding of why they act the way they do and any personal meanings or reasons they associate with those behaviors. The data gathered from these studies is exploratory rather than concrete and conclusive.

2. a form of research that attempts to answer “why” and “how” questions.

research, quantitative
1. a kind of social science research that results in numerical data that can be analyzed, charted, and graphed. The method is scientific and systematic and involves the development of a theory or hypothesis and then the measurement of concrete numerical data in a controlled setting to prove or disprove the hypothesis.
2. a form of research that attempts to answer “who,” “what,” “where,” and “when” questions.
research, quasi-experimental
a kind of experimental research in which randomization of subjects is not used; instead pre-existing groups are assigned to conditions and pretest and posttest measures are used to determine whether the outcomes are different for the groups. This approach to research is not as rigorous as pure experimental research because pre-existing differences among the groups might influence the outcomes. See also research, experimental.
Response to Intervention (RTI)
an instructional delivery model designed both to prevent academic difficulties and to provide appropriate and effective intervention as needed. RTI is often described as a multitiered service delivery model with Tier 1 representing instruction provided in the classroom using the core, standards-based curriculum for all students. Tier 2 is for strategic, targeted supplementary instruction provided in addition to Tier 1 instruction, while Tier 3 services are designed for more intensive intervention. Tier 3 may include special education services, although some RTI models allow for an additional tier of services exclusively for students with disabilities. If students are not responding to the high-quality instruction provided in Tier 1, they are placed in the next appropriate tier of services for a specified period of time. Their progress is carefully monitored. At the end of the instructional cycle (which may range from 8 to 15 weeks), a determination is made as to whether or not to have the student continue in that level of instruction or to move to another tier of services. Students who fail to “respond to intervention” may be qualified to receive special education services. See Tiers.
robust vocabulary
instruction a method of teaching vocabulary developed by Drs. Isabel Beck, Margaret McKeown, and Linda Kucan, that is primarily oral and involves clear interpretation of specific word meanings as well as a fun, thorough, and interactive approach to increasing verbal and comprehension skills. This three- step method (Define/Example/Ask) allows students to cumulatively increase their knowledge of words and to build a strong foundation of oral vocabulary. The teacher first explicitly defines a word with a student-friendly definition, then applies the word in an example sentence, and finally asks students to interact with the given example and use the word in their own examples. Students develop a more complex understanding of word meanings and expand their understanding of slight variations in word usage. In this method, vocabulary words are arranged into three tiers. Tier 2 words are most commonly taught during robust vocabulary instruction. See also tier (1, 2, 3) words.
root words
often used as a synonym for base words; refers to Greek roots or word parts of Greek origin that are often combined with other roots, prefixes, and suffixes to form words such as telephone (from the Greek root phon meaning sound). Roots convey basic meaning which can be used to determine the meanings of the words that contain them.
scaffolded instruction
he process of modeling and encouraging strategic, successful reading by providing structure, organization, questioning, clarification, summarizing, or tying information to what is known or what will be found out. Students are given all the support they need to arrive at the correct answer.
scientific inquiry
a method by which scientific questions are answered with plausible explanations through the consistent use of investigation and observation. Students are asked to come up with a hypothesis and create an experiment to test that hypothesis. Skills developed include observing, communicating, measuring, predicting, making a hypothesis, inferring, and interpreting and analyzing data. Through this method, students learn how to pose questions about the world around them and then provide the evidence to answer those questions.
screening assessment
at the beginning of the school year to determine a student’s reading level.
semantic map
map a graphic organizer with differing levels of complexity that can be used to collect, organize, and show connections between ideas about a topic. One example might have a concept in a bubble in the center with lines emanating outward to capture details about the concept. In a more complex map, each detail might also be in a bubble with lines for its own details. A semantic map may be used before reading to activate prior knowledge and then after reading to add information that has been learned.
shared reading
method of teaching reading skills and strategies to beginning readers, in which the teacher reads a big book aloud and guides children to understand basic reading elements such as print conventions, what words are, simple decoding, and previewing and predicting.
shared writing
a method of teaching writing skills in which the teacher involves a group of young children in the writing of a collaborative, or shared, text. The teacher begins with a discussion about a shared experience or topic to elicit ideas, and then models writing for children. The teacher records children’s ideas on chart paper in story or paragraph form, inviting children to participate by adding words, punctuation, or practicing other writing skills. Skills can include stretching out words to approximate correct spelling; using a word wall; following rules of capitalization, punctuation, and format; writing legibly; and writing from left to right.
spiral curriculum
a way of setting up curriculum such that important skills, subject matter, and ideas are revisited again and again, each time at an increased depth of complexity.
stop sound
a phoneme that cannot be drawn out in length but only vocalized briefly to ensure purity of sound, such as /b/, /k/, /d/, /g/, /h/, /j/, /p/, /q/, /t/, and /x/.
story map
a graphic organizer, containing boxes with text used by students to analyze or write a story by charting the story elements (typically the characters, setting, problem, events in solving the problem, and solution).
story structure
the organizational pattern found in narrative text, in which there is a setting, or when and where a story takes place; characters, or the people/animals in a story; and a plot, or the events in the story that are organized into a beginning, middle, and end. Plot usually includes a problem that the main character has to solve, the steps a character takes to solve the problem, and a solution, or outcome, of the problem.
synthesizing
the cognitive process of connecting and merging ideas from different parts of the same texts or across different texts. Synthesizing is not the same as summarizing in that summarizing is a process of putting together the most important ideas in the text. Synthesizing information from text is putting together ideas from parts of texts or from different texts, regardless of whether they are the most important ideas or not.
synthetic phonics
phonics instruction that emphasizes the blending of individual phonemes; students are taught the sounds for each letter or letter combination in isolation and then learn to combine these parts to arrive at the pronunciations of words.
systematic instruction
a method of teaching in which the entire sequence of instruction is well thought out and designed in advance. Lessons are then planned according to the sequence in such a way that one lesson builds on the information learned in previous lessons. Interrelated skills include phonics and phonemic awareness, vocabulary, comprehension skills, and fluent reading.
tape-assisted
reading a strategy that involves having students listen only or read along with an audio tape or CD recording of a skillful reader reading a passage aloud. Typically the student follows along on a copy of the passage that was recorded. Some tapes have passages recorded at rates that increase from reading to reading so that a student’s practice is scaffolded to support reading at a faster rate while maintaining accuracy. Tape-assisted reading is one of the strategies used to help develop or improve students’ reading fluency skills.
text features
parts of text including titles, headings, graphs, charts, time lines, diagrams and labels, table of contents, and captions.
text structure
the way in which texts or stories are inherently organized, including elements such as description, sequence of events, problem and solution, and cause and effect.
think alouds
a teaching strategy used to illustrate the metacognitive process of reading comprehension by which the teacher orally shares his or her thought process in understanding a text. Skills include asking questions, using context clues, and making predictions and inferences.
tier model
for intervention explicit instruction in small groups using multi-leveled curricula to specifically address student variance and skill needs.
timed reading
a measure of how quickly a student reads an appropriate text with a specific number of words in an established time allotment.
unvoiced
sound that is made without vibrating the vocal cords: /b/ is voiced, /p/ is unvoiced.
voiced
sound that is made with vibration of the vocal cords, as contrasted with unvoiced sounds: /b/ is voiced, /p/ is unvoiced.
vowel
1. a voiced sound made without blocking or stopping the air as it passes through the vocal tract.
2. the letter or letters that stand for that sound (e.g., in the English alphabet, a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y).
vowel digraph
or vowel pair two vowels that when written together stand for one vowel sound (e.g., ea in eat and ai in rain).
word calling
proficiency in decoding with little or no attention to word meaning.
word families
1. a set of words that contain the same phonogram or other phonic element (e.g., ack in back, stack, acknowledge, and package).
2. a set of words that contain the same root (e.g., aud in audience, auditorium, audio, and audible).
word sorts
basic word-study routine in which students group words into categories.
word study
a learner-centered approach to study phonics, vocabulary, and spelling; students examine words according to their sounds, patterns, and meanings.

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