Reading Comprehension

Comprehension
Creative multifaceted thinking process in which students engage with the text. A series of behaviors that occurs over time.
4 levels of comprehension
Literal, inferential, critical, evaluative
6 reader factors of comprehension
Background Knowledge, Vocabulary, Fluency, Comprehension strategies, Comprehension skills, motivation
When does the comprehension process begin?
During prereading when students activate background knowledge and preview text
double-entry-journal
Put a quote down, and have them respond to the quote as a journal entry.
text-to-text connection
Readers make connections between text and other text
What is the difference b/w a skill and a strategy?
Skill is being already proficient and involves literal thinking. Strategies are a planned way of doing something that can lead to skillfulness.
3 text factors of comprehension
Genres, text structures, text features
Metacognition
The conscious awareness and control of own thinking. Thinking about thinking.
critical comprehension
Readers analyze symbolic meanings, distinguish fact from opinion, and draw conclusions.
Two factors that comprehension depends on
Reader and the text
What are some cognitive strategies?
Activate background knowledge, predicting, determining main idea, previewing, classifying, categorizing, visualizing, making inferences, questioning, summarizing
2 categories of factors that affect comprehension
Reader factors, text factors
literal comprehension
Most basic level of comprehension. Readers pick out main ideas, sequence details, notice similarities/differences, identify explicitly stated reasons
The 3 connections readers make
Text-to-text, text-to-world, and text-to-self
How do you explain a cognitive strategy to students?
Explicitly. Teach what to do, when to do it, why to do it, and how to do it.
The highest level of comprehension
Evaluative comprehension
text-to-world connection
Students make connections between text and world events (past and present)
think-alouds
Students share their thinking as they read a passage, orally and/or on sticky notes they place in book, or write reading logs.
evaluative comprehension
Highest level of comprehension, readers assess the value of text, detect bias, faulty reasoning, effectiveness of persuasion, judge quality of texts
How do you use collaboration to affect student motivation?
Encourage students to work collaboratively, minimize competition, allow students to participate in making plans and choices
inferential comprehension
Readers use clues in the text, implied information, and their background knowledge to draw inferences. They make predictions, recognize cause and effect, and determine the author’s purpose.
What are the differences between cognitive and metacognitive strategies?
Cognitive involves thinking, metacognitive is reflecting on thinking
lowest level of comprehension
Literal level of comprehension
How do capable and less capable students differ?
more capable readers view reading as a process of comprehending or creating meaning, but less capable readers focus on decoding
less capable student
focus on decoding, reluctant to use new strategies, not motivated, don’t expect to be successful, smaller vocabularies
capable students
monitor comprehension, read fluently, use background knowledge, larger vocabularies, variety of strategies, motivated
How can a teacher help students take control of their own reading?
Have kids read independently, gradually extending time to build stamina. teach
Metacognition, have them recognize obstacles to reading and
How are books of fiction organized?
authors use structures to organize text and emphasize important ideas
elements of story structure
plot, characters, setting, time, theme
categories of fiction
folklore, fantasy, realistic fiction
plot
sequence of events involving characters in conflict situations
What are the different kinds of conflict?
Character and nature / society / other character / themselves
Characters
people (or personified animals) in the story
often the most important element of a story
characters
four ways characters are developed
appearance, action, dialogue, monologue
setting
generally the time and location where action takes place
four dimensions of setting
location, weather, time period, time span
point of view
perspective that stories are told from
four viewpoints
first-person, omniscient, limited omniscient, objective
theme
underlying meaning of a story, embodies general truths about human nature
Themes are either stated…
implicitly or explicitly
Why do students need to read both fiction and nonfiction books in the classroom?
fiction and nonfiction have different text factors that students can incorporate into their own writing
fiction text factors
narrative genres, story elements, narrative devices
nonfiction text factors
nonfiction genres, expository text structures, nonfiction features
poetry text factors
poetic forms, poetic devices
How is plot developed?
through conflict introduced at beginning, expanded in middle, and resolved at end.
conflict
tension or opposition between forces in the plot
What interests students enough to continue reading a story?
conflict in the plot
What is the difference between narrative and expository text?
Narrative: story, chronological order, fiction

Expository: informational text

plot diagram
incorporates all 4 elements of plot, students describe the beginning, middle, and end of conflict, as well as what the problem is, any roadblocks, and the high point.
Is a fairytale a narrative or expository text?
narrative
What are the aspects of a plot diagram?
3 columns labeled “Beginning, Middle, End” of conflict.

Second row identifies the problem, roadblocks, and high point of the plot.

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Also has a drawn graph of the rising and falling action
(pg. 210)

first-person viewpoint
narrator (usually a character) tells story and uses first person pronoun “I”
Omniscient viewpoint
author is godlike, seeing and knowing all. Thoughts of each character are shown.
Limited Omniscient Viewpoint
readers know the thoughts of only one character, told in third person
Objective Viewpoint
readers assume the role of eyewitness and are confined to the immediate scene. They learn only what’s visible, and cannot hear thoughts. Recounts events, not character personality.
Why is theme important?
it is the underlying meaning of the story
Do all narratives have themes?
mostly they do, and some have multiple themes
the 7 literary devices
Dialogue, flashbacks, foreshadowing, imagery, suspense, symbolism, tone
dialogue
written conversation where characters speak to each other
flashbacks
an interruption, often taking readers back to the beginning of the story
foreshadowing
hinting at events to come later in the story to build readers’ expectations
imagery
descriptive words and phrases used to create a picture in readers’ minds.
symbolism
person, place, or thing used to represent something else (ex: dove and peace)
tone
overall feeling or mood in a story, ranging from humorous to serious and sad
Why is story structure important?
authors manipulate structure to make stories interesting and to organize text
What are some commonly used poetic forms?
concrete poems, free verse, haiku, narrative poem, ode, rhymed verse
rhymed verse
poem that uses some rhyme scheme, such as limerick, in a fun-to-read way
narrative poems
long poems that tell a story
haiku
Japanese poetic form that contains three lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables. Normally deals with nature
free verse
un-rhymed poetry where word choice and visual images are important
poems for two voices
form of free verse, written in two columns, side by side, where 2 readers read line by line (usually contrasting viewpoints)
found poem
students create poems by culling words and phrases from a book their reading and arranging the words and phrases into a free-form poem
acrostic
poem in which the first letter, syllable, or word of each line spells out a word or message
book talks
preview a book by talking about it, showing the cover, and reading the first paragraph or two (like she does in class)
Goldilocks principle
don’t pick a book that is too easy or too hard, make sure its just right.
reading logs
Students write their initial responses to the books they’re reading in a journal. Responses often demonstrate student’s reading strategies and insights into their thinking about literature.
grand conversations
discussions about stories in which students explore the big ideas and reflect on their feelings. student-centered
sustained silent reading
independent reading time set aside during the school day for students to silently read self-selected books
literature focus units
instructional approach in which the class reads and responds to a piece of literature
literature circles
instructional approach in which students meet in small groups to read and respond to a book, has predetermined roles
five stages of the reading process
prereading, reading, responding, exploring, applying
Nancy Atwell
introduced reading workshop as an alternative to basal readers and textbooks, which changed how literature is used in the classroom
reading workshop
students read books they choose themselves and respond in reading logs and conferences with the teacher
text sets
reading materials collected by teacher on topics to use in teaching thematic units. Incorporate different genres, reading levels, and media.
Who should decide which books students read in the classroom?
Students and teachers
What is the difference between SSR and Reading Workshop?
SSR is time set aside just for reading comfortably, while reading workshop includes instruction
What guidelines should teachers follow in selecting books for the students to read?
Not just at grade level, a few above and below. Different genres, adhere to banned books in district.
What are the benefits of using literature focus units and literature circles?
Students read and respond to authentic literature, they get more choices in books and responses, and they get to have different roles.
3 features of literature circles
choice, literature, response
Literature circle: choice
students choose books, roles, time schedule, how to share,
Why is choice important in a literature circles?
Prepare students for making choices by creating a community of learners in which students assume responsibility for their learning and collaborate.
Literature circles: literature
should be interesting and around reading level, shorter or picture books at first, teachers must read and like the books.
literature unit: response
four different types of discussion in circles, grand conversations, response roles
Why is response important in literature circles?
Students use authentic conversation about a book and become more engaged than in teacher-directed approaches.
How can teachers effectively manage literature circles?
Through activities such as minilessons, videotaping group discussions, reconsidering books, and coaching on positive group behavior.
What steps should teachers take to organize reading workshop?
Reading, responding, sharing, teaching mini-lessons, and reading aloud to students.
What is the teacher’s role in literature circles?
Facilitator, as you facilitate you make sure they know how to respond and are on task, make rounds. Monitoring.
Reading Workshop: Reading
students spend 30 to 60 minutes reading independently, chose own books using Goldilocks Principle.
Reading Workshop: Responding
students keep reading logs and dialogue with teacher, responses demonstrate reading strategies
3 types of responses
Immersion, Involvement, Literary Connections
Immersion responses
Students indicate whether the book makes sense to them through inferences about characters, predictions, and questions
Involvement Responses
Students show that they’re personally involved with a character, giving advice or judging actions. Express satisfaction with story.
Literary Connections (response)
students make connections and evaluate the book, offering opinions and compare it to other books.
What should teachers keep in mind in regard to selecting books for ELLs?
Books that reflect their own culture
Basal readers
commercial reading programs, think “Dick and Jane” books written only to teacher kids, not authentic literature
Basal reading program components
selections in grade-level textbooks, vocaublary instruction, workbook assignments, materials for independent reading, assessment tools for monotoring achievment
Basal reading program materials
textbook, supplemental books, workbook, teacher’s guide, assessment system, multimedia resources, handbooks, lesson planner, home-school connections, staff development
language arts textbooks
literature anthologies, help teachers with state standards, organized into units, but they can be overwhelming and not differentiated
What criteria should educators use to select textbooks for their students?
should be at students reading level, multicultural, and can be incorporated into authentic reading units
components of a textbook reading program
Literature selections, instructions on grammar and vocabulary, online resources, assessment tools
What are the advantages of basal readers and anthologies?
aligned with grade-level state standards, time savers, includes lesson planners, variety of activities, teacher’s guides
What are the disadvantages of basal readers and anthologies?
not differentiated, lacks authenticity, overwhelming and too fast-paced, too many worksheets, most instruction is whole-class
Which approach to teaching reading is the best?
There is no best approach to teaching
What will get kids to want to read the most?
Sharing in a book discussion
Why put students in groups?
Learn from others, social interaction, different background knowledge, different viewpoints, etc
Is guided reading or shared reading better for struggling readers?
guided reading in small groups helps struggling learners more.
Guided reading
small-group instruction used for students who read at approximately the same instructional level
minilessons
brief, focused lessons on literacy strategies and skills, such as how to use commas or combine sentences.
Literacy centers
contain meaningful, purposeful literacy activities that students can work at in small groups. Activities relate to concepts recently taught in minilessons, and can vary from simple to complex.
What are some components of literacy centers?
Author study, computer, grammar, graphic organizers, library, poetry, word wall, spelling, revising,
accelerated reader
computer based supplemental reading programs where students choose books to read independently and monitor comprehension through quizzes, teachers use results to immediately help struggling readers
tiered activities
several tiered or related activities that focus on the same essential knowledge but vary in complexity.
interventions
programs used to address low-achieving students’, used to replace regular instruction. Problems are diagnosed and extra instruction given in problem area.
literacy coaches
experienced teachers with special expertise in working with struggling readers and writers who support teachers in literacy instruction.
RTI (Response to Intervention)
Tier 1: screening and prevention
Tier 2: Early intervention
Tier 3: Intensive Interven
What is the most effective way of working with struggling readers in the middle grades?
Differentiate instruction, use guided reading for small groups of same-level readers, explicit lessons, authentic texts, student choice
Why is differential instruction important for ELLs?
gives them a chance to learn reading strategies without being bogged down by their lack of english knowledge
How can teachers differentiate instruction for struggling students?
teach minilessons, group them for guided reading, K-W-L charts, personal word walls, build background knowledge, explicit instruction in strategies and concepts, tiered activities and student choice in reading material, material that is appropriate grade level, collaborate with literacy coaches
How can teachers differentiate instruction to meet the needs of advanced students?
through tiered activities and student choice in reading material
3 grouping patterns
whole class, small group, individual
Why is student choice so important?
Motivates students to read, they pick things that interest them around their level
Irwin’s definition of comprehension
using prior experience and the author’s text to construct meaning that’s useful to the reader.
Irwin’s comprehension processes
Elaboration, micro, macro, sentence level, metacognition
What 4 things should a reading teacher never forget?
1. Read to students EVERY DAY
2. Reading must be understanding
3. Literacy is developmental
4. Know what your students know

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