Exam 3

 

 

 

 

Successive Approximation

Behavior doesn’t change immediately. Just as a child take a process to learn a language, so too does a child take a process to learn a behavior

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Child yells out answer, teacher talks about raising hand. Student yells but puts hand up, teacher reinforces the hand raising. Student puts hand up first but can only wait so long – steps to reinforce behavior

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Preventive Discipline

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It’s better to be proactive instead of reacting first. Child needs an environment that is predictable (structure and consistency)

 

Set agenda and objectives

 

We are too reactive, and not proactive enough

 

Example: sub teacher asks students what they regularly do and the students can explain.

 

 

 

Descriptive Praise

Describing the performance. No evaluation, just distinctions.

 

Example: I just wanted to let you know that I read your composition tonight at home and it is very good. (call home)

 

Taking time out of your schedule for the student to give praise means a lot.

 

 

 

Manifestation Determination Definitions

Manifest – where does it originate (figuring out why something orinigates)

 

Determination – decision-making process

 

Manifestation Determination: A process, required by the individuals with disabilities education act (IDEA2004) which is conducted when considering the exclusion of a student with a disability that constitutes a change of placement.

 

 

 

Manifestation Destination


Rationale/Purpose

A manifestation determination must be conducted when a disciplinary change of placement occurs. Trying to figure out student’s behavior – does the behavior associate with the child’s disability?

 

Ex. Student with a speech disorder is caught smoking in bathroom – no association so suspension.

 

Ex. Child with a learning disability with friends on out-crowd. Child asked to take drugs to others. Child was caught and suspended. Children with learning disability have confidence and social issues, so child doesn’t get suspended.

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Manifestation Determination


Who is involved?

Within 10 school days of the decision to change the student’s placement, the LEA, parent, and relevant members of the IEP team conduct a review to decide if the behavior of concern is a manifestation of the student’s disability. (2 are needed: LEA and parent)

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Manifestation Determination


When Does it Need to Take Place?

The manifestation determination must take place within 10 school days of any decision to change the placement of a child with a disability because of a violation of a code of student conduct.

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Disciplinary change of placement occurs when a student with a dis., because of violation of the school code of conduct, is removed from his/her current educational setting for:

1. more than 10 school days consecutively

2. more than 15 school days cumulatively in a school year

3. when school days 11-15 constitute a pattern of exclusion

4. an exclusion of even one school day for a student with IDD

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Manifestation Determination


3 exceptions to the MDR

under circumstances, school personnel can remove a student to an alternative educational setting for not more than 45 school days without regard to whether the behavior is determined to be a manifestation of child’s dis., if the child:

 

1. carries a weapon to school, on school premises, or to or at a school function under the jurisdiction of a local educational agency (LEA)

2. knowingly possesses or uses illegal drugs or sells drugs while at school, school premises, or at school function

3. inflicted serious bodily injury upon another person while at school, school premises, or at school function. In this case, parents must be notified by LEA

 

 

 

Manifestation Determination


2 Possible Resolutions

1. Was the behavior caused by, or directly and substantially related to, the student’s disability?

2. Was the behavior a direct result of LEA’s failure to implement the IEP?

 

If answer is yes to either, the behavior IS a manifestation. The IEP team must a) conduct a FBA and implement a behavioral intervention plan for the cihld b) if behavioral inter. plan has alreaydy been developed, review BIP, and modify to address the behavior and return child to the placement from which child was removed unless parents and LEA agree to change placement.

 

If answer is no, behavior is NOT a manifestation. The student may be disciplined in the same manner as a student without a dis. who has violated the same or similar code of conduct.

 

 


Manifestation Determination


How are disputes resolved?

An expedited due process hearing is held when:

1. a parent requests a hearing to dispute an LEA’s determination that a student’s beahvior was not a manifestation of the student’s dis.

2. parent requests a hearing to dispute s disciplinary exclusion that constitutes a change of educational placement. A change of ed. placement has occurred if an exclusion is longer than 10 consec. school days, or if child is excluded more than 15 school days on 1 school year. Any removal of student with ID is considered change of educational placement, except if even involved weapons, drugs, injury.

3. parent disputes an interim alternative educaitonal placement of no more than 45 school days ordered by LEA personnel

4. LEA requests hearing to establish that it’s dangerous for a student to remain in the student’s current educational placement.

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Routines


(definition and examples)

Procedures that come automatically

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Example: Morning story time and classroom jobs (attendance, tally of people eating lunch, etc.)

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Rules


(definition and examples)

A contingency-specifying stimuli that has 3 parts:

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1. where does it apply

2. what should occur

3. what happens if the rule is ignored?

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Example: When in the hallways, do not run, or you could get hurt.

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Procedures


(definition and examples)

Procedures are rehearsed instructions that show how to correctly complete a task.

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Are different than rules

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Procedures do not have artificial consequences associated with them.

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Example: What do you do when you have to go to the bathroom?

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Example: Riding an elevator or opening a locker lock

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Pros ; Cons of Student Participation in Creation ;


Enforcement of Classroom Rules

Pros

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– Gives them a sense of ownership

– Promotes democracy in classroom

– Can not blame others for making or enforcing a rule that they, themselves, created

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Cons

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– Some rules, esp. involving safety, are non-negotiable

– teacher is the person ultimately responsible for the management ; control of classroom

– class rules that conflict with school rules may present a problem

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Questions to Ask for Classroom Environment


( Vision )

-Do all students have equal access to a good line of sight regarding where the teaching take place?

-Can the teacher see all students to pick up on behaviors?

-Is the classroom organized?

-What type of atmosphere do the decorations and visual aides promote?

-What type of effect might they have on students whom have difficult paying attention?

-Do any students have a visual impairment which may require special seating or other;accommodations?

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Questions to Ask for Classroom Environment


( Hearing )

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-Are all students situated so that they will not be distracted by unnecessary noises?

-Do you have a system in place to get the students to be quiet when needed?

-Are all students situated so that they can easily hear you, each other, the television, the loud speaker, fire alarm, etc?

-Do any students have a hearing impairment which may require special seating or other accommodations?

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Questions to Ask for Classroom Environment


( Touch )

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-Are desks situated in a way that students have adequate personal space?

-Have you considered your philosophy regarding personal contact and praise?

-Do any students have a physical;impairment;which may require special seating or other accommodations?

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Questions to Ask for Classroom Environment


( Smell ; Taste )

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-Are there any unpleasant or distracting odors that may interfere with learning? If so, what can be done about them?

-Do any students have hygiene issues? If so, how will you address them?

-Have you considered you policy regarding food and drink in the classroom?

-Have you considered your policy regarding using food and drink as motivators/rewards?

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Pros ; Cons of Classroom Scenario

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Pros ; Cons of Classroom Scenario

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Pros ; Cons of Classroom Scenario

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Pros ; Cons of Classroom Scenario

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Pros ; Cons of Classroom Scenario

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Best Practices Regarding Consequences

Consequences work best when they are:;

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Are clear and specific

Relate directly to statement of purpose, rules, and procedures

Possess a range of intensity or hierarchy of alternatives

Are natural and logical

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Cultural Influences on Behavior

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A teacher can reduce or prevent behavioral problems if he or she understands how culture can influence a) how a student interacts with others and b) how a student interprets the interactions of others. Interaction styles are influenced by the following dynamics.;

1. Degree of Directness

2. Level of Emotionality

3. Degree of Movement

4. Degree of Vocalizations

5. Expressions of Consideration

6. Attitudes Toward Personal Space

7. Attitudes Toward Sharing


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Cultural Influences on Behavior

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(Cont)

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Interactions are not the only interpersonal dimension influenced by culture. A student’s response to authority figures is also culturally based on..


1. Perceptions of Authority Figures

 


2. Manner in which respect is shown to authority figures

 


3. Responses to varying management styles

 

 

 

Creation and Utilization of an Action Plan

 

a typical action plan involves:

  • Developing a toolkit
  • Teaching the plan to the students
  • Scheduling booster sessions
  • Disseminating the plan to administration, parents, and substitute teachers

The development of the toolkit involves the construction or generation of all necessary forms, posters, and supports needed to implement and sustain the plan.

 

Booster sessions are scheduled reviews of the specific components of the plan at relevant intervals throughout the school year (e.g., after winter break, the first Monday of every month).

 

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