Exam 2 Language Development

PIAGET
thought precedes language
(cognitive determinism)
-theory of cognitive deveolopment
WHORF
language precedes thought
(linguistic determinism, linguistic relativism)
linguistic determinism
aqcuiring language is a prerequisite for reasoning out thoughts or beliefs
(whorf)
cognitive determinism
understanding of beliefs and knowledge is a prerequisite for language
(Piaget)
linguistic relativism
the idea that differences in the way languages encode cultural and cognitive categories affect the way people think, so that speakers of different languages will tend to think and behave differently depending on the language they use.
VYGOTSKY
-social interaction precedes development
-children play an active role in learning
CHOMPSKY
language and thought are independent of each other
BRUNER
the organization of language is more important than how many words are in the vocabulary
two basic function
-organization
-schemata
-adaptation
-assimilation
-accomodation
birth –> 1 month
-all behavior is reflexive
-can discriminate phoneme contrasts
1 –> 4 months
-lack intentionality (cry because they’re hungy not because they know they’ll be feed)
-self-imitation (sucking)
4 –> 8 months
-learns to respond to signals (seeing a bottle means its time to eat)
-imitation (if it’s something being done and seen at the present time)
-increased interest in toys and environment(not just mother’s face)
-can manipulate objects
8 –> 12 months
-understand that other people’s actions are purposeful
-develop intentionality
-causality
-object permanance
-means to an end
12 –> 18 months
-symbols appear as first words
-skilled imitation (of things they can’t actually see in front of them)
18 –> 24 months
-can represent objects internally (don’t need to have a phone to pretend to use one)
-symbolic play
birth –> 6 months
(socially)
-social smile
-preference for exaggerated language and actions
-eye gaze
-rituals/games
-interest in objects

-decrease in infant handling that leads to

7-12 months
-intentionality
-increase resonse to requests
-development of communication functions
perlocutionary
0-8 months
-child lacks intention but the parent thinks they have meaning
illocutionary
8-12 months
-intentional communication (gestures, PCFs, communicative purpose)
protoimperative
“give me milk”
protodeclaratives
“there’s a cat”
locutionary
12+ months
-1st meaningful word
-symbols
preporatory activities
free infant from physiological state dominance (not hungry)
state-setting activities
optimizing learning…not distracted, at same level
maintainance of communication
patting or rhythmic…keeping attention
infantile modification of adult actions
-baby talk, imitating baby’s movements
joint reference
sharing a focus
-indicating
-deixis
-naming
deixis
-develop speakers POV
joint action
-shared behaviors in similar contexts
*games
turn taking
more conversational…every day novel ideas (not necessarily routines)
-starts with feeding
situational variation
-using language in as many situations as you can
knowledge structure
-event-based
-taxonomic
entraiinment
-rhythmic…using rhythm of speech and movements
event-based knowledge
knowing what happens based on having gone through an event
taxonomic knowledge
categorizing new owrds and classes of words and comparing them to categorize them
comprehension precedes production
first 50 words
probable event strategy
toddlers (with receptive language)
-gain a sense of how sounds go together
-use patterns to understand boudaries of words
reference principle
toddler-receptive
-words don’t just go with but actually stand for words
mutual exclusivity assumption
toddler-receptive
-a referent can’t be a cup and a spoon
-has to be separate
extendibility principle
toddler-receptive
-theres some similarity
-what they know as a cup can extend if another child has a cup because it’ll look similar
whole object principle
toddler-receptive
-label refers to entire entity
*baby…not the baby’s arm
categorical assumption
toddler-receptive
-goes beyond the basic level of and extends something like cup to mean all things that hold liquid
novel-nameless assumption
toddler-receptive
-enables a child to remember a label for something after only a few exposures
conventionality assumption
toddler-receptive
-a car is consistently called a car (not a truck or sedan…)
evocative utterances
toddler-expressive
-naming something
(parent gives feedback)
hypothesis testing
toddler-expressive
-dog?
interoggative utterances
toddler-expressive
-whats that? eh?
selective imitation
toddler-expressive
-partial imitation of utterances
focus operations
“Daddy throw ball”
–“throw ball”
probable event strategy
hm…here’s a strainer what does this do…maybe it goes on your head
substitution operations
“Daddy throw ball”
–“throw frisbee”
plausible event strategy
preschool
-children use knowledge and experiences to figure out what someone’s saying or what a sentence means
rote learning strategy
preschool
-child learns to use certain words in certain contexts and that’s how they recognize when they’re an appropriate thing to fill in
pay attention to the ends of words
-children learn suffixes and postposition before prefixes and prepositions
-heavier before more heavy
phonological forms can be sematically modified
child learns pronunciations gradually…
avoid interruption to the order of words and morphemes
-ignore stuff like before and after
underlying semantic realtions should be marked overtlty and clearly
-all words (even and and for) get really emphasized
-will use i will instead of i’ll
avoid exception
-tendency to overgeneralize
-have to learn difference between much and many (much sand, many cookies)
grammatical markers should make semantic sense
“kerry is going he for a week”
not right…
“kerry is coming here”
“motherese”
-using adult speech but using a baby voice
baby talk
using not real language and babbling
common types of prompting
-fill ins
-illicited imitation (can you say cat?)
-questions
expansion
“bottle”
you want your bottle
-more adult version
extension
“look a cookie”
“yes it’s a chocolate chip cookie”
imitation
repeating what the child says
responding behaviors
-extension
-expansion
-imitation
turnabouts
child says something…adult responds with something that then requires another response
thematic role playing (at 3)
Child sequences actions a familiar scripts and situations
thematic role playing (at 4)
Role play others
Stereotypes

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