Exam 2

SLP-Speech and Language Pathologist
assess, diagnose, treat and help prevent disorders related to speech, language and cognitive commuication
American Speech and Hearing Association
AAC-Augmentative and alternate communication
speech by individ is replaced with another form of communication (typed, sign, picture board)
LD-Learning Disability
normal IQs, achievement problem
RTI-Response to Intervention
use of evidence based classroom instruction
ensures high quality instruction before being identified
BIP-Behavioral Intervention Plan
formal plan for students wo display challenging behavior
FBA-Functional Behavioral Assessment
seriousness of problem, conditions it occurs (when, where), info on environment, setting demands, possible functions of behavior, analyze info, hypoth of function of behavior/plan for replacement, develop/implement BIP
forming, transmitting and comprehending messages
formalized code a group of people use to communicate (what sounds mean)
production of sounds
Component of Language- Form
phonology- rules that determine how sounds can be sequenced, which sounds are used, min unit that changes a word
morphology- meaning of sounds/sequences within words (un/pro), prefixes and suffixes
syntax- rules of grammar, how to combine words
Component of Language- Content
semantics- rules for the meaning of words, generational differences
Component of Language-Use
Pragmatics- rules for communication (socially acceptable), influence of context
Communication Disorder
stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairment, voice impairment that adversely affects education
Speech impairment-related to production of language, easiest to fix/outgrow
Voice- husky, hyper/hyponasality
Fluency- stuttering (block on sound), dont finish sentence
*distortions- lisp
* omissions- pay for play
*additions- pulay for play
*substitutions- wed for red
language disorder
Form-sentence structure and morphological endings
Use-communicative function and conversational ability
Delay- Skills develop more slowly than expected but are even across areas and follow a typical sequence
Expressive- difficulty producing language
Receptive- have difficulty understanding language
Dialect/ 2nd Language Acquisition
dialect- language patterns characterized by a certain group of people
Speech and lang differences based on D/2LA NOT disorders
person communicating in a way that is accepted by community?
Dialect/ 2nd Language Acquisition
dialect- language patterns characterized by a certain group of people
Speech and lang differences based on D/2LA NOT disorders
person communicating in a way that is accepted by community?
Teacher/SLP collaboration
teacher has more opportunity to reinforce the skills the SLP has targeted for the student
IDEA definition of LD
-psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations.
*includes-brain injury, dyslexia
*doesn’t include-learning problem that is result of visual, hearing,motor disabilities,mental retardation, emotional disturbance, or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
IDEA definition of LD criticized because
Reference to basic psychological processes
Inclusion of spelling
Inclusion of obsolete terms
Wording of exclusionary clause- sounds like if I have these problems I can’t have a learning disability
Inconsistencies in application
Wait to fail approach
Severe Discrepancy
unexpected difference between general ability and achievement (expected vs actual achievement)
-IQ test normal, below grade level academically (reading level)
RTI Tiers
Primary- instruction for all students
Secondary-targeted instruction for those not achieving as expected
Tertiary- strategic/intense intervention for intensive needs
RTI Models
Problem-Solving-individual tailored plans on case-by-case study
Standard Protocol-proscribed procedures to adress problems at each stage
Academic Characteristics of LD
Reading Problems- ex. Phonological structure in oral language
Math- ex quick facts, word problems
Written expression- vocab, grammar, spelling, working memory (think of something to use later)
Attention problems- attention, finding whats important
Metacognitive deficits- thinking about thinking, read haven’t understood
Social/Behavioral Characteristics of LD
social cues (sarcasm)
difficulty helping others
difficulty accepting authority
difficulty interacting
los social status
“Big Ideas” in teaching LD student
-Beginning Reading- phonemic awareness, vocab/comprehen
-written expression in high school-plan, draft, revise/edit
-mediated scaffolding- instructional support until they can solve on their own (hints- fraction problem)
-judicious review- opportunity to apply info already taught, info integrated into complex tasks
-conspicuous strategy- steps used to accomplish a task/solve a problem- mnemonics, study skills, test taking
Reaction to Simulation in Class, Strategies to eliminate
-stress, confusion, anger
– more time for responses, provide different way of looking at the problem, don’t ask another student to “help”
Outcomes for LD students
-higher dropout rate
-make more $ than non-LD first 4 years after high school, less after
-many not able to live on their own/be independent
Major Issues Ass with Reading Difficulties
-higher risk for academic difficulty and drop out
-increased risk for referral
-preventable with proper instruction and support
Attributes of good readers
-Phonological Awareness- listening skills(rhyming, blending)
-Word ID-letter sound patterns
-Fluency- reading accurately, quickly and with expression
-Vocab- knowing meaning of words
-Comprehension- understand what is read
Stages of Reading
1. Prereading- ABCs, scribbling, symbols
2. initial- learning to read (Early Reader books)
3.conformation, fluency, ungluing from text (dont focus on individual letter sounds, combining skills
4.reading to learn- SS book
5. multiple viewpoints- perspective, c/c, this author v that
6. construction and reconstruction- research paper
5 major components of reading instruction
•Phonological awareness
Listening skills (rhyming, blending, segmenting)
teaches students to manipulate letter sounds to form words
•Word identification
Letter sound patterns
Reading accurately, quickly and with expressions
Knowledge of the meaning of words
Understanding what is read
Strategy for teaching reading components
– P Awareness
teach students how to manipulate letter sounds to form words
-Word ID
common sight words, syllable patterns
appropriate text, not what you read but how (Popcorn)
interesting words with milage, everyday (connected) language, several contexts, several examples
background knowledge, predict, clarify, summarize
Characteristics of students with difficulties in math
Difficulty with word/multistep problems
Fails to verify, settles for first answer
Makes “borrowing” errors
Misaligns vertical columns
Disregards decimals
Factors contributing to difficulties in math
Language difficulties
Problems with memory and executive function
Can be in math calculations/problem solving
3 Key Areas in Math
understand numbers and relationships, numerical response makes sense?
efficient methods to develop mathematical fluency
-word problems
linguistic, semantic, schematic, strategic and procedural knowledge to solve
Strategies for addressing math difficulties
does this make sense> why/why not?
D-discover sign
R-read the problem
A-answer/draw and check
W-write answer
-Word problems
State question
ID operation
Eliminate extra
steps involved
check work
Core Symptoms of ADHD
6+ symptoms, <6 months, maladaptive and inconsis with dev
before age 7
2+settings, sig impairment in school/work
not bc of some other condition
3 Types of ADHA
Inattention- only A1
Hyperactivity-Impulsivity- only A2
Combined- A1 and A2 met
Common features of students with ADHD
talking without permission, leaving assigned area, ODD(oppositional/defiant)
low achievement tests, higher risk for: grade retention, dropping out, placement in sped
Social Difficulties-
difficulty developing/maintaining relationships, dont follow convo rules, engage in social situations awkwardly
Class interventions for ADHD
-Environmental procedures
classroom set up
-instructional accommodations
teaching strategies (stop time), way of presenting info/ways students respond
-medical management
strategies they can use themselves, set personal goals
-differentiating instruction
content, management, instruction, materials
Controversy in stimulants for treating ADHD
use of medication increased dramatically, approx 3% of preschool/school age, students overmedicated?
IDEA vs 504
adversely affects education
504- limits life activity
Define and criticize EBD
– inability to maintain satisfactory relationships
what constitues satisfactory?
-inappropriate types of behavior/feelings
what does inappropriate look like?
-doesnt apply to “socially maladjusted”
how to tell difference bw socially maladjusted and emotional disturbance?
–teacher expectations/tolerances make ID difficult and subjective
NMHSEC definition of ADHD
Behavioral or emotional responses different from appropriate age, cultural, or ethnic norms, adversely affect educational performance, including academic, social, vocational, or personal skills
-includes behav and emotional- can be combo or separate
-school centered, acknowledges it occurs elsewhere
-includes cult/ethnicity differences
Impact of RTI in EBD
require systematic social and academic skills
school-wide system of positive behavior teaches appropriate behavior
proactive strategies to provide a positive, supportive, noncoercive environment promotes prosocial behav and academic achievement
Methods to Assess EBD
-Clinically derived
personality oriented methods
Measure personality (how an individual thinks, behaves, and feels across situations and over time)
Rely on self-reporting, which can be more or less reliable

-Statistically derived
Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL)
Rating scales
Direct observation and measurement of behavior

Maj Characteristics of EBD
-difficult est/maintaining relationships
-social skills deficits
Prevalence of EBD
underidentified and underserved
A and N Americans overrepresented
>75% male
Externalizing Behavior Problems
lack self control/regulation
rule breaking
Internalizing Behavioral Problems
social withdrawal
eating disorders
Ethic/Gender difference in Suicide
4x more males complete
3x more females try
more white than AA
NA has highest
Warning Signs of Suicide Attempt
previous attempts
talking about
alcohol/drug abuse
giving away possessions
Curric goals for EBD
cooperation skills, appropriate ways of expressing feelings
-academic skills
high Active Student Response, direct instruction, teacher praise
-behav management
school-wide expectations, positive proactive class management
self monitoring/evaluation
Key Interventions for EBD
guided by FBA, consider difficulty, instruct modificatoins, learnign strategies, provide choices
token economy- reward appropriate behav, ignore inapprop, model skills, opportunities for them to practice, feedback/reinforcement, alternative behaviors
Corporal Punishment in EBD
Punishment, especially corporal should be avoided
restraint only by trained personel
Behav I see as most difficult
–power struggles
*token economy
*positive feedback
*dont overreact, positive model for students

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