Exam 2

Academic Freedom
to teach without coercion, censorship, or other restrictive interference.
Negligence
Whether a reasonable person with similar training would act in the same way; Whether or not the teacher could have foreseen the possibility of an injury.
Brevity
Work can be reproduced if it is not overly long.
Fair Use
a legal principle that allows limited use of copyrighted materials
Child Abuse
includes a range of mistreatments, including physical, emotional, and sexual harm
Ability Grouping

sorts students based on capability, and year to year testing to determine groupings but the groupings may well vary by subject

Sociogram
provides insight into the social life of a class
Latchkey

Are children who carry a key on a cord or chain around their necks to unlock their house door

 

Youth Suicide

most people at risk are:

  1. substance abusers
  2. teens questioning their sexuality
  3. and girls who have been physically or sexually abused

 

Cumulative Effect
The total number of works reproduced without permission for class distribution must not exceed nine instances per class per semester
Copyright Act (PL 553)
stopped teachers right to freely reproduce and distribute published works without asking the publisher for use of it
Misfeasance
failure to conduct in an appropriate manner an act that might otherwise have been lawfully performed
Nonfeasance

Failure to perform an act that one has a duty to perform

Malfeasance
An act that cannot be done lawfully no matter how it is performed
Educational Malpractice

known as academies damage, a new experimental line of litigation concerned with assessing liability for students who graduate from school without fundamental skills

 

Spontaneity

If a teacher has an inspiration to use the published work and there is not enough time to contact and receive written permission for the work, then it is allowed to be reproduced

Liability Precautions
teacher made a reasonable attempt to anticipate a dangerous situation, teacher provided proper supervision, teacher took precautions, teacher established rules, and teacher gave warnings
Engle vs. Vitale (1962)

an official organized prayer in school is not permitted:

  1. Local school board composed a prayer is recited aloud every day by each class
  2.   Students who didn’t want to recite the prayer could be silent or leave the room
  3. Occurred in New York

Goss vs. Lopez (1975)
School officials must present a student with charges before suspending them and provide them an opportunity to defend themselves. The Supreme Court also found that corporal punishment such as paddling is not cruel and unusual punishment and does not deprive the students of their rights
Values Clarification

a program that is designed to help students develop and eventually act on their values

Carol Gilligan
found that women and men react differently when responding to moral dilemmas
Gatekeeping
teachers determining who will talk, when, for how long, as well as the direction of the communication
John Goodland
founder of a fair degree so consistency in how time is spent in class throughout the grades
Comprehensive Values Education

 

when traditional such as honesty, caring, and responsibility are taught and demonstrated directly

Buckley Amendment (1974)
allows parents and guardians access to their children’s educational records; requires that school districts inform parents of this right and establish a procedure for providing educational records on request
Due Process (Goldberg vs. Kelly)

(car argument); the procedural requirements that must be followed in such areas as student and teacher discipline and placement in special education programs

;

1.;; a notice of charge or actions to be taken

2.; the opportunity to be heard

3.; The right to a defense that reflects the particular circumstances and nature of the case

;

Tinker vs. Des Moines (1969)

;a school board cannot deprive a student of their First Amendment right to freedom of speech; as long as there is no substantial disruption in the school caused by that student

;

Unremarked Revolution

A persistent change by the end of the 1990s only 15% of schools had official tracking policies, down from 93% in 1965

Tracking

The term given to the process when educators believe students learn better with other students that are like them, in a homogenous classroom

;

Detrack
eliminate tracking practices in the nation;s schools
Alternative Families

Fmily lifestyles other than a male and female living with their children:

;;;;; They also can consist of single moms or dads with children

;;;;; Biological parents who aren’t married

·     Relatives or friends acting as child guardians

·     Same sex couples sharing parenting roles

·     Non-married couples living as families

·     Or serial relationships with continually changing parents

Zero Tolerance Policy

typically sets out predetermined consequences or punishment for specific offenses, regardless of the circumstances or disciplinary history of the student involved

 

 

 

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