Exam 1

“Students with intellectual disabilities.”
Do Say
“Mentally retarded students”
Dont say
1975: PL 94-142 Education for Individuals with Disabilities Act

First law to protect those woth disabilities in education


Free and appropriate public education (FAPE): Everyone has the free education they need avalible


Least restrictive enviornment (LRE): students of disability have the right to be educatated alongside their nondisabiled peers to the fullest extent possible

appproaches to support students as they access general education

Universal design for learning (UDL)

assistive technology

differentiated instruction

systematic application of increasingly intensive supports

Universal design for learning (UDL)

a way to help all students approach the general education curriculum in nonstandard ways


Key features:

creates alternatives that are open to all students

is part of the standard delivery of instruction

includes multiple and flexible options


Technology is often at the heart of UDL

(electronic books, enlarged print)

Differentiated instruction
using various instructional methods that match various learning needs, preferences, and styles

Differenciated Instruction is accommplished in 4 ways:


Instructional activities: different types of instruction provided in small groups

instructional content: chunking lesson’s content into small amounts of information

Instructional delivery: flexible groupings, different pacing

Instructional Materials: fewer practice items, graphic organizers, manipulatives


simple changes in elements that do not change the standard or outcome of learning


example: enlarged text, word processing, an interpreter

When accomidations are insufficient; assignments and tests are reduced or altered; modifications change or alter the standards for learning
Alterniatives and ways to deliever special education services include:

pull-in programs

co-teaching: two teachers working together in a classroom delivering instruction together

consulting teacher


Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP)

evaluated every 6 months

for younger kids

The purpose of an IEP program is to ensure that each of these individuals:

recieves FAPE

is provided an education in the LRE

is specific to the student

is provided services with the expectation of outstanding results

IEP Team includes:

at least one general education teacher

at least one special education or related service provider

a respresentative of the school distict

someone to inerpret the assessment results

a parent

the student (if appropriate)

Other people whom the students invite


serves students with disabilities ages 3 to 21

assures an individualized program

is evaluated annually

meets all of a student’s needs

availibility of services does not determine whether they are included on IEP

IEP must be individually determined

includes the communication of contents to everyone who needs the information

3 components of diversity

cultural diversity: students whose backgrounds differ from mainstream American society

linguistic diversity: students whose native lanuage at home is not english

Diversity and disability: students of cultural and lingustic diversity can face additional challenges that negativly affect school success

overrepresentation and misidentification key factors:

bias and negative attitudes

inconsistency of educational programs

non-responsiveness to differences of language and culture

poor schools


language disorder
the general guideline is that the impairment occurs in both english and the child’s dominent language
Basic Interpersonal Conversation Skills (BICS):

conversational english

2-3 years to develope

Cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP):

classroom english (academic vocabulary)

5-7 years to develope


school personnel with different areas of expertise working together to respond to the unique needs of a student
the process of exchanging knowledge, ideas, opinions, and feelings through the use of verbal or nonverable language
a rule-based method of communicating ideas and information involving the comprehension and use of signs and symbols
the vocal production of language
speech impairments include:

voice problems

articcularion problems

fluency or stuttering problems

language impairments include:

form (rule systems): phonology, morphology, syntax

content (semantics): intent and meaning

use (pragmatics): understanding of an objects purpose of function

Assessment of impairment:

early Identification




assessment of impairment: early identification


crucial to avoid development of learning disabilities

assessment of impairment: pre-referral


speech-language pathologists (SLP) play a vital role in assisting teachers with interventions and instructional procedures that can help determine if special education services are provided
assessment of impairment: identification
multiple assessments (developmental milestones, learning, family questionnaires, formal observations)
assessment of impairment: evaluation
diagnosis of language impairment; balanced assessments include parent/staff interviews, student history, checklists and developmental scales, portfolio assessments, observations, and standardized tests
Key elements to create supportive enviornments

Match language with the comprehension abilities of students

Be responsive to students’ language needs by modifying, adjusting, or supplementing instruction

Supply relevent examples for students

Provide multiple examples to explain concepts

Use specific referents (ex: instead of “open your books” say “open your geology book to page 36”)

Avoid indirect expressions (Ex: instead of “do you get it?” say “Do you understand how to complete the worksheet?”)


Give explicit instruction: direct-language instruction is beneficial for students with and without disabilities

Learning disabilities
A condition of unexpected underachievement; academic performance is significantly lower than would be predicted.

4-5% of all students
largest group of students with disabilities served in special ed
federal term: specific learning disability

Characteristics of learning disabilities:
-unexpected underachievement
-lack of motivation or poor attribution
-attention deficits
-inability to generalize
-faulty information processing
-insufficient problem solving strategies
-in some cases, learned helplessness and inactivity in the learning process
-poor language and or cognitive development
Negative Attributions
Frustration and failure in school can negatively affect students’ motivation and convince them there is nothing they can do to be successful (Learned helplessness)
Non-strategic approaches to learning
students struggle with paying attention to the important features of a learning task
Inability to generalize
students are unable to transfer learning from one situation to another
faulty information processing
students may have difficulty with in input, output, or processing of information
The power and importance of providing explicit instruction as soon as students begin to struggle…
are supported by key findings
students who fail to acquire core skills of reading soon after entering school…
become poor readers
Students who have completed first grade without mastering phonological awareness…
tend to be poor readers in fourth grade
struggling readers in third grade…
tend to be poor readers in 9th grade
struggling readers do not…
catch up by themselves
early and intensive explicit instruction can…
help struggling readers
graphic organizer
validated practice that includes visual aids to help students organize, understand, and remember academic content
Learning disabilities are usually identified in what grade?
3rd grade
examples of test accommodations
test read to you, extended time, different setting, enlarged text
examples of test modifications
less questions, different version of test, alternative assignment
challenges and barriers
condition or impairment
Assistive technology can:
-augment and individuals strengths
-compensate for the effects of disabilities
-provide alternative modes of performing tasks
Software exists that:
-helps students take notes and create graphic organizers
-recognizes and reads text to students
-word processing programs help with spelling, definitions, and grammar
Continuum of service
IDEA ’04 reinforced that this is necessary
Physical therapist
oral therapist
Attribution training
learned helplessness?
Due Process
One benefit that IDEA provides for family members includes procedures to follow when they do not agree with schools about the education planned for or being delivered to their children.
Special education is based on the fundamental premise of
Civil rights
the education for all handicapped children act
the first law guaranteeing the rights of students with disabilities to a free appropriate public education
According to IDEA what category is ADHD classified under?
other health impairments
The disability LEAST prevalent among American schoolchildren
if a student is receiving services to address articulation and fluency problems they fall under this category of IDEA
speech or language impairment
Community based instruction
students receive on the job training, practice riding public transportation, and learn about home management activities
in order for a bling student to graduate with a regular diploma, school professionals need to ensure that the student as access to…
The general education curriculum
examples of multitiered instruction
PBS, positive behavior support, and RTI, response to intervention, are examples of this
PBS(Positive behavior support)
if a student is displaying aggressive behavior towards his classmates this type of approach will work towards eliminating challenging behaviors and replacing them with prosocial skills
making decisions, choosing preferences and exercising self-advocacy needed for independent living
Developmental delay
The condition of a child being less developed mentally or physically than normal for same-age peers
The MOST prevalent disability among American schoolchildren
specific learning disability
cultural dissonance
a mismatch of home and school cultures
the self-explanations about the reasons for one’s success or failure

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