Educational Theories

Adult Learning Theory creator
K. P. Cross
Adult Learning Theory year of creation
1981
Which theoretical frameworks were integrated together for adult learning theory?
Andragogy, Experiential Learning, Lifespan Psychology
The Characteristics of Adults as Learners (CAL) Model for Adult Learning Theory consists of what two classes of variables?
Personal characteristics and situational characteristics.
For Adult Learning Theory, personal characteristics consist of? (Explain how these characteristics change over the lifetime)
Aging: deterioration of sensory-motor abilties (e.g. eyesight, hearing, reaction time) increases intelligence abilities (decision-making, reasoning, vocabulary), life phases and developmental stages: series of transitions (e.g. marriage, job changes, retirement)
For Adult Learning Theory, situational characteristics consist of?
Part-time vs. Full-time learning (pertains to schedules, locations, procedures), and voluntary vs. compulsory learning (pertains to self-directed, problem-centered nature of most adult learning).
What is the basic idea of Adult Learning Theory?
This learning theory describes various characteristics that may affect learning as an adult from personal to situational factors that may impeded or assist in learning.
Which program is adult learning theory geared to?
Adult educational programs.
What are the four principles of Adult Learning Theory
1. Should capitalize on the experience of participants
2. Should adapt to the aging limitations of participants
3. Adults should be challenged to move to increasingly advanced stages of personal development
4. Adults should have as much choice as possible in the availability and organization of learning programs
Andragogy creator
Malcolm Knowles
Basic idea of Andragogy
Theory for adult learning, emphasizes that adults are self-directed and expect to take responsibility for decisions and programs must accommodate this.

Instruction for adults needs to focus more on the process and less on the content being taught.

What assumptions does Andragogy make about the design of learning?
1. Adults need to know why they need to learn something
2. Adults need to learn experientially
3. Adults approach learning as problem-solving
4. Adults learn best when the topic is of immediate value
What are some examples of ways to teach using andragogy theory?
Case studies, role playing, simulations, self-evaluation
What is the instructors role for andragogy?
Facilitator or resource rather than lecturer or grader
What are the principles of andragogy?
1. Adults need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of their instruction
2. Experience (including mistakes) provides the basis for learning activities
3. Adults are most interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance to their job or personal life
4. Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented
Who created experiential learning theory?
Carl Rogers
What is the basic idea of Experiential Learning?
Experiential learning addresses the needs and wants of the learner.
What are the main qualities of experiential learning?
Personal involvement, self-initiated, evaluated by learner, pervasive effects on learner.
What is the role of the teacher in experiential learning?
To facilitate learning by:

1. Setting a positive climate for learning
2. Clarifying the purposes of the learners
3. Organizing and making available learning resources
4. Balancing intellectual and emotional components of learning
5. Sharing feelings and thoughts with learners but not dominating

How is learning facilitated in experiential learning?
1. The student participates completely in the learning process and has control over its nature and direction
2. Is primarily based upon direct confrontation with practical, social, personal or research problems
3. self-evaluation is the principal method of assessing progress or success
What are the principles of Experiential Learning?
1. Significant learning takes place when the subject matter is relevant to the personal interests of the student
2. Learning which is threatening to the self (e.g. new attitudes or perspectives) are more easily assimilated when external threats are at a minimum
3. Learning proceeds faster when the threat to the self is low
4. Self-initiated learning is the most lasting and pervasive
Information Processing Theory creator?
George A. Miller
What are the two concepts of Information Processing Theory?
Chunking – given the limited capacity of short term memory, one must group together meaningful chunks of information

TOTE (Test-Operate-Test-Exit) – goal is tested to see if it is achieved and if not the operation conducted to achieve the goal. Repeat till achieved or given up.

What are the basic principles of Information Processing Theory?
1. Short term memory (or attention span) is limited to seven chunks of information.
2. Planning (in the form of TOTE units) is a fundamental cognitive process
3. Behavior is hierarchically organized (e.g. chunks, TOTE units)
Multiple Intelligence creator?
Howard Gardner
What is the basic idea of Multiple Intelligence Theory?
There are a number of distinct forms of intelligence that each individual possess to varying degrees. The learning/teaching should focus on the particular intelligences of each person. Each culture also tends to emphasize particular intelligences.
What are the seven primary forms of intelligence identified in the Multiple Intelligence Theory?
Linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, body-kinesthetic, intrapersonal and interpersonal.
What are the basic principles of Multiple Intelligence Theory?
1. Individuals should be encouraged to use their preferred intelligences in learning.
2. Instructional activities should appeal to different forms of intelligence
3. Assessment of learning should measure multiple forms of intelligence
Script Theory creator?
R. Schank
What is the basic idea of Script Theory?
Using episodic memory to learn. Events are understood in terms of scripts, plans and other knowledge structures as well as previous experiences. Concepts in these events use representations within the scripts.
When is script theory most often used?
Primarily intended to explain language processing and higher thinking skills.
What are the basic principles for Script Theory?
1. Conceptualization is defined as an act or doing something to an object in a direction.
2. All conceptualizations can be analyzed in terms of a small number of primitive acts.
3. All memory is episodic and organized in terms of scripts.
4. Scripts allow individuals to make inferences and hence understand verbal/written discourse.
5. Higher level expectations are created by goals and plans.
Situated Learning creator?
J. Lave
Basic idea of Situated Learning?
Learning normally occurs as a function of activity, context and culture in which it situated in. Social interaction is a critical component – involved in community practice.
What is cognitive apprenticeship according to Situated Learning?
It supports learning in a domain by enabling students to acqure, develop and use cognitive tools to authentic domain activity. Learning both outside and inside school, advances through collaborative social interaction and the social construction of knowledge
What are the principles of Situated Learning?
1. Knowledge needs to be presented in an authentic context, i.e. settings and applications that would normally involve that knowledge.
2. Learning requires social interaction and collaboration.
Social Learning Theory creator?
Albert Bandura
What is the basic idea of Social Learning Theory?
Emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions.
What are the main components of observational learning according to social learning theory?
1. Attention, including modeled events (distinctiveness, affective valence, complexity, prevalence, functional value) and observer chracteristics (sensory capacities, arousal level, perceptual set, past reinforcement)
2. Retention, including symbolic coding, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal
3. Motor reproduction including physical capabilities, self-observation of reproduction, accuracy of feedback
4. Motivation including external, vicarious and self reinforcement.
What are the basic principles to Social Learning Theory?
1. The highest level of observational learning is achieved by first organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior symbolically and then enacting it overtly. Coding modeled behavior into words, labels or images results in better retention than simply observing.
2. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it results in outcomes they value.
3. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if the model is similar to the observer and has admired status and the behavior has functional value.
Attribution Theory creator?
B. Weiner
What is the basic idea behind Attribution Theory?
It is mainly concerned with how individuals interpret events and how this relates to their thinking and behavior.
What is the three-stage process that underlies attribution?
1. The person must perceive or observe the behavior
2. The person must believe that the behavior was intentionally performed.
3. The person must determine if they believe the other person was forced to perform the behavior or not
What factors affect attributions for achievement according to the Attribution Theory?
Ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck
What are the three casual dimensions for Attribution Theory?
Locus of control (internal and external), stability (whether causes change over time) and controllability (causes one can control and not control).
What are the basic Principles of Attribution Theory?
1. Attribution is a three stage process: 1. Behavior is observed 2. behavior is determined to be deliberate 3. Behavior attributed to internal or external causes

2. Achievement can be attributed to: 1. Effort 2. Ability 3. Level of task difficulty 4. Luck

3. Casual dimensions of behavior are 1. Locus of Control 2. Stability 3. Controllability

Cognitive Dissonance creator?
Leon Festinger
What is the basic idea of cognitive dissonance theory?
Tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their cognitions (i.e. beliefs, opinions). When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors (dissonance), something must change to eliminate the dissonance.
What two factors affect the strength of dissonance according to Cognitive Dissonance?
The number of beliefs and the importance attached to each belief.
What three ways can you eliminate dissonance?
1. Reduce the importance of dissonant beliefs
2. Add more consonant beliefs that outweigh the dissonance beliefs
3. Change the dissonant beliefs so that they are no longer inconsistent.
What are the basic principles of Cognitive Dissonance?
1. Dissonance results when an individual must choose between attitudes and behaviors that are contradictory
2. Dissonance can be eliminated by reducing the importance of the conflicting beliefs, acquiring new beliefs that change the balance, or removing the conflicting attitude or behavior.
Constructivist Theory creator?
Jerome Bruner
What is the major idea behind Constructivist Theory?
Learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge Learner transforms info, constructs hypotheses and makes decision relying on a cognitive structure (schema, mental models)
Instruction should address what 4 aspects according to Constructivist Theory?
1. predisposition towards learning
2. the ways in which a body of knowledge can be structured so that it can be most readily grasped by the learner
3. the most effective sequences in which to present material
4. the nature and pacing of rewards and punishmnets
What are the basic principles of Constructivist Theory?
1. Instruction must be concerned with the experiences and contexts that make the student willing and able to learn (readiness)
2. Instruction must be structured so that it can be easily grasped by the student (spiral organization)
3. Instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation and or fill in the gaps (going beyond the information given)
Transformational theory creator?
Jack Mezirow
What is the basic idea behind Transformational Learning Theory?
Constructivist, an orientation which holds that the way learners interpret and reinterpret their sense experience is, central to making meaning and hence learning.

Involves meaning structures (perspectives and schemes)

What two types of learning are involved in Transformative Learning?
Instrumental (learning through task-oriented problem solving and determination of cause and effect relationships.

Communicative (involves how individuals communicate their feelings, needs and desires)

What are the basic principles of Transformative Theory?
1. Adult exhibit two kinds of learning: instrumental (e.g. cause and effect) and communicative (e.g. feelings)
2. Learning involves change to meaning structures (perspective and schemes)
3. Change to meaning structures occurs through reflection about content, process or premises.
4. Learning can involve: refining/elaborating meaning schemes, learning new schemes, transforming schemes, or transforming perspectives.

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