Educational Psychology Exam 2

Piaget
stages of development, culturally invariant, qualitative change in cognition

development precedes learning

Accommodation
existing schemes or operations must be modified to account for a new experience
Animism
endow inanimate objects with human qualities
Assimilation
put what we experience into our existing scheme
Circular reactions
repitition of an action that produces pleasant stimulation (sensorimotor)
Computational Analysis
automatization
feedback mechanism
self-monitoring
Computational Model
assumes that with additional experience, the cognitive system modifies itself to reflect increasingly abstract rules
Concrete Operational Period
7 to 11 years

performs true mental operations (Conservation, reversibility) and sovles concrete problems in a logical fashion
has difficulty thinking hypothetically and systematically considering all aspects of a problem

Conservation of
quantity/number
mass/volume/density
start with number, then mass and volume density is last
Deduction
logic
Egocentrism
focused on self
Equilibration
master developmental process encompassing both accommodation and assimilation

motivation from disequilibrium

Formal Operational Period
11 years +

solves abstract problems in systematic and logical fashion
reasons hypothetically and often develops concerns over social issues

Framework Theory
initial mental models are probably incorrect, they must change over time to become more accurate representatinos
Induction
generalize about scenarios
Internalization
preoperational

makes experiences internal to self

Logical-Mathematical Knowledge
abstract and must be invented

comes from actions on objects

Mental Combinations
two dimensions at a time
Negogation
metathinking about questions
Neo-Piagetian
consistent with two basic assumptions of Piaget:

children think about any particular topic in only one way at most points in development

a major goal of deveopmental theory should be identifying the way of thinking used by children at particular stages

Object constancy or permanance
knows the object is there even if they can’t see it
Operational Thinking
concrete operational

ability to hold an idea in one’s head while problem solving

Physical Knowledge
(empirical knowledge)

Knowledge about objects in the world, which can be gained through their perceptual properties

Preoperational Period
2 to 7 years

acquires the semiotic function
engages in symbolic play and language games
difficulty seeing another person’s point of view
thought and communication are egocentric
reason from a focus on one perceptual dimension on problems

Propositional logic
if then logic
Pseudoconcepts
real (adult) concepts are used, but they don’t understand the meanings
Reflex
mechanical response to stimuli
Reversible Thinking
concrete operational

volume of air breathe out= volume breathed in

Scheme
units of generalized behavior that provide the basis for mental operations

schema is a passive mode of organization whereas SCHEME is an active mode of organization

Siegler overlapping waves theory
each stage of development isn’t discreet and it doesn’t have a clean cut from the next.

the rate of change tends to be gradual, and children continue old approaches long after new, more sophisticated approaches become part of their toolkit

sensorimotor period
birth to 2 years PERCEPTION

modifies reflexes to make them more adaptive
becomes goal-directed in behavior, moving from concrete to abstract
begins to mentally represent objects and events

seriation
sorting of objects due to a criterion
social knowledge
culture-specific and can be learned only from other people within one’s cultural group

learned from interactions with other people

thinking hypothetically
deducing things, looking to the future
transductive logic
According to Jean Piaget’s theories on cognitive development, transductive reasoning is the primary form of reasoning used during the preoperational stage of development. This stage occurs approximately from the ages of 2-7. Transductive reasoning employs the following reasoning: “If A causes B today, then A always causes B.”
transitivity
If A>B and B>C, then A>C.
aptitude treatment interactions
students with different aptitudes respond differently to different types of instruction
big 5 personality traits
Openness to experiences
Conscientious
Extroversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism

Want somewhere in the middle instead of one or the other

crystallized intelligence
declarative knowledge

may be a product of fluid knowledge, automaticity, stable and increases with age, content knowledge specific to domains,

fluid intelligence
how we think changes

problem-solving
genearl ability to apply to new situations
efficiency in new domains
decreases with age

general intelligence
ability to learn quickly
complexity in problems
adapt to new situations
accummulation of new knowledge
IQ
mental age
interests
enduring traits= not totally stable, but close

preferences for certain activities, hobbies, jobs

semiotic function
able to mentally represent objects and events (evidenced by imitation in play)
personality
enduring tendencies to behave in certain ways
specific intelligence
verbal comprehension
word fluency
number facility
spacial visualization
associative memory
perceptual speed
reasoning
Bruner
inside-out versus outside-in
Vygotsky
learner can do alone what they previously needed support to do
Actual Development
takes culture into account
Concept attainment
learners acquire concepts by setting forth hypthoeses and testing them
constructivist conditions for learning
1. complex, realistic, relevant environments
2. social negotiation
3. multiple perspectives
4. ownership in learning
5. self-awareness of the knowledge construction process
constructivist learning goals
retention, understanding and active use of knowledge and skills
discovery learning
piaget no constraints, just supply the environment

all forms of obtaining knowledge for oneself with one’s own mind

enactive representations
mode of representing past events through motor responses
iconic representations
summarize events by the selective organization of percepts and images
inside out
takes what internal concepts they have and impose them on experiences
interpretivist
lots of ideas are viable
interpsychological plane
from environment into self
intrapsychological plane
within self, internalizes
learner-centered instruction
based on learners
learner-centered principles
diversity, cognitive and metacognitive, motivational, social
mediational view
individual actively modifies the stimulus as a part of the process of responding to it
multiple perspectives
learn to classify and differentiate
narrative thinking
tell story to affirm connections with family members
outside in
takes experiences and imposes them on internal concepts
ownership
autonomy
potential development
ZPD, what they can do with supports
scaffolding
big goal into little steps
self-awareness
metathinking
social negotiation
learners test their own ideas with their peers
spiral curriculum
symbolic representation
a symbol system represents things by design features that include remoteness and arbitrariness
teacher-centered instruction
based on teacher
viability
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the higher level with supports
Erikson
8 stages of development, each stage has critical moment and if society deals with it correctly, they get the right balance of + and –
8 stages of development (crisis, age)
trust v mistrust: hope
autonomy v shame and doubt: will
initiative v. guilt: purpose
industry v. inferiority: competence
identity v. role confusion: identity/fidelity
intimacy v. isolation: love
generativity v. stagnation: need to be needed
ego integrity v. despair: wisdom
identity achievement
make choices and experiencing them
identity diffusion
no firm direction
identity foreclosure
don’t experiment, but commit to goals
moratorium
delay in commitment to choices
Advance organizer
anchored instruction
apprenticeship
case studies
case-based learning
cognitive apprenticeship
concept attainment
concept map
cooperative/collaborative learning
demonstration
direct instruction/teaching
discussion groups
drill
goal-based scenario
guided discovery
inquiry teaching
jigsaw
journaling
learning centers/modules/stations
lecture
modeling
portfolio
problem-based learning
reciprocal teaching
role play
service learning
simulation
socratic thinking
SQ3R
types of teacher questions
webquest
KWL
Affordance
the impact of an environment on an organism’s behavior, or how it lives in the environment (scripts)
authentic activity
recognize affordances from one context to another
boundary
in two contexts, but working at both. brokers between
community of practice
what others do affects you in the community

Practice fields: aren’t real, but a contrived learning opportunity, try to make authentic as possible

conceptual knowledge
knowledge of ideas
distributed cognition
everyday cognition
inbound
invested and headed towards participation in a community
insider
you’ve gotten into the community
learning community
what others do affects you
affords learning
legitimate peripheral participation
can participate outside a community and have it be valuable
mutually negotiated goal
community of practice has these
outbound
leaving community
peripheral
always excluded from a community
semiosis
mediating

there are objects in the world, but our knowledge is based on our perceptions/experiences

unit of analysis
neuron
building blocks of brain, uses electrical and chemical signaling to transmit and receive information
dendrite
fingers of neuron, receives signal from axon
axon
arm of neuron, transmits info from neuron cell body to dendrites of other neuron
synapse
connection between dendrite and axon-not touching, but can transfer things/info via chemicals
cell assembly
network of neurons (rather than a single one) contributes to knowledge/memory
cerebral cortex
motor, sensory

outer layer

frontal lobe
planning and execution of behavior

last to develop, front

occipital lobe
Vision

first to develop, back

parietal lobe
attention

crown

temporal lobe
auditory learning

on sides: ear muffs

hippocampus
learning and memory: makes new memories, but does not store them

stress kills cells in hippocampus

attention
Types of attention neurons/synapses are distributed
types of memory
types of memory look the same in the brain but they’re in different places

No “Grandmother cell”

language
different pieces of language distributed across brain

L brain, frontal brain

critical/sensitive periods
The times when someone can learn a particular task/skill is not set in stone, rather, there are particular times in development that people are more likely to have an easier time

window of opportunity

experience expectant
genetically programmed to be sensitive to particular stimuli: must be experience for these to develop
experience dependent
get connections through experiences (multi-purpose neurons)

Not genetically predetermined

plasticity
connections/knowledge is plyable or changeable

However, the amount to which you can learn or change your ideas decreases with age.

synapotgenesis
mylination
thicker and thicker fatty coating on connections when they are strengthened. the thicker the mylination, the quicker the response

rubber on outside of wiring

modularity
There are distinct types of knowledge/skills in the brain and they are correlated in specific places in the brain
7 (+2) intelligences
Musical
Bodily-Kinesthetic
Logical-Mathematical
Spatial
Linguistic
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal

Two more: naturalist and existential

complex environments
links plasticity and synaptic changes
neuroscience tools
EEG/ERP:different waves mean different activity

CT scan: info about different types of things in the brain… density

PET scan: more blood=more active

fMRI: water for activity. better time and spatial resolution

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