educational psychology

uses/functions of standardized tests
selection and placement
evaluation of progress/effectiveness
program evaluation/school improvement
What is standardized test?
stand procedures for administration, scoring and interpreting, developing

test items tested to norming sample

norm-referenced test
compares individual performance to group norms-average scores obtained from a specific sample in test development
types of norms
class or school, school district, national
criterion-referenced tests
measures the extent to which a student has mastered a specific set of learning objectives- compared to standard of mastery not group
intelligence and aptitude tests
designed to assess general abilities, predict future performance


percentile rank
percent of students in norm group that scored lower that a particular score
grade equivalent
relate students raw score to average scores obtained by norm group–not good
frequency distribution
indicates the number of people who obtain each score or fall into a range of scores
graphic presentation bar graph indicating grequency of scores
normal distribution
normal curve- bell shaped- most common

most scores in meiddle with fewer in tailes

mean, median, mode same at midpoint

2.14, 13.59, 34.13, 34,13, 13.59, 2.14

standard scores
derived scores that are based on their position on the normal curbe- based on st. dev from the mean
how many st. dev from the mean
mean=0, SD=1 z score = x- mean divided by
often for behavior rating scales and clinical scales mean=50, SD=10

multiply zscore by 10 then add 50

mean=100, SD=15
standard nine 1-9

mean=5 SD=2

test reliability
reliability increases with more items

usually expressed as reliability coefficien .00 to 1.-00

.9=high .6= moderate .3= low

degree which there is consistency in the measurement

types of reliability
test retest reliability- correlate scores

alternate form reliability

internal consistency reliability

test validity
the degree to which a test measures or accomplishes what it was supposed to.
types of test validity

construct-motivation, toothbrushing

criterion related-predictive(how well it predicts the thing you said it would) or concurrent( compared with other valid measures)

measurement of error
confidence interval- how confident that we are that score is accurate-scores reported as range

+/- 5 range of 95-100

acting/thinking in ways that are goal-directed and adaptive
psychometric theories
intelligence made up of mental factors- verbal and performance factor
prof. researches intelligence skills
practical problem solving ability

verbal ability

social competence

Spearman (1927)
general factor influences performance on all intellectual tasks

specific factor to a certain task

tests with this usually measure g

Guilford (1967, 1988)
180 factors
6 mental operations
5 contents
6 products
Thurstone (1938)
7 primary mental abilities
1. verbal comprehension
2. verbal fluency
3. number
4. spatial visualization
5. memory
6. reasoning
7. perceptual speed
Catell (1963, 1971)
fluid- inate abilities, born with them regardless of environment

crystallized- learned abilities


IQ tests
Binet and Simon 1905-first in France
Stanford Binet 1916 USA
Weschler scales (1940’s- most widely used

WISC IV kids, WAIS III adult, WPPSI-R kiddies

kids 6-16, standardized
assessing student learning
link objectives and evaluation

to write not to know, to recite not to understand

6 primary puposes of student evaluation
feedback to students and teachers
information to parents and for selection
info for accountability
incentives to increases student effort
formative evaluation
how is student doing
conducted during units of instruction
summative evaluation
how did student do
final test of students knowledge
conducted a conclusion of instruction
nor referenced
criterion referenced-what skills does the student have?

authentic assessment- actually do something
music performance
math problems

absolute vs relative standards for evaluation
regular vs top 7 percent get A’s etc.
categories of disabilities

51 percent specific learning

approx 10 percent of students are exceptional learners

a functional limitation of an individual; not synonomous with handicap
Education for all Handicapped Act
services for all disabled children
children and parents various legal rights

extend to include 3-5 yr olds- IDEA

IDEA key features
zero reject/free appropriate public education

nondiscriminatory assessment and multidisciplinary evaluation team


due process and least restrictive environment

IDEA 1997
age 0-22
role of functional behavioral assessment

MR, hearing, visually, mute, emotional disturbance, preschool handicapped, autistic, speech, orthopedically, OHI, learner disability, TBI

mental retardation
significantly subaverage intelligence- below 78

impairments in adaptive behavior 2 or more areas before age 18

categories of mental retardation
mild- educatable 55-69 basic academics, good vocational diagnosis

moderate- trainable 40-54, focus on self help skills, low level job training, some independence possible

severe/profound- custodial, less than 40, custodial care-basic living skills

learning disabilities
boys and girls 3:1
dysfunction of brain or CNS-
IQ-achievement discrepancy

“wait to fail model”- keep failing

emotional and behavioral disorders
degree of behavior problem
long period of time
poor academics, interpersonal relationships, self esteem
3-5 percent of children more boys then girls
assessment multimethod, multi informant, cause unknown

types- inattentive, hyperactive, combined

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