Educational Psych Midterm

case study
investigates one person in depth
descriptive studies
correlations
positive- as one variable increases, another variable increases
negative- as one variable decreases, another variable increases
descriptive studies
describe a study–no conclusions can be made
differentiated instruction
building accomodations to learner differences to seeing diversity as an array of strengths on which to build
educational psychology
examining how someone teaches something to someone else in a classroom setting and the best ways to do this
experimentation
go beyond predictions and actually study cause and effect
quasi-experimental studies
meet most criteria for true experiments except participants are not randomnly assigned to groups, they are left in preexisting groups like classrooms or grades
single subject experiment
determine the effects of a therapy on someone
teachers sense of efficacy
teachers belief that he or she can reach even difficult students to help them learn
classical conditioning
linking a respoonse to a stimulus to a new stimulus. the learning of an involuntary emotional or physiological response
operant conditioning
increasing or decreasing a voluntary action based on a consequence of the action thats either positive or negative
positive reinforcement
adding a stimulus as a consequence to a favorble action, that makes the action increase
ex. cookie for hard work
negative reinforcement
removing a stimulus as a consequence to a favorable action, that makes the action increase
ex. car seatbelt buzzer
presentation punishment
adding a stimulus as a consequence to an unfavorable action, that makes an action decrease
ex. assigning extra work for forgetting homework
removal punishment
removing a stimulus as a consequence to an unfavorable action, that makes an action decrease
ex. not being allowed to go out because of bad grades
functional behavioral assessment
the process of understanding the “why” behind a problem behavior; antecedents, behavior, consequences.
continuous reinforcement
reinforcement after every response
fixed interval reinforcement
after a set period of time, reinforcement (weekly quiz)
variable-interval reinforcement
rewards presented at varying times (pop quizzes)
fixed ratio reinforcement
rewards presented after certain number of responses (
variable ratio reinforcement
rewards presented after a varying number of responses
similarities btw cognitive and behavioral
both believe reinforcement is essential for learning.
cognitive views of learning
learning is extending and transforming the understanding we already have. construction and acquisition to knowledge, relation to the brain. acquiring, remembering, and using knowledge
behavioral views of learning
differences btw cognitive and behavioral
informational processing
like a computer.
takes in information, performs operations on it to change its form and content, stores information, retreives it when needed, and generates responses to it.
elaborative rehearsal
connecting something youre learning with something you already know… not only helps retain this in short term memory, but also helps engrain it in long term
things such as teaching it to others
maintenance rehearsal
things like mnemonics, just used to store things in short term memory
declarative knowledge
things you can say you know.state capitals etc
procedural knowledge
knowing how to do something, like tying shoes
self regulatory knowledge/ conditional knowledge
knowing how to manage your knowledge, like when to skim reading vs read it all
metacognition
planning monitoring and evaluating. learning about and thinking about the way you learn. essentially our class.
belief perseverance
the tendency to look at only the examples that support a theory and ignore the ones that dont. ex jimmy looking at failing science grades
confirmation bias
seeking evidence tha supports their ideas rather than evidence that contradicts them
transfer
whenever something previously learned influences current learning
construictivism
learners are active in constructing their own knowledge; social interactions are important in this knowledge construction process
triarchic reciprocal casuality
dynamic interplay between 3 kinds of influences: personal, environmental, and behavioral.
personal- goals, attributions, etc
environmental- models, instruction, feedback
behavioral- goal progress, motivation
observational learning
directing attention, encouraging existing behaviors, changing inhibitions, teaching new behaviors and attitudes, and arousing emotions
self efficacy
a persons sense of being able to deal effectively with a particular task
intrinsic motivation
natural human tendency to seek out and conquer challenges as we pursue personal interests and exercise our capabilities
extrinsic motivation
performing a task in order to get reward or avoid punishment
behavioral approaches to motivation
rewards v punishments for motivation
humanistic approaches to motivation
intrinsic, like self actualization, autonomy, etc
cognitive approaches to motivation
behavior is determined by our thinking
social cognitive theories
expectancy times value theory;
sociocultural concepts of motivation
emphasize participation in communities of practice;
maslows hierarchy of needs
deficiency needs- things like survival, saftey, slef esteem
then being needs- intellectual achievement, complex things such as. can never be completely filled

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