Educational Psych Exam #1

Who came up with the Epigenetic Principle?
Erikson
What is the Epigenetic Principle?
States that, in fetal development, certain organs of the body appear at certain specified times and eventually “combine” to form a child. A person’s personality develops in the same way; personality develops as the ego progresses
Who came up with psychosocial crisis?
Erikson
What is a psychosocial crisis?
When personality development occurs as one successfully resolves a series of turning points
When did Erikson believe crisis occurs?
When people feel compelled to adjust to the normal guidelines and expectations that society has for them but not altogether certain they are prepared to carry out those demands fully
What are Erikson’s 8 psychosocial stages?
Trust vs. Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry vs. Inferiority, Identity vs. Role Confusion, Intimacy vs. Isolation, Generatively vs. Stagnation, Integrity vs. Despair
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
(2-3 years old) Focuses on young children learning to trust or mistrust their parents and now exert a degree of independence. Parents and teachers must give children some independence and not be impatient with them
Initiative vs. Guilt
(4-5 years old) If these children are given freedom to explore and experiment and their questions are answered, tendencies toward initiative will be encouraged. Oppositely, they will feel guilty for acting on their own if they are made to feel like a nuisance or their questions have no point
Industry vs. Inferiority
(6-11 years old) This stage is dominated by intellectual curiosity and performance. Students must be praised for trying and encouraged to do things well (industry), or if they are unsuccessful or treated as bothersome (inferiority) results. Children who feel inferior may never learn to enjoy intellectual work
Identity vs. Role Confusion
(12-18 years) Purpose of this role is to prepare adolescents to take a meaningful place in adult society. Role confusion is a danger (has no clear conception of appropriate behavior that others will react to favorably)
Psychosocial moratorium
The result of the pressure of the identity vs. role confusion period. It is a “time out” period during which adolescents take time off from the upcoming responsibilities and obligations of adulthood
What are the 2 processes that Marcia said one’s sense of identity is determined largely by?
Crisis and Commitment
Crisis (Marcia)
Refers to times during adolescence when the individual seems to be actively involved in choosing among alternative occupations and beliefs
Commitment (Marcia)
Refers to the degree of personal investment the individual expresses in an occupation or belief
Identity Diffusion (Marcia)
Not yet experienced. Little serious thought given to occupation, gender, roles or values. Commitment is weak. Ideas are easily changed as a a result of positive and negative feedback. Not self-directed; disorganized, impulsive, low self-esteem, alienated from parents; avoids getting involved in schoolwork and relationships
Identity Foreclosure (Marcia)
Not experienced. May never suffer doubts about identity issues. Commitment is strong. Has accepted and endorsed the values of his or her parents. Close-minded, low-in-anxiety; has difficulty solving problems under stress, feels superior to peers, more dependent on parents
Moratorium (Marcia)
Partially experienced. Has given some thought to identity-related questions. Commitment is weak. Anxious, dissatisfied with school; changes major often, daydreams, engages in intense but short-lived relationships; may temporarily reject parental and societal values
Identity achievement (Marcia)
Fully experienced. Has considered and explored alternative positions regarding occupation, gender roles and values. Commitment is strong. Introspective, more playful, rational and logical. High self-esteem, works effectively under stress. Forms close relationships. Usually last stage to emerge
What does Piaget mean by “scheme”
Schemes are like file folders. As children interact with their environment, parents and teachers, they form organized patterns of behavior or thought. These become the basis for understanding and adapting to the world. New schemes are made as the child’s knowledge base grows
Assimilation (Piaget)
So everything could be put in its place after accommodation
Accommodation (Piaget)
Means a new place for everything
Equilibration (Piaget)
When people are driven to organize their schemes to achieve the best possible adaptation to their environment
What is Piaget’s sensorimotor stage?
Birth to two years. Children develop schemes primarily through sense and motor activities. They recognize permanence of objects not seen
Three barriers to logical thought likely to be found in children who are in Piaget’s pre-operational stage
Perceptual centration (strong tendency to focus attention on only one characteristic of an object or aspect of a problem or event at a time), Irreversibility (young children cannot mentally pour the water from the tall, thin glass back into the short, squat one), Egocentrism (children find it difficult, if not impossible, to take another’s point of view)
Characteristics of concrete operational thinkers (Piaget)
7-11 years old who become less influenced by perceptual contraption, irreversibility and egocentrism. Schemes develop. By age 7 children should be able to explain the water example
Characteristics of formal operational thinkers (Piaget)
Able to generalize and engage in mental trial and error by thinking up hypotheses and testing them in their heads
Egocentrism from Piaget’s perspective
The inability to differentiate between the world as the adolescent thinks it should be and the world as it actually is
Did Vygotsky believe that cognitive development was more strongly influenced by peers or adults?
Children are more influenced by those with more knowledge and conceptual tools handed down to them by those who are more technologically advanced.
What is Vygotsky’s concept of scaffolding?
Helps students answer difficult questions or solve problems by giving them hints or asking leading questions. The purpose of scaffolding is to help students acquire knowledge they would not have learned on their own
What is the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
The difference between what a child can do on his own and what can be accomplished with some assistance
Characteristics of morality constraint (moral realism) as defined by Piaget
Moral thinking of children up to the age of 10. They believe rules are unchangeable and determines extent of guilt by amount of damage
Characteristics of morality of cooperation as defined by Piaget
Thinking of children 11 and older. They are aware of different viewpoints regarding rules and believes rules are flexible
Types of moral reasoning displayed by individuals whom Kohlberg would classify as conventional
The right action is the one that would be carried out by someone whose behavior is likely to please or impress others.
Types of moral reasoning displayed by individuals whom Kohlberg would classify as Post-conventional
Rules needed to maintain the social order should be based not on blind obedience to authority but on mutual agreement. At the same time, the rights of the individual should be protected.
What is educational psychology?
A branch of psychology that is concerned with understanding and improving how students acquire a variety of capabilities through formal instruction in classroom settings. They study how students learn in a classroom
How will learning about educational psychology help you be a better teacher?
Teaching is complex, research that informs teachers, coursework and confidence
Who are the most effective teachers?
The teachers who scored higher grades throughout their classes and performed better during their student teaching
Unsystematic observation
Especially prone to noting only evidence that fits their expectations and ignoring evidence that does not, leading them to false conclusions
What are the strengths of systematic observations?
When studies are done with only one control, it is easier to trace the impact of a given condition. It is a good idea to be objective and to solely base answers off of the research
What does systematic observations or the scientific method involve?
Complete reports of experiments, descriptions of subjects, methods, results and conclusions
Is teaching an art or a science?
It is both. Research and studies are imperative as well as being able to make on-the-spot decisions. Teachers must be creative in their methods
What characteristics describe the art of teaching?
Beliefs, emotions, values and flexibility
What is reflective teaching?
They think about what they do and why. They take a step back and come up with a better plan
What are the attitudes and abilities you need to acquire to become a reflective teacher?
Introspective orientation, open-minded but questioning attitude about educational theories and practices, and the willingness to take responsibility for your decision and actions
Physical characteristics of 3-5 year olds
Extremely active, need frequent rest, large muscles are more developed than hands and fingers, visual perception abilities usually lag behind other aspects of development, eye-hand coordination is still developing, bodies are flexible and resilient, gender differences do not emerge until kindergarten
Social characteristics of 3-5 year olds. What play patters are most prominent among low SES children?
Play patterns vary as a function of social class and gender. More parallel play among low SES children. More cooperative play among middle SES children
Solitary play
Plays alone
Parallel play
plays side by side without taking notice of one another
Cooperative play
play together, coordinate their activities, take turns and work together to achieve a group goal
What is a theory of mind and when does it develop?
Begins to develop at the age of 4. It is the ability to understand others minds and that people have different beliefs. Those beliefs can change when new information is acquired
What aspect of eye development should be taken into account for primary graders?
Children may have difficulty focusing on small print or objects
Physical characteristics of 9-10 year olds
Boys and girls become leaner and stronger. Obesity can become a problem for some children of this age group (have more control over eating habits—more access to junk food), gender differences in motor skill performance is apparent. Period of relative calm and predictability in physical development
Social characteristics of 9-10 year olds
The peer group becomes powerful and begins to replace adults as the major source of behavior standards, • Friendships become more selective and gender based. Chose a best friend, usually of the same sex
Definition of self-esteem
The affective or emotional aspect of self and refers to how we feel about ourselves
Emotional characteristics of 9-10 year olds
Important area of personal and social development for these children is self-concept, self-esteem, or self-image. Self-image is stable during these years. Dramatic changes in self-image occur during middle and high school. Disruptive family relationships, social rejection and school failure may lead to delinquent behavior
Define self-concept
An individual’s beliefs and cognitions regarding his or her self
Effects of early maturation on middle school boys
Growth spurt begins at 12.5 and complete by 16. Early maturing boys are likely to be more popular with peers, have higher self-esteem and have more friends among older peers
Also at an advantage of increased size, increased muscle mass and physical strength
Effects of early maturation on middle school girls
Growth spurt begins at age 10.5 and complete by 14. Early maturing girls are at a disadvantage. Females see only increases in their body weight and in fat deposits. They have lower self-esteem and are less popular
Social characteristics of adolescents in high school
Parents are likely to influence long range plans. Peers influence immediate status. Better relationship with parent, less need to utilize the peer group. Girls experience greater anxiety about friendships than boys
Authoritative
Less peer influence
Authoritarian
More peer influence
Self-efficacy
Belief about the ability to perform a certain task; influences motivation
What are students with a high self-efficacy likely to do?
Choose and perform more challenging tasks, set higher goals, invest more effort, recover more quickly from setbacks
Do predictors of onset of sexual activity vary by gender and race?
Concern and curiosity about sex are almost universal
Which characteristics are juvenile delinquents likely to exhibit?
Disruptive family relationships, social rejection, and school failure
Describe the influence parents or peers have on adolescent behavior (Patterson’s theory)
Problem behavior is a consequence of poor parenting practices interacting with the child’s own aggressive or oppositional temperament
What is Terman’s view of intelligence?
Lewis Terman modified Binet’s original test and came up with the Standford-Binet test. Used a single number to indicate intelligence (IQ)
What is an IQ test?
(Mental age/Chronological Age)x100. Mostly related to school success, not job success, mental status or life satisfaction
According to Spearman, what does intelligence consist of?
G factor and S factor
G-factor (General Intelligence)
Through varying feelings from one individual to another, remains the same for any one individual is respect of all correlated abilities
S-factor (Special Abilities)
Accounted for the differences between score on different tasks. Specific knowledge and abilities that are only used when performing specific tasks
What is the mean and Standard Deviation of an IQ test?
Mean= 100 SD=15
Why do we no longer believe IQ scores are fixed and cannot change? What can we do to change them?
Research indicated that although IQ scores remain relatively stable; however, IQ scores can change with experience, training and instruction
Describe the basic premise of Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences?
Presumed to be independent of one another. An individual would likely exhibit different levels of skill in each of the domains
What are the multiple intelligences? (8)
Logical-mathematical, linguistic, musical, spatial, bodily- kinesthetic, interpersonal (understanding of others), intrapersonal (understanding of self), and naturalist (the ability to notice the characteristics that distinguish one plant, mineral, or animal from another and to create useful classification schemes called taxonomies)
Define Learning Style
Individuals perceive and process information in different ways. How much individuals learn has more to do with whether the educational experience is geared toward their particular style of learning than whether or not they are “smart”
Reflective students
Spend more time collecting information and analyzing its relevance to the solution before offering a response
Impulsive students
Respond quickly with little collection of analysis of information. Has academic consequences
Field-Dependent (Witkin)
One who processes information globally. Less analytical, not attentive to detail, need more explicit instructions when material is disorganized, more socially oriented, more outgoing, respond more to reward and punishment
Field-Independent (Witkin)
Can easily break the field down into its component parts. Pays attention to details, breaks information, notes are more likely to reflect own ideas, have less difficulty with ill-structured material
Does your knowledge on student’s learning style influence your teaching practices? How?
Yes, you should use a variety of instructional methods with focus on different learning styles
Which areas do males tend to outscore females?
Visual-spatial ability, mathematical reasoning, college entrance tests (SAT)
Which areas do females tend to outscore males?
Memory, language use
Why do gender differences in cognition exist?
No one knows for sure. Possibly hormonal differences, differences in brain structure, socialization differences, socialization with peers
Define gender bias
Responding differently to male and females students without having sound educational reasons for doing so. Teachers are peers can be the source of gender bias
How does gender bias affect students?
Course selection (more girls take biology and chemistry, more boys take physics, engineering and calculus), career choices, class participation (loss of voice)
Loss of Voice
Girls are less likely to speak their mind and more likely to say what they thing other people want to hear

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