Education Psychology

Intentional Teacher
-Does Things for a reason
-Knows that the max learning doesn’t happen by chance
-Is purposeful, thoughtful, flexible, without losing sight of goals
-Uses varied instruction methods, experiences, assignments and afffective goals
– Strives to have students achieve both cognitive an affective goals. ;;

What is education psychology?
– The study of learners, learnings, and teaching
– Accumulated knowledge, wisdom, and ;seat of the pants; theory needed to solve the daily problems of teaching
– Research based priniples to use in making good educational decisions
– A common language for discussing teaching experiences. ;;

Education Principle
– The explanation of the relationship between factors, such as the effects of alternative grading system of student motivation.
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What are some other educational principles?
-Independent practice on skill development- If kids read ind. their skill reading will increase
-Reward -; Behavior
– Children with early languag development read better. ;;

Theory
– A set of related principles that explain a broad aspect of learning, behavior, etc.;
– Tie together facts and principles to give us the big picture.
– Interpretations may vary amoung theories
– Application of theories is dependent on many factors such as:
;;; student ability
;;; student interests
;;; development stages
;;; backgrounds
;;; personal experiences;

Research + common sense =
effective teaching
Experiment
Procedures that we use to test a treatment (Set it up so you are testing only one thing)

Laboratory experiment
conditions are highly controlled (done over a brief amount of time and are very artifical)

Randomized field experiments
very controlled, but are done in the ;fields; (Test out reading programs)

;Best Practices;
have had research done to show that they are affective

single case experiments
the effect of a certain treatment on a person or a group
single case experiments
the effect of a certain treatment on a person or a group
correlation studies
relationship between variables
descriptive experiments
subjective
action research

carried out by practioners:

Identify problem

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Test it

Observe it

Evaluate

Start Over;

Development
how people grow, adapt, and change over the course of their lifetimes
physical development
growth
personality development
self-image and self-esteem
socio-emotional development
feelings and ethics
cognitive development
thinking
Language development
communication
continous development
the development occurs in a smooth progression. Grow off of the experiences that one has had.; Emphasis on the environment.;
discontinous development
environment plays a part not in how things are done, but the pace that they are done.

Piaget’s cognitive development

 gradual orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophistocated.

– Intelligence- 

Piaget’s intelligence

how an organism adapts to its environment

;

Piaget’s schemes
mental organizations/ patterns that guide behavior
Piaget’s equilibrium
Balancing schemes and the environment
Piaget’s assimilation
Understanding ne experiences in terms of existing schemes
Piaget’s Constructivism
emphasis on the active role of learns in building understanding of their own reality.;
Piaget stages:

– Sensorimotor

– Preoperational

-Concrete operational

Sensorimotor stage

Piaget

birth to 2 years

using senses to experience the world. Starting to use trial and error. Start to use simple words: mamma, dada, dog, cat, names.

-object permanence: objects exist even if they are out of sight;

Preoperational Stage – Piaget

2-7

when children start to use more symbols, start to name more things. They put together actions and put symbols together. Develop memory together. Play is important. Their thoughs are not very logical.; Their ideas aren’t irreversible 

Preoperational Stage Components:

Conservation

Centration

Reversability 

Intuitive thinking 

Conservation: Certain Properties of and object remain the same regardless of changes in other properties. 

Centration- paying attention to only 1 aspect of an object of situation.  

Reversibility- ability to perform a mental operation and then reverse one’s thinking to return to the starting point.

Intuitive thinking – ability to explain or describe your thinking;

;

Concrete Operational Stage 4 Components:

Egocentrism

Inferred Reality

Seriaton

Transivity;

7-11 yrs.

Egocentrism- everyone sees the world from my perspective and point of view.

Inferred Reality: Seeing things in context of other meanings/ Infer meaning behind what is seen.

Seriation: Arranging things in logical progression

Transiivty-; Infer relationships of 2 objects based on their relationships to a 3rd object.;

Formal Operation
Logical reasoning, a return to egocentrism
Education Implications of Piaget’s theory

– A focus on the process of children’s thinking. Not just its products

-Recognition of the cruical role of children’s self- initiated, active involvement in learning activities

– A de-emphasis on practices aimed at making children adult like in their thinking

-Acceptanceof individula differences in developmental progress

Developmental Appropriate Education
– education with environments, curriculum, matirals and instruction that are suitable for students in terms of their physical and cognitive abilities and their social and emotional needs
Neo- Piagetian and Information
processing view of development
Modifications to Piaget theory that:

– Attempt to overcome his theory’s limitations

-Address problems its critics have identified

-Specific issues identified: Children’s ability to operate at a particular stage depend a great deal on the specific tasks involved.   

Case’s theory
Children progress through stages that reflect the kinds of mental representations they form
Case’s theory difers from piagets in:

ways of processing infro become more complex, but not necesssarily different. 

-developmemtal change is based on the child’s capacity to progress and remember info;

Developmental change is based on:
child’s capacity to progress and remember info

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