Education in Modern Society

Overt Curriculum

the stated or written curriculum

  • the subject matter and the skills to be taught that are usually listed in a teacher’s grade-level curriculum guide

Hidden Curriculum
  • The knowledge, values, attitudes, norms of behavior and beliefs that students acquire in schools that are not part of the formal written curriculum objectives;
  • messages that have moral and social meaning

Extrinsic rewards
  • ex. stars or stickers, which convey the message that learning is something you do to get something else

Intrinsic Rewards
message that learning is motivated by a personal desire to learn or because the subject itself is interesting
Structural Functionalism
  • Sociological theory that describes institutions such as schools as serving the purpose of providing predictable, organized social structures that allow society to function smoothly
  • schools teach strudents the norms of behavior that contribute to maintaining social order

Cultural reproduction
  • element of conflict theory that claims that schools reproduce and transmit the culture of the larger society in the values, norms, and information that they provide to students in classrooms

Conflict Theory
  • the contention that schools socialize students to prepare for and accept the unequal power relations in the larger society and the workplace.
  • Content of curriculum, the teaching approaches teachers use, and the way schools and students are organized reflect the norms and behaviors expected of various social classes
  • idea that the process of school socialization becomes a way for the dominant group to maintain a status quo that reinforces social and political inequities.
    • correspondence between the power relationships in schools and the power relations in the larger societies

Resistance Theory
  • individuals and minority groups can transcend the social messages that the majority or dominant groups in society attempt to convey through their institutions
  • not passive recipients of the social messages
  • don’t accept the assumption that what happens in schools perfectly corresponds with or reporduces the relationship in the larger society

Critical Pedagogy
  • an approach to teaching that engages students in examining underlying social and political conditions of life as they learn literacy and mathmatics skills and academic content.
  • its goal is personal and social liberation

ethical behavior
  • actions guided by particular values and moral standards


beliefs about what is right and important.

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values guide peoples choices and actions.

schools communicate values in everyday classroom life

Code of Ethics
  • collections of rules that are either presumed to be based on universal moral principles or on positive social outcomes

virtues approach
  • an approach to moral education that promotes the direct teaching of a set of values that are presumed to be universal and commonly accepted.
  • teachers help children do the right thing and to be moral

philosophy for children
  • a curriculum developed by Matthew Lipman that teachers children principles of logic and ethics in simple language describing everyday events in their lives

moral development approach
  • approach to moral education looks at students increasing ability to make moral decisions based on growing sophistication in thinking
  • accroding to this approach moral thinking depends on students general cognitive capabilities which teachers can enhance through discussions of moral questions

Values clarification approach

  • a curriculum program that helps children identify and feel proud of their own particular sets of values
  • based on the idea that values are individual and changing
  • it assumes that values are not commonly accepted absolutes but a product of group and even individual experiences and orientations

zero tolerance policy
  • strict enforcement by schools of rules against acts of violence and brining weapons to school without exception
  • consequences may include expulsion and referral to the criminal or juvenile justice system

the willful and repeated exercise of power over another with hostile or malicious intent. bullying can be physical or verbal, direct or indirect and includes behaviors such as ostracism or rumor spreading
Crisis response teams
  • a school team composed of counselors, psychologists, nurses, administrators, and law enforcement officials to deal with potential or actural critical problems such as violent incidents

Philip Jackson
  • argues that school preares children for life beyond the family.
  • classroom share three characteristics that lead inevitably to that denial; crowds, praise, and power.

Robert Dreeben
  • Schools teach social norms that are important to a functional American Society Secondary Socialization
    • non-kin adult-child relationships
    • time-limited school day
    • grade-leveling of students
    • transient teacher-student relationships
    • same-age peer interactions
    • high child-to-adult ratios
  • those characteristics allow schools to teach four norms that distinctly are American-independence, universalism, achievement, and specificity

Paulo Freire
  • devised a method of teaching reading that drew its vocabulary from the everyday lives of Brazilian peasants; words like tenant, plow, and labor
  • it made the formerly illiterate peasants "critically literate" about their political and economic oppression and more effective and confident in expressing their unhappiness to landowners

William Bennett
  • thought that schools should demonstrate, model, and directly teach a constellation of traits that presumably make up a person of "good character."
  • Ex. Fairness, integrity, etc.
  • secretary of education

Matthew Lipman
  • Vietnam war convinced him that may Americans could not think critically or formulate logical arguments. Thought teaching of logic could begin as soon as children were capable of abstract thinking
  • developed philosophy for children which centered on a series of books for children ages eleven and older whose stories stimulated philosophical thinking

Lawrence Kohlberg
  • researched how young people and adults answered questions about justice, human rights, and equality
  • did not think morality is something adults could impose on kids; children make their own moral judgements
  • they react to experiences in our environment with organized though limited by our particular developmental stage
  • equilibration
  • three-level- 6 hierarchy of moral reasoning

Carol Gilligan
  • did research to challenge Kohlberg’s because all his subjects were male
  • showed that female responses to moral dilemmas could not easily be categorized within the hierarchy of thinking that kohlberg has designed
  • females had an abstract concept like justice had no value in itself, what mattered were the real consequences for human beings. women appear hesitant and indecisive, even morally undeveloped because they consider the complexities of relationships, stuck in stage 3

Thomas Lickona
  • advocate of direct systematic teaching of character.
  • children need specific instruction and constant practice in behaving ethically

Alfie Kohn
  • doesnt like direct teaching of character,
  • says that if children are rewarded for being good, they will not become good people but will only be good if they are rewarded

Mary Ann Raywid and Libby Oshiyama
  • said that schools should be smaller, it could have helped in the columbine attack because if they are in a small school they are known and build closer bonds with teachers

Social Characteristics of Classrooms

  • Crowds
  • praise
  • power

crowdedness means that schools have to establish rules, routines, and schedules that make classroom life as fair as possible for everyone
  • at home children are motivated more by inner desire to do something than by external rewards or punishments.
  • at school acceptance is based on a child’s performance of prescribed behaviors. centrality of praise in school means that students are judged and motivated by something outside themselves

final power rests in the hands of the teacher
Appraoches to moral education
  • virtues approach, philosophy for children, moral development approach

Kohlberg’s Hierarchy of Moral Reasoning
  • Pre-convential
    • obedience and punishment
    • instrumentalism and exchange
  • Conventional
    • social approval
    • law and order
  • post-conventional
    • social contract, democracy
    • universal moral principle

obedience and punishment

i will be nice to my sister because my father said i should if im not i will have to go to my room


instrumentalism and exchange
i am nice to my sister because she is nice to me
social approach
being nice to my sister will get me my mothers approval
law and order
helping my sister clean the table after dinner is right because thats the rule in my family
social contract, democracy
even though i don’t want to help my sister with the dishes, i should because everyone in my family needs to help keep the house clean
universal moral principle
its important to be good to by sister because people should be kind
NCLB and religion in schools
  • schools may not forbid students from expressing their personal religious views as long as they do not disrupt the instructional process or harass other students and that schools may not endorse or coerce religious activity through advising or coaching or compelling students to listen to religious speech.
  • they can teach about religion
  • NCLB says that schools have t oallow for school prayer within the boundaries established by the law

Figures on page 414

says that people feeling victimized at school has gone down

9th graders and hispanics are reported the most victimization

current research on bullying
it leads to serious and long-lasting psychological, academic, and physical effects

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