Education 101 Final Exam Review

Existentialism
Helps students find the direction of their life and choose own curriculum
People: A.S. Neill, Maxine Greene
Constructivism
Says that each learner must interpret and reinterpret a constant flow of information and constantly trying to make sense of the world
Behaviorism
Says that human beings are shaped by their environment. Leading advocate is B.F. Skinner
Ethnocentrism
Either the tendency to view one’s own culture superior to others or a failure to consider other cultures at all
Progressivism
Concentrates on the needs of the students and facilitates learning by doing (field trips, activities)
People: John Dewey, Nel Noddings
Essentialism
Teaches the students through core courses in the traditional academic disciplines
People: William Bagley, William Bennett, E.D. Hirsch Jr.
Social Reconstruction
Focus studies on social, political, and economic needs. Learning by reconstructing society
People: George S. Counts, Jane Roland Martin, Paulo Freire, bell hooks
Vocational/personal/academic/social and civic
goals
Vocational: to ready students for workforce (ex job fairs)
Personal: development of individual talent (ex electives)
Academic: broad array of knowledge (ex core curric)
Social/Civic: skills to live in a democratic society(ex volunteer)
Core curriculum
Basic, traditional courses such as math, science, history, literature (no electives)
Normal school
A two-year teacher education institution popular in the nineteenth century, many of which were expanded to become today’s state colleges and universities
Charter schools
Is an alternative way of schooling that doesn’t need to conform to most state rules like the average public school but is publically funded
Magnet schools
A school that provides a method of drawing children away from segregated neighborhood schools while affording unique educational specialties, such as science, math, and the performing arts
Academy
The secondary schools in the United States from 1830 through 1870 that stressed academics and not vocational training
Dame schools
Primary schools in colonial and other early periods in which students were taught by untrained women in the women’s own homes
Franklin Academy
A colonial high school founded by Benjamin Franklin that accepted females as students and promoted a less classical, more practical curriculum
Great Books
Works by history’s finest thinkers. It’s what used and analyzed in Perennialism and the meanings of these works are understood
Education Vouchers
Awarded to the parent or child to enable free choice of a school–public or private–the voucher payment is made to the school that accepts the child
Elementary School
An educational institution that first started as the common school but today has grades 1-5 open to all types of students
Kalamazoo, MI Case
In 1874, the Supreme Court ruled with this case that taxes from the public would fund secondary schools
Old Deluder Satan Law
(1647) Massachusetts colony law requiring towns of fifty families or more of a teacher and that schools be built in towns of one hundred families or more
De facto segregation
The segregation of racial or other groups resulting from circumstances, such as housing patterns, rather than from official policy or law
De jure segregation
The segregation of racial or other groups on the basis of law, policy, or a practice designed to accomplish such separation (ex Plessy vs. Ferguson)
Implicit (hidden) curriculum
Learning that is not always intended but emerges as students are shaped by the school culture and attitudes of the teachers
Null Curriculum
The curriculum that is not taught in schools because it’s thought to be unimportant, controversial, or inappropriate
Secondary School Movement
First secondary schools were private, tuition charging academics mainly for boys and college prep. The Kalamazoo, MI case laid out brickwork for a free high school
Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the six principles that go along
Zero Reject: kids are granted free ed; Least-Restrictive environment: child can be in general classroom; Due process: parents have the right to ask the school to check child w/ special ed; Appropriate Ed: have the right to same ed as regular children; IEP: parents have right to be involved in creating it; Nondiscriminatory ed: fairly assessed
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
The mechanism through which a disabled child’s special needs are identified, objectives and services are described, and evaluation in designed
Affective domain/cognitive domain/physiological domain Learning styles
Affective: level of motivation, ability to overcome frustration, locus if control(external/internal)
Cognitive: perceiving, organizing, and retaining info; auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learning
Physiological: sleep, well-nourished, time of day, temp.
Emotional intelligence quotient (EQ)
Daniel Goleman’s theory, involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ emotions. Seems to be a better predicator of future success then IQ scores
Generalizations (vs. stereotypes)
Generalizations are broad statements that offer clues about a group and allow individual differences, stereotypes are fixed, absolute statements applied to all members of the group
Heteronormativity
Where the world is seen as a normal, heterosexual. Away from all homosexuality (pg 43)
Multiple Intelligences
Created by Howard Gardner, consists of eight spectrums: logical-mathematical, linguistic, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist (pg 44)
Cultural Difference Theory
This theory asserts that academic problems can be overcome if educators study and mediate the cultural gap separating school and home
Deficit Theory
A theory that asserts that the values, language patterns, and behaviors that children from certain racial and ethnic groups bring to school put them at an educational disadvantage (pg 72)
Cultural Pluralism
Acceptance and encouragement of cultural diversity (pg 74)
Expectation Theory
holds that a student’s academic performance can be improved if a teacher’s attitudes and beliefs about that student’s academic potential are modified
Immersion
This bilingual education model teaches students with limited English by using a “sheltered” or simplified English vocabulary, but teaching in English and not in the other language (pg 78)
Maintenance or Developmental Approach
Is designed to help children develop academic skills in both their native language and English (pg 78)
Stereotype Threat
A measure of how social context, such as self-image, trust in others, and a sense of belonging, can influence academic performance
Bilingual Education
Is the use of two languages for instruction
Dominant culture/non dominant culture
The dominant culture in the US is white and middle class while non dominant culture is all of the other ethnic groups: Native Americans, Asians, Hispanic, etc.
Multicultural Education
Expanding the curriculum, using teaching strategies, ensuring and supporting multicultural ability of teachers, a commitment to social justice all in response of diversity
Enculturation/Assimilation
The process of acquiring a culture; a child’s acquisition of the cultural heritage through both formal and informal educational means
AYP
Adequate Yearly Progress is where each state and school is measured annually for progress. And if they fail to make progress for two consecutive years are held accountable and may be closed (pg 231)
No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
Started as the ESEA in 1965, was modified in 2001. Has four components: Annual testing, Academic Improvement (AYP), Report Cards (of schools and district), Faculty Qualifications (highly qualified teachers)
HQT and H.O.U.S.S.E
HQT: Highly Qualified Teacher, holding a bachelor’s degree from a four year college, a state teacher’s license, and shows skill in the subject taught; H.O.U.S.S.E: alternative testing for teachers who were in the profession before NCLB
Authentic Assessment
Alternate evaluation that captures student performance and encourages them to reflect on their own work. It requires that students blend knowledge from different areas. Things like portfolios or journals are made.
pedagogy
The art or science of teaching
Ability grouping vs. tracking
Ability grouping sorts students based on capability but these groups are flexible and can change year from year while tracking permanently labels students (pg 179)
Assertive discipline
Involved with Behaviorism, A behavior modification program developed by Lee and Marlene Canter designed to “catch” and reward students being good
Scaffolding
Involved with Constructivism, when teachers use questions, clues or suggestions that help a student link prior knowledge to the new information
Academic Learning Time
The time a student is actively engaged with the subject matter and experiencing a high success rate (pg 430)
Allocated Time
The amount of time a school or an individual teacher schedules for a subject (pg 430)
Behavior Modification
Involved with Behaviorism, A strategy to alter behavior in a desired direction through the use of rewards
Bloom’s taxonomy
Proceeds from the lowest level of question, knowledge (which can be answered from memory) to the highest level, evaluation (demands more thought) (pg 440-442)
Cooperative Learning
Students working together in small groups, and they receive rewards for overall group performance
“Withitness”
The teacher always being aware of students’ behavior throughout the room at all times (pg 433)
Differentiated Instruction
Instructional activities are organized in response to individual differences rather than content standards. Teachers carefully consider each student’s needs, learning style, life experience, and readiness to learn.
Engaged Time
The part of time that a teacher schedules for a subject in which the students are actively involved with academic subject matter. Listening to a lecture, participating in a class discussion, and working on math problems all are engaged time
Direct Teaching
Where the teacher plays a role of strong leader, six principles: Daily Review, New Material (tell objectives, break down into parts w/examples), Guided Practice, Specific Feedback, Independent Practice, Weekly and monthly reviews (pg 449)
Least Intervention
Not making a mountain out of a molehill, intervening quietly and quickly to inappropriate student behavior
Classroom Organization
Teachers should be able to see all students, Materials and supplies should be available, High-traffic areas should be free of congestion, Procedures should be taught the same way as academic content
Pedagogical Cycle
Structure: Teacher provides info
Question: Teacher asks question
Respond: The student gives a try at the answer
React: The teacher reacts and provides feedback to the answer
Looping
The practice of teaching the same class for several years, over two or even more grades. The purpose is to build stronger teacher-student connections.
Reflective Teaching
When teachers ask themselves questions about the dialogue in classroom events and provoke self-scrutiny (pg 462)
5 Factors research and Beyond 5 (in effective teaching/schools)
Strong Leadership: Principals, Clear school Mission: stress originality and improvement, Safe and Orderly Climate, Monitoring Student Progress: communicates progress to students regularly, High Expectations; Beyond: Pre-K Programs, Focus on Reading/Math, Smaller Classrooms, and Parental Involvement
The Homework Pendulum
1800-1900: homework consumes many hours
1900-1940: hw is de-emphasized
1940-1957: creative, individualized hw given
1957-1967: hw Is given in esp math and science b/c of Sputnik
1968-1982: priority in hw is taken
1982-present: hw increases

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