EDU PSYC Final

Describe the various types of exceptional learners

Learning Disabilities (LD

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Speech and Language Disorders

Mental Retardation (MR)

Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

Visual Impairments

Hearing Impairments

Sensory Disorders

Physical Disorders

Students Who Are Gifted

  1. What are the legal aspects of working with disabled children including IDEA, IEP, LRE and inclusion?

IDEA- guarantees a free public education to all children regardless of disablity.  2004 defines specific learning disability as: “a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include children who have learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.”


IEP- Individualized Education Program.  Anually revised program for an identified student, detailing present achievement level, goals, ans strategies, drawn up by teachers, parents, specialist, and (if possible) the student.


LRE- Least Restrictive enviroment- educating each child with peers in the regular classroom t the greatest extent possible.


Inclusion- the integration of all students, including those with severe disabilities, into regular classes.  




  1. Summarize planning, placement, and services available to children with disabilities from least to most restrictive. (Competencies 1, 9)

IDEA- guarantees a free public education to all children regardless of disablity.  2004 defines specific learning disability as: “a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include children who have learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.”


IEP- Individualized Education Program.  Anually revised program for an identified student, detailing present achievement level, goals, ans strategies, drawn up by teachers, parents, specialist, and (if possible) the student.


LRE- Least Restrictive enviroment- educating each child with peers in the regular classroom t the greatest extent possible.


Inclusion- the integration of all students, including those with severe disabilities, into regular classes.  



  1. Summarize the characteristics of gifted learners including the four methods used for educating children who are gifted learners. (Competency 2)

Precocity

Gifted children seem to learn more effortlessly than other children in one area. Children who are gifted begin to master an area or domain before their peers.

Marching to their own drummer

Many gifted children learn in different way than other children. They seem to require less support from adults than non-gifted children. They make discoveries on their own and can have normal or above normal intelligence.

A passion to master

Gifted children show an intense and obsessive interest in an area. They have an interest in learning all there is to know in a specific area. They do not need to be pushed by their parents in their area of interest.

Some teachers have found that unchallenged students, whether formally diagnosed as gifted or not, can become disruptive, lose interest in achieving and may begin skipping school if they are older. The methods you use in your future classroom to keep students engaged will be very important. The more interested, engaged, and excited about school students are the less challenging behavior you will find.

  1. Describe the characteristics of gifted learners and include one method of educating children who are gifted learners.

learn easily and rapidly and retain what they have learned; use common sense and  practicla knowledgek know about many things that other childrend on’t; use a large number ow words easily and accurately; recognize relations and comprehend meaning, are alert and keenly observant and respond quickly; persistent and highly motivated, creative.  

 

methods- challenge, independent research porjectsk abstract thinking (formal operational), independence.

  1. Explain the 2 options School districts follow for determining a student’s eligibility under the category of learning disabilities.

Schools have 2 options for determining a student’s eligibility under the category of Learning Disabilities.

Option 1:

Step 1: Determination of Underachievement

Does the student fail to achieve adequately for his age in one or more of the following eight areas:

  • Oral expression
  • Listening comprehension
  • Written expression
  • Basic reading skill
  • Reading fluency skills
  • Reading comprehension
  • Mathematics calculation
  • Mathematics problem solving

Step 2: Determination of Response to Interventions or a Pattern of Strengths and Weaknesses (or Both)

In determining a student’s response to interventions, the following question must be asked: Does the student fail to make sufficient progress in achievement considered adequate for his age (or enrolled grade-level standards) when provided with a series of scientific, research-based interventions?  Documentation of a student’s progress during a process of increasingly intensive interventions, such as those that occur in the RTI approach, can provide useful information for determining whether a student has an SLD and needs special education. Note that:

  • This documentation of progress is generally done using curriculum-based measurements (CBM).
  • An intervention process generally takes place prior to referring a student for a complete evaluation.
  • Determining why a student has not responded to research-based interventions requires a comprehensive evaluation.

Step 3: Determination of Appropriate Instruction

Prior to a child’s being suspected of having an SLD, the school or district must provide documentation that proves that the student has been provided appropriate instruction by qualified personnel. Students whose lack of achievement can be attributed to a lack of appropriate instruction in reading or math should not be determined to have an SLD.

Option 2:

1.  A severe discrepancy between the student’s intellectual ability and academic achievement. An unexpected difference between general ability and achievement is the first identifying criteria. The most common practice for determining a severe discrepancy is to compare the student’s IQ score with scores on a standardized achievement test. Since IDEA-2004 does not contain a specific formula, states determine their own criteria for implementing the definition of learning disabilities. If possible, pause here to review your state or school district’s criteria for determining the formula for a severe discrepancy.

2.  An exclusion criterion. IDEA-2004 indicates that specific learning disabilities do not include learning problems that are “primarily the result” of mental retardation, sensory impairment, emotional disturbance, or lack of opportunity to learn due to environmental, cultural, or economic conditions.

3.  A need for special education services. School districts work very hard to ensure that only students with specific and severe learning problems, despite normal educational efforts, are placed. NJCLD cautions use to avoid the overidentification of children who have not had the opportunity to learn (e.g., excessive absences from school).

  1. What is behaviorism?

Behaviorism is a school of thought that focuses on the observable behavior, instead of on mental or cognitive processes. Those who believe in behaviorism believe that an external stimulus occurs and then the organism responds.

Behaviorists believe that “nothing happens” inside the brain prior to a response. In their view, the brain is like a black box. No thinking or reasoning (as we think of it today) is occurring that creates the response.

Behaviorism was a prominent school of thought for nearly 50 years in the American education system from, approximately, 1913 to 1960. Behaviorism focused on the role of the environment in determining behavior. The belief was that the environment provided the stimuli that elicited responses.

  1. What is the Hawthorne Effect?

When you over use a reinforcer and it loses its motivating effect, it is called the Hawthorne Effect. An example of this is when a teacher gives stickers to students as a reward for working quietly. This reward is given every single day. Eventually, the stickers are “old hat” and not very exciting or motivating

  1. Describe Skinner’s Schedules of Reinforcement.

Memorize entire schedule in lesson 7 

 

There are two main types of reinforcement: 
CONTINUOUS ; INTERMITTENT

CONTINUOUS
Continuous reinforcement is exactly as it sounds: responding continuously to some behavior. This obviously poses a problem for teachers. As you know, you can’t respond to a child’s every move.

INTERMITTENT
Intermittent reinforcement is contingent on some schedule or combination of schedules.

 

Interval schedules 

[image]

Based on 
timeRatio schedules 

[image] 

Based on 
number of responsesReinforcement 
only after
a certain interval of time
has elapsed.


Ratio schedules 

[image] 


Based on 
number of responses

Reinforcement 
only after
number of responses are 
exhibited by the learner.

 

  1. How are Skinner’s Schedules of Reinforcement and behaviorism incorporated in our schools today?

However, in the classroom, we can’t always use these reinforcers.
Why? You can’t withhold food from a student and you can’t let students stand outside in the rain.

Because we can’t always use primary reinforcers in schools, Skinner came up with another reinforcer-called secondary reinforcers.

secondary reinforcer, or conditional reinforcer, is a neutral object or gesture that acquires the power to reinforce behavior as a result of it being paired with one or more primary reinforcers.

It is when we pair a reinforcer with another reinforcer (I work, I get money, then I can go buy food) that it becomes meaningful.

Secondary reinforcers are used in schools everyday.

Examples of Secondary Reinforcers

Example: Token System

Can you use money in school? Yes, through the token economy system.

10 tokens = pass for no homework
20 tokens = lunch at McDonald’s 
50 tokens = field trip

Example:

These are just letters:A   B   C    D

These letters by themselves do not mean anything—they are just letters. These letters become meaningful when we pair them with recognition for doing well in school-when we say good grades produce:

  • College acceptance
  • Privileges at home
  • Praise at home
  • Money at home for good grades

  1. What is Thorndike’s Law of Effect.

Law of Effect

Any action that produces a “satisfying state of affairs” will be repeated in a similar situation.

Likewise, any action followed by an “annoying state of affairs” is less likely to be repeated.


ater Thorndike’s Law of Effect was shortened to:

Punishment is nowhere near as effective as rewards!

Describe Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
Theory that adds concern with cognitive factors such as beliefs, self-perceptions, and expectations to social learning theory (social learning theory emphasized learning through observation of others.)

 

  1. Explain ‘continuous’ and ‘intermittent’ reinforcement.

There are two main types of reinforcement: 
CONTINUOUS & INTERMITTENT

CONTINUOUS
Continuous reinforcement is exactly as it sounds: responding continuously to some behavior. This obviously poses a problem for teachers. As you know, you can’t respond to a child’s every move.

INTERMITTENT
Intermittent reinforcement is contingent on some schedule or combination of schedules.

  1. Define each element of Skinner’s schedules of reinforcement.

Look at chart- lesson 7

 

Explain ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ reinforcers

Positive- strengthening beehavior be presenting a desired stimulus after the behavior.

 

Negative- strengthening behavior by removing an aversive stimulues when the behavior occurs.  

  1. How does the brain process information?

  1. WAX TABLET

Socrates and Aristotle thought the mind was like a block of wax, just the right consistency to help people remember things.

William James borrowed this idea and expanded upon it when he described in 1890 that he thought there were two types of minds: wax mind and jelly mind. The wax mind referred to sealing of an envelope with hot wax where a seal is pressed into the wax. One press and the impression lasts forever – tell students something once and they remember it. Jelly mind has a consistency like Jell-O. You can touch gently and it wiggles, but does not make a lasting impression -some people need to be told many, many times before information is retained. James indicated that this had nothing to do with intelligence; he simply believed there are different kinds of minds.

  • BIRD BRAIN OR AVIARY

    The metaphor for memory Plato used was a bird aviary. Each bird represents knowledge (piece of information). By adding birds to the birdcage-adding pieces of information to the brain-we gain in knowledge.

    Because information is in the brain, it doesn’t mean it can always be retrieved. Just as one might walk into a large birdcage and grab for a bird-you might catch “a” bird, not necessarily the one you were looking for-the same is true in terms of information in the brain. It may all be in there, but may not always be retrievable.

  • HOUSE

    Memory has also been compared to a house. Objects in the house represent bits of information. Have you ever lost something in your house and had to search and search for it? W. James likened this to our brain. You may have lots of information in your brain (it is all in there somewhere), yet you cannot always retrieve it readily.

  1. What are the methods of rehearsing or elaborating information to enhance retention?

chuncking, mnemomics,

  1. What is Metacognition? What are some ways to improve children’s metacognition?

Metacognition refers to the ability to know about how you know. Metacognitive knowledge and Metacognitive activity are two types of Metacognition. Metacognitive knowledge involves reflecting on your own thoughts which can include factual knowledge and strategic knowledge. Factual knowledge is understanding how to do an actual task, and being aware of one’s goals and self. For example, a student is aware that he needs a certain score on the upcoming test in order to get an A in the class so he realizes that he must study hard for it. Strategic knowledge is one’s awareness of when to use a specific procedure to solve a problem. For example, before a test a student might learn about using memory aides which are helpful for recalling information on a test. Metacognitive activity occurs during actual problem-solving when a student changes his approach to that activity based upon reflection and adaptation. For example, during a test a student might use the mnemonic Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge to help him remember the notes on a scale so he can get the correct answer on the test.

Helping students to develop awareness of Metacognitive strategies is essential to solving problems. One way teachers can do this is by modeling Metacognitive strategies like thinking out loud as they solve a math problem. Verbalizing the thought process involved in each step and coming up with different solutions shows students how this strategy is helpful in solving the problem.

Some metacognitive strategies for strong readers include predicting, paraphrasing, changing reading speed, looking back over a passage already read, visual representation, and self questioning. Students can be encouraged to keep a “Thinking” journal where they can reflect upon their thinking, make notes about their strong points and strategies that worked for them, and also become aware of areas of needed improvements.

Our goal as teachers is to not only teach specific information but to give students the strategies and skills to become good thinkers and successful problem-solvers. By consciously teaching Metacognitive strategies we will arm our students with the tools essential for success in this rapidly changing world and help them to become lifelong learners.

  1. List the knowledge factors of ’metacognition’.

Metacognitive knowledge involves reflecting on your own thoughts which can include factual knowledge and strategic knowledge. Factual knowledge is understanding how to do an actual task, and being aware of one’s goals and self. For example, a student is aware that he needs a certain score on the upcoming test in order to get an A in the class so he realizes that he must study hard for it. Strategic knowledge is one’s awareness of when to use a specific procedure to solve a problem. For example, before a test a student might learn about using memory aides which are helpful for recalling information on a test.

  1. Define ‘chunking’ and ‘mnemonics’ in short-term memory.

n 1956 George Miller discovered that human beings are capable of remembering seven things “plus or minus 2”. This concept has been referred to as the Magic #7. If you think about it, seven concepts or seven items are not many to remember at one time. So, Miller began chunking information together to try and determine if the brain could expand the number of items it could remember at one time.

Can the brain remember more than seven items?

Yes if you chunk them together!

 

Mnemonics are memory aids. Math teachers have used “PEMDAS”, or the phrase “Please excuse my dear Aunt Sally”, to assist students in remembering the order of operations: parentheses, exponents, multiplication, division, addition, subtraction. ROY G BIV has helped many students remember the color spectrum and “My Very Excellent Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas” assisted many students learn the order of the planets until astronomers took away Pluto from the list. Even songs or poems can be used as mnemonic devices: “30 days hath September, April, June and November. All the rest of 31. Except February, my dear son”.

  1. Explain ‘implicit’ and ‘explicit’ categories in long-term memory.

Effectors

From the response generator, information moves to the effectors, which produce a response, such as: speaking, writing, or moving.

Effectors are the physical means by which the learner operates on the environment.

Executive Control

The executive control modifies the flow of information. This is done by control processes.

  1. Explain how environment relates to a student’s learning and who is responsible for this being a factor.

The environment is the source of input into the information-processing system of the learner. The environment is external to the learner; it is not considered as an internal event or process of learning.

Stimulation and information enter the system from the environment. The environment provides feedback to the learner concerning the adequacy of a response and reinforcement of the response. The environmentportion of this cognitive process is the only place that you, as a teacher, have a direct impact. You will be responsible for arranging the environment so learning can occur.

  1. What are the six categories of Bloom’s Taxonomy?

LEVEL 1: KNOWLEDGE

The recall of facts

student focus=remembering, usually by rote

LEVEL 2: COMPREHENSION

First level of understanding: translating information into one’s own words

student focus=know how to communicate understanding

LEVEL 3: APPLICATION

Using information in a new situation

example: use math formula

LEVEL 4: ANALYSIS

Breaking information down into small parts

Example: identify characters, plot and setting in a story

LEVEL 5: SYNTHESIS

Constructing something new by putting together several 
pieces of information into a new whole.

Example: draft an essay, design a scientific experiment, 
or choreograph a dance

LEVEL 6: EVALUATION

Judgment based on criteria of value of worth

Example: use music appreciation principles to evaluate Beethoven’s 5th Symphony, judge effectiveness of an argument

  1. What is the difference between teacher-centered instruction and student-centered instruction?

Teacher-Centered Instruction

Teacher-Centered Instruction is where the teacher has a high level of control over the teaching and learning process.

A form of teacher-centered instruction is called Direct Instruction where the teacher’s goals are clear and the teacher controls the pace of the lesson and the materials that are presented (term Direct Instruction coined by Barak Rosenshine, 1979, 1986). Although, the term Teacher-Centered Instruction is used to describe this method of instruction, it does not mean that the students are not actively involved. Students are expected to be very involved during a teacher-centered activity, but the teacher is responsible for the goals and outcomes as well as the materials and pace of the lesson.

 

Student-Centered Instruction

Student-Centered instruction moves the focus of the learning activity away from the teacher and toward the students. The teacher is now looked upon as a facilitator rather than a boss. As Johnson and Johnson (1994) indicate, the teacher is not a sage on the stage in this method.

Student-Centered instruction includes small group work, cooperative learning, and peer teaching.

  1. What are the eight elements of Madeline Hunter’s effective instruction?

1. Anticipatory Set

 

2. Objective and Purpose

 

3. Input

 

4. Modeling

 

5. Checking for Understanding

 

6. Guided Practice

 

7. Closure

 

8. Independent Practice

  1. How will you incorporate Bloom’s Taxonomy and EEI in your instruction when you teach?

Blooms taxology seems like the “why” behind each step in EEI (Essentials in effective instruction).

  1. Read & review information needed to write Instructional objectives.

Objective
The reason to include this section is inform students of what to expect, what is coming next. Students learn more if they know what to expect. The objectives also indicate what the student will be able to “DO” as a result of this lesson. The objectives also give you, the teacher, a guideline of what to measure to determine if your lesson was successful.

  1. What are the components of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

At the lower-levels of the hierarchy are basic needs that humans require for physical and psychological well-being. If these needs are not met, they are referred to as DEFICIENCY NEEDS!

DEFICIENCY NEEDS must be at least partially satisfied before a person can be motivated to pursue higher-level needs.

When the higher-level needs of the hierarchy are met, this enables human beings to grow psychologically. These needs are referred to as GROWTH NEEDS!

As growth needs become satisfied, a person is able to fulfill his or her personal potential and achieve SELF-ACTUALIZATION!

When Needs Are Not Met

How does Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs help explain motivation? Imagine that you are a teacher with your own classroom. Consider a child who comes into your classroom from an unhealthy, abusive home environment. Any child who comes to class from such a neglected environment has unfulfilled basic needs. Given his or her life circumstances, that student may not feel very safe.

If a student has an unfulfilled need as basic as safety, it will be very difficult for that student to focus on higher-order needs, such as the need to understand concepts. Academics is not that student’s priority; staying safe is.

 

  1. Describe the impact of teacher’s expectations on student learning.

There have been numerous studies conducted on teacher expectations and the impact this has on student learning. One study states that at the beginning of the school year one teacher was given her student roster. She noticed that next to each student’s name was an IQ score. She was amazed to find that she had been given a class of all very bright students with IQs from 130 and up. She worked very hard this particular year. She found it challenging, but her students performed very well. At the end of the year, after her students had all succeeded remarkably, she mentioned to the principal how pleased she was to have been given the brightest students. The principal looked rather quizzically at her and asked why she thought that. She told the principal about the roster and the IQ scores next to each name. The principal chuckled and said, “Those weren’t the IQ scores; they were the student’s locker numbers!”

Due to the teacher’s high expectations of the students, she obviously communicated this expectation to the students, but she also worked harder herself in keeping the students challenged and motivated.

  1. What is the link between student beliefs, motivation, and success in school?

Students who are successful in academic tasks develop a belief in their ability to continue working at achieving such accomplishments. This is referred to as “self-efficacy” (Bandura, 1977, 1982). They tend to believe in their ability to perform successfully in the future. They will continue trying even in the face of adversity. However, once a student has worked hard and not succeeded, that student will not put forth the effort required to perform well the next time.

  1. Summarize the conditions in the ARCS model that impact motivation.

A = Attention 
For learning to occur someone must be paying attention. According to Robert Sylwester, attention drives learning and learning drives memory.


R = Relevance 
Relevance refers to students perceiving the material presented as important to them. Information is more difficult for students to understand if they do not see or understand that it can be used later. They need to know that learning this information will help them at a later time.


C = Confidence 
When students experience success during learning activities, they infer that they can perform successfully in the future. Success builds confidence. Success breeds success. It is critical for teachers to design curriculum in small enough increments for students to be successful.


S = Satisfaction 
Students feel satisfied when their expectations about learning are met. Satisfaction will be realized differently for each student. If a student is motivated by intrinsic rewards, he or she will feel satisfied with a job well done. If a student is motivated by extrinsic rewards this student will feel satisfied when he or she receives a good grade and/or praise from parents and teachers.

escribe ‘intrinsic motivation’ and ‘extrinsic motivation’ in the context of student motivation.

What do we mean by motivation to learn? Motivation to learn is when a student initiates learning activities, chooses to be involved in a learning task, and exhibits a long-term commitment to learning.


When people feel motivated it comes from an external source or an internal source.

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