EDU 115 Final

ADHD and Learning Disability

Problematic

of 119 children with ADHD, 70% met the criteria for a learning disability
reading and written expression
ADHD and Learning Disability
what does NIMH note?
NIMH notes the frequent concurrence of ADHD and Learning Disability, but no longer provides estimates
Estimates varies 20% to 90%
LD and ADHD
both familial (heritable)
ADHD Accommodation
more time for test taking: higher for kids with ADHD, need more special edu
extended time for assignments: higher with kids with ADHD, more special education needs
shorter different assignments: higher number with ADHD kids, and more special edu needs.
When should medication be used?
after other procedures have been attempted, after valid diagnosis of ADHD
MONITOR THE EFFECTS AND COMMUNICATE WITH PARENTS, PROVIDE STRONG EDU PRG ALONG WITH MEDICATION, SCHOOL DISTRICT ARE PROHIBITED FROM REQUIRING CHILD TO OBTAIN A PRESCRIPTION, WTCH FOR ADVERSE SIDE EFFECTS (MOTOR TICKS)
use behavioral intervention and counseling along with medication.
Considerations for the General Edu teacher?
facilitate good discipline, establish clear, postive rules and routines, USE INTERESTING CURRICULUM, USE POSTIVE INTERVENTIONS AND REINFORCEMENT, establish clear expectations, intersperse different activities, keep observational data and monitor for side effects and medication.
Use positive supports and reinforcements
assume problem behaviors are maintained by reward, change the contingencies of reward.
DIFFERENTIAL reinforcement of other, incompatible, or alternative:
differential reinforcement of other, incompatible, and alternative
reward desired behaviors rather than punishing undesirable behaviors
Response cost, loss of opportunity for reward rather than punishing the negative behavior
Contingency contract, clear rules for what earns reward and what does not earn rewards
Consistent applications of the rules
change the rules if not working
time-out/ self regulation
Multidimensional anxiety scale
factor structure, reliability, and validity
instrument provides good example of the symptom domain that are typically measured in anxiety assessments.
the three primary dimension of anxiety to recognize in children
Physical symptom, worries concerning Harm Avoidance, and worries involving Social Anxiety
Type of disorder is Anxiety?
Internalizing disorder, meaning that external evidence or symptoms of the problems are often hard to observe. the best way is to talk with child and ask them about their worries and feelings.
Worry and Anxiety 2nd to 6th grade
low anxious: n=75, high anxious n= 49
Number of worries
Number of ares of worry
Mean intensity
Mean frequency events
The higher the number those indices are, showing high anxious
Children with anxiety
shows lower scored on memory for pictures and abstract designs and words and sentences than children without anxiety
Children with Specific Reading Learning Disability
are 3 to 4 times more likely to display symptoms of Anxiety than the general population of children.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)
improves school performance of children with anxiety. they practice recognizing and monitoring their emotions, relaxation, and cognitive reinterpretation of emotions. they practice all three skills while engaged with exposure t tasks that involve facing increasing anxiety-provoking situations without experiencing high levels of anxiety.
if the role of anxiety is not recognized and addressed?
high rates of absenteeism can be due to anxiety related school refusal.
The Test Anxiety Inventory for children and adolescents
provides a framework for understanding symptoms and dimensions of text anxiety

This study showed that children with LD have Cognitive Obstruction/inattention and worry, and lower performance enhancement anxiety

teachers math anxiety
predicted girls math achievement at the end of the years, 1st and 2nd grade. Predicted if girls adopted gender stereotypes about math.
Evidence Based Practice
efficacy research and effectiveness research
efficacy research
examines whether intervention causes changes target (learning, behavior) under controlled experimental conditions.
effectiveness research
examines whether an intervention causes changes target in naturalistic setting with less control.
Group Designs
systematically comparing the outcomes of a Treatment Group who receive or practice a well described intervention versus a control group that does not receive or practice the intervention
single subject design
comparing the one with influence of treatment and the one that don’t
How much evidence is enough?
for efficacy
two high quality group experimental studies
five high quality single subject design studies, three different researchers, three different locations, at least 20 participants
effectiveness
two or more separate community school systems
consider how related effectiveness schools are to target school.
Autism: the wrong IDEA
five criteria for autism but only 1 criteria:
A pervasive lack of responsiveness to others, no research on social Behaviors, Translational Research on Infant social development
The Socially Responsive Child with Autism
children with Autism display attachment, many response to imitation, some with Autism displays eye contact, social learning, imitation
Infant Translational Research
paying attention to what other people attend is fundamental to social learning
(called joint attention)
impairment in joint attention, and ability to share a point of view and experience with other is a major symptoms of autism.
Current social diagnostic criteria for Autism
failure to develop peer relations, a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements, and with other.
it’s the same as joint attention impairment
marked impairment un nonverbal behaviors (eye-contact, facial expression)
lack of social emotional reciprocity
Autistic Disorder
impairments in social skills, communication skills, repetitive pattern of behavior, onset of delay in social, communication, or symbolic play prior to 3 years
Asperger’s Disorder
same aus Autism Except: no impairment in communication skills, however, because their social impairments often involve communication skill is hard to distinguish

Pervasive developmental disorder

Is Autism a pervasive developmental disorder?
pervasive developmental disorder
Learning and Joint attention
joint attention help young children to learn from other people, the spatial oriented, such as when they follow parent’s gaze to help understand which novel object goes with a new word.
Approaches to Intervention- discrete trial
a type of applied behavior analysis, ABA, adult directed, modeling of behavior, verbal and physical prompts, specific skill development
developmental
child directed and shared experience, social reinforcement of developmentally advanced behavior (voice tone, affect, gesture)
building motivation and ability for social learning
School Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
336,000= 0.7% of all children put k-12
5% of all children served by individuals with dis act (IDEA)
school time in general educational classes
54.6 %
don’t forget back to slide 34 and 37
attending school
more than 4 out of 5 (84%) attending regular schools that serve a wide variety
ASD and IQ
increases for many children between early and late
three core cognitive deficit in school aged children
Theory of mind: impaired awareness of mental state
most common to school aged children
Executive function: problem in planning and execution of complex action, also common
Weak Central Coherence: tendency to focus detail rather than whole
Important on three core cognitive
60% or 5 years old children have problem with three domain, but with 8 years old only one domain, which is theory of mind
ADHD and Learning Disability

Problematic

of 119 children with ADHD, 70% met the criteria for a learning disability
reading and written expression
ADHD and Learning Disability
what does NIMH note?
NIMH notes the frequent concurrence of ADHD and Learning Disability, but no longer provides estimates
Estimates varies 20% to 90%
LD and ADHD
both familial (heritable)
ADHD Accommodation
more time for test taking: higher for kids with ADHD, need more special edu
extended time for assignments: higher with kids with ADHD, more special education needs
shorter different assignments: higher number with ADHD kids, and more special edu needs.
When should medication be used?
after other procedures have been attempted, after valid diagnosis of ADHD
MONITOR THE EFFECTS AND COMMUNICATE WITH PARENTS, PROVIDE STRONG EDU PRG ALONG WITH MEDICATION, SCHOOL DISTRICT ARE PROHIBITED FROM REQUIRING CHILD TO OBTAIN A PRESCRIPTION, WTCH FOR ADVERSE SIDE EFFECTS (MOTOR TICKS)
use behavioral intervention and counseling along with medication.
Considerations for the General Edu teacher?
facilitate good discipline, establish clear, postive rules and routines, USE INTERESTING CURRICULUM, USE POSTIVE INTERVENTIONS AND REINFORCEMENT, establish clear expectations, intersperse different activities, keep observational data and monitor for side effects and medication.
Use positive supports and reinforcements
assume problem behaviors are maintained by reward, change the contingencies of reward.
DIFFERENTIAL reinforcement of other, incompatible, or alternative:
differential reinforcement of other, incompatible, and alternative
reward desired behaviors rather than punishing undesirable behaviors
Response cost, loss of opportunity for reward rather than punishing the negative behavior
Contingency contract, clear rules for what earns reward and what does not earn rewards
Consistent applications of the rules
change the rules if not working
time-out/ self regulation
Multidimensional anxiety scale
factor structure, reliability, and validity
instrument provides good example of the symptom domain that are typically measured in anxiety assessments.
the three primary dimension of anxiety to recognize in children
Physical symptom, worries concerning Harm Avoidance, and worries involving Social Anxiety
Type of disorder is Anxiety?
Internalizing disorder, meaning that external evidence or symptoms of the problems are often hard to observe. the best way is to talk with child and ask them about their worries and feelings.
Worry and Anxiety 2nd to 6th grade
low anxious: n=75, high anxious n= 49
Number of worries
Number of ares of worry
Mean intensity
Mean frequency events
The higher the number those indices are, showing high anxious
Children with anxiety
shows lower scored on memory for pictures and abstract designs and words and sentences than children without anxiety
Children with Specific Reading Learning Disability
are 3 to 4 times more likely to display symptoms of Anxiety than the general population of children.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)
improves school performance of children with anxiety. they practice recognizing and monitoring their emotions, relaxation, and cognitive reinterpretation of emotions. they practice all three skills while engaged with exposure t tasks that involve facing increasing anxiety-provoking situations without experiencing high levels of anxiety.
if the role of anxiety is not recognized and addressed?
high rates of absenteeism can be due to anxiety related school refusal.
The Test Anxiety Inventory for children and adolescents
provides a framework for understanding symptoms and dimensions of text anxiety

This study showed that children with LD have Cognitive Obstruction/inattention and worry, and lower performance enhancement anxiety

teachers math anxiety
predicted girls math achievement at the end of the years, 1st and 2nd grade. Predicted if girls adopted gender stereotypes about math.
Evidence Based Practice
efficacy research and effectiveness research
efficacy research
examines whether intervention causes changes target (learning, behavior) under controlled experimental conditions.
effectiveness research
examines whether an intervention causes changes target in naturalistic setting with less control.
Group Designs
systematically comparing the outcomes of a Treatment Group who receive or practice a well described intervention versus a control group that does not receive or practice the intervention
single subject design
comparing the one with influence of treatment and the one that don’t
How much evidence is enough?
for efficacy
two high quality group experimental studies
five high quality single subject design studies, three different researchers, three different locations, at least 20 participants
effectiveness
two or more separate community school systems
consider how related effectiveness schools are to target school.
Autism: the wrong IDEA
five criteria for autism but only 1 criteria:
A pervasive lack of responsiveness to others, no research on social Behaviors, Translational Research on Infant social development
The Socially Responsive Child with Autism
children with Autism display attachment, many response to imitation, some with Autism displays eye contact, social learning, imitation
Infant Translational Research
paying attention to what other people attend is fundamental to social learning
(called joint attention)
impairment in joint attention, and ability to share a point of view and experience with other is a major symptoms of autism.
Current social diagnostic criteria for Autism
failure to develop peer relations, a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements, and with other.
it’s the same as joint attention impairment
marked impairment un nonverbal behaviors (eye-contact, facial expression)
lack of social emotional reciprocity
Autistic Disorder
impairments in social skills, communication skills, repetitive pattern of behavior, onset of delay in social, communication, or symbolic play prior to 3 years
Asperger’s Disorder
same aus Autism Except: no impairment in communication skills, however, because their social impairments often involve communication skill is hard to distinguish

Pervasive developmental disorder

Is Autism a pervasive developmental disorder?
pervasive developmental disorder
Learning and Joint attention
joint attention help young children to learn from other people, the spatial oriented, such as when they follow parent’s gaze to help understand which novel object goes with a new word.
Approaches to Intervention- discrete trial
a type of applied behavior analysis, ABA, adult directed, modeling of behavior, verbal and physical prompts, specific skill development
developmental
child directed and shared experience, social reinforcement of developmentally advanced behavior (voice tone, affect, gesture)
building motivation and ability for social learning
School Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
336,000= 0.7% of all children put k-12
5% of all children served by individuals with dis act (IDEA)
school time in general educational classes
54.6 %
don’t forget back to slide 34 and 37
attending school
more than 4 out of 5 (84%) attending regular schools that serve a wide variety
ASD and IQ
increases for many children between early and late
three core cognitive deficit in school aged children
Theory of mind: impaired awareness of mental state
most common to school aged children
Executive function: problem in planning and execution of complex action, also common
Weak Central Coherence: tendency to focus detail rather than whole
Important on three core cognitive
60% or 5 years old children have problem with three domain, but with 8 years old only one domain, which is theory of mind
ScienceDirect, research in Autism Spec Dis
a review of school based instructional interventions for student with autism sd
Engagement and Motivation
lack inherence and interest value in a classroom works, way too challenging, lead to mild to severe disruptive behavior
allow them to make choice and use reinforcement and natural reinforcer
social subtypes: aloof, passive, active
active affect outcomes
Typical Instruction
“it’s time to do some writing”
“it’s time to do some math. Let’s site down at your desk.
Choice of materials and choice of setting embedded reinforcement and and easy task interspersed with difficult task
Math embedded reinforcement
let’s use you cheerios to do these problems, after you finish you can eat
HFA
N=54 children with HFA
written expression 85%
children with learning dis: 37% reading, 17% for math, 63% for written, 70% for LD
MANY CHILDREN WITH ASD HAVE LEARNING DISABILITIES

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